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BIO122 Environmental Biology

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  • Course Code: BIO122 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
  • University: ECPI University
  • Country: United States

Question:

In this unit you will submit your final research paper. For this project you have identified, researched, and described an environmental problem that you personally would like to see resolved. Please make sure it is edited, proofread, spell checked, and is formatted using APA. It should be a minimum of four pages in length (not including cover and reference page). Additionally, incorporate the requirements listed below.
 
Requirements for the Paper
 
Identify the issue and create a thesis for your paper.
You must use a minimum of five scholarly or professional sources.
Use quotes sparingly. Your paper should not exceed ten quotes.
Be sure to use correct grammar and spelling. Note: Spell check will not catch all errors. You will need to manually proofread your paper before you submit it.
Your paper must include a title page and a References page
Discuss the environmental issue. Explain why it is a significant problem.
Identify the populations/communities/species that are impacted by this problem and explain how, and in what way, they are impacted.
Identify the type of scientists involved in identifying and solving this problem.
Include key biological/scientific concepts as they apply to your topic.
Address one or two key scientists (as applicable) that identified the problem and were key researchers in the field.
Identify the government organization/agency/department that oversees this problem.
Address one or two key scientists that may have significantly contributed to creating solutions to this problem.
Identify the methodologies used to identify and possibly solve this problem.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

According to reports by different researche, climate change tends to affect regions through both direct and indirect impacts. However, Reports from previous studies shows that various regions will face challenges differently as per climate change is concerned according to their weather.

Region background

North America is ranked as the third-largest continent in the world with an approximate population of 515 million people. It covers Central American peninsula up to the north Arctic Ocean and experiences a range of effects due to the change in climate. On matters of greenhouse gas production, it is higher than any other continent (Burke et al., 2015, p.235).

Whereas sub-Sahara Africa is a developing region in Africa with a great climate and cultural diversity. Approximately, its population approaches 2 billion people, which rised to 4 billion as per United Nation department of economic and social affairs 2013 (Descheemaeker et al., 2016, p.2343).

Comparison of climate change impacts

Change in temperature.

Reports compiled from previous research indicates that North America experiences higher temperatures during the nights as compared to day. According to Hoegh-Guldberg (2017), North western Canada and Alaska has a significant warming followed by South-eastern, Canada and the interior. Due to greenhouse production effects, spring warming has extended the growing season by 2 days per decade

Compared to the change in temperature in Sub-Sahara Africa, projected warming is less strong than that of global land area.  African temperatures especially in summer increases at 1.5 oc per annum and this is expected to happen up to 2050 (Thornton et al., 2014, p.3328).

Rising sea level

Projections of sea level are not uniform across the world. According to the research report by Tilman et al. (2017), sea level rise and storms in North America is due to aggressive coastal investment plans, extended urbanisation, rising property values increasing coastal population among other factors. There is also a sense of correlation between sea level, erosion and intensive storms mostly in the US, Gulf and Atlantic Coasts.

Compared to North America, the rise of sea level in Sub-Sahara Africa tends to be higher than the global average with a range of 10%. It rises according to different locations in Sub-Saharan coastlines. However, there is no different between Abidjan, Loma, Lagos in West Africa and Maputo in southeast Africa (Descheemaeker et al., 2016, p. 2331)

 

Human health

Due to extreme weather events in North America for example heat waves, drought, air pollution, among others, human health has been endangered and this is evidenced by various diseases like cancer, which has led to high mortality rates. There has been increased cases of respiratory illness, West Nile viruses, vector-borne illness and Lyme diseases resulting from climatic change in North America (Hautier et al., 2015, p.340).

In comparison, Sub-Sahara climatic changes as a result of extreme weather events and disasters such as flooding or landslides have brought injuries to the people and some losing their lives. According to the report by Thornton et al. (2014), heat events have also caused fainting and heat stress. This problem is common in Ghana and Kenya.

The type of scientist concerned with the study of climate inclusive of the sole causes and the long-term effects that are most likely to pop as a result of the current activities as well as the prevailing trends are called climatologists. They study the trends of climatic change over time

Bioclimatology is typically the main biological concept applied to climatology. It encompasses the eventuality study of both the earth’s atmosphere and biosphere based on orders of time scale in accordance to the seasons. It involves the study of integrated processes that occur in the environment.  

Since time immemorial, there has been many scientists involved in climatology. However, among the many include; Richard Lindzen who is known for his renowned effort in atmospheric tides, ozone photochemistry and dynamics of the middle atmosphere. James Hansen is also a celebrated climatologist heading the program of climate science. He also heads “The Awareness and solutions of the earth institute found in Colombia (Descheemaeker et al., 2016, p. 2331).

In the United States, the department of energy and climate change has the full responsibility for the funding all the programs that goes on in the sector. It is also responsible for promoting clean and affordable energy supplies as well as international involvement in the mitigation of climate change.

The most recommendable and applicable methodology in solving drastic climatic changes include embarking in production of renewable energy through the use of recycle wastes. This has been highly recommended by international organizations as the best strategy. This can be witnessed in countries’ invention of solar energy, hydro energy and electric cars (Hautier et al., 2015, p.340).

In conclusion, various impacts have occurred in North America due to climatic change including ecological, economical, social and environmental impacts. This subsequently applies to the sub-Sahara African region although there is a sense of variance according to the research findings (Burke et al., 2015, p.235).

 

References

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2017). Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and freshwater research.

Hautier, Y., Tilman, D., Isbell, F., Seabloom, E. W., Borer, E. T., & Reich, P. B. (2015). Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity. Science, 348(6232), 336-340.

Ripple, W. J., Estes, J. A., Beschta, R. L., Wilmers, C. C., Ritchie, E. G., Hebblewhite, M., ... & Schmitz, O. J. (2014). Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science, 343(6167), 1241484.

Burke, M., Hsiang, S. M., & Miguel, E. (2015). Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature, 527(7577), 235-239.

Thornton, P. K., Ericksen, P. J., Herrero, M., & Challinor, A. J. (2014). Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review. Global change biology, 20(11), 3313-3328.

Tilman, D., Clark, M., Williams, D. R., Kimmel, K., Polasky, S., & Packer, C. (2017). Future threats to biodiversity and pathways to their prevention. Nature, 546(7656), 73.

Descheemaeker, K., Oosting, S. J., Tui, S. H. K., Masikati, P., Falconnier, G. N., & Giller, K. E. (2016). Climate change adaptation and mitigation in smallholder crop–livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa: a call for integrated impact assessments. Regional Environmental Change, 16(8), 2331-2343.

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