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Discussion

Skeletal muscles enable the body movements and keep its posture; by relaxing, they also assist in the circulation of blood through the heart and the generation of heat, which both contribute to the maintenance of its internal temperature. Bones provide structural protection and support, protect sensitive areas, and enable physical mobility via a network of hinges and bones; they also gain weight and nutrients, as well as the red bone that is important for blood cell synthesis. The degeneration of multiple elements of the musculoskeletal system occurs in a gradual manner with age, contributing to frailty and increasing the risk of falling and breaking bones. Senior citizens often suffer from muscular weakness that may be traced back to anatomical and functional changes in their skeletal muscles(Andrieieva, 2019).

The size and mass of skeletal muscles diminishes as we get older, as does the speed and power with which their contractions are performed. This condition, known as senile sarcopenia, is characterized by a lack of physical power in elderly people. A person's ability to accomplish ordinary duties such as getting up from a chair, performing housekeeping, or washing one's own hands might be impaired by sarcopenia (Hunter, 2016). This significant loss of muscular tissue, which is often seen in later years, is connected with growing frailty. While fragility is caused by a variety of factors, musculoskeletal degradation and sarcopenia are at the heart of the problem. They are both related with increasing weakness, tiredness, and the likelihood of adverse outcomes such as falls, all of which may result in increased illness. The skeleton is responsible for supporting and structuring the body (Dalle,  Rossmeislova & Koppo, 2017). Joints are the points at which bones meet and form a joint. They make it possible for the skeleton to be flexible for moving. Bones do not come into close touch with one another in a joint.

As a result, cartilage in the joint, synovial joints surrounding the joint, and fluid act as cushions to absorb the impact. Muscles are responsible for moving the body by exerting power and strength. Coordinated movement is controlled by the brain, although it is also influenced by changes in muscles and joints. Modifications in the muscles, joints, and bones have an impact on the way you walk and stand, and they may cause stiffness and decreased mobility as a result (Beard, 2016).

While individuals become older, they lose bones mass and density, which is particularly true for women following postmenopausal. Calcium and other elements are lost from the bones. The backbone is composed of a series of bones known as vertebrae. There is a mucilaginous cushion in between each bone (called a disk) (Wintermeyer, 2016). Since the discs progressively lose fluids and grow thin as we age, the centre part of the body (the trunk) gets smaller as we age. Each vertebra loses part of its mineral composition, which results in the bone being thinner overall. This results in the spinal column being bent and squeezed (packed together). It is possible for heel spurs to grow on the vertebrae as a part of aging and the general function of the spine. In certain people, the foot arches are becoming less prominent, which results in a little loss of stature (McPhee et al ., 2016).

Findings

As a result of mineral depletion, the bony protrusions of the forearms become much more brittle, although their length remains constant. When contrasted to the reduced trunk, the limbs and legs seem to be longer as a result of this. The bones grow harder and less elastic as a result of this process. It is possible that fluid in the bones may diminish. It is possible that the tissue may continue to grind together again and erode away. Materials may form mostly around certain joints as a result of friction (Blyth & Noguchi 2017). Generally, this occurs all around left shoulder. It is possible that material in the hip joints may begin to wear away.  The cartilage in the finger joints is being lost, and the bones are becoming somewhat thicker. Women are more likely than males to have alterations in their finger joints, the most frequent of which is bone swelling known as osteophytes. It is possible that these modifications will be passed on. The amount of lean body mass diminishes(Tieland, Trouwborst & Clark 2018).

 Frontera (2021) in her article talks about today's society has a serious problem with the aging population. A number of physiologic processes undergo changes as we get older. A person's ability to move and perform daily activities depends on the health of their musculoskeletal system. Muscle mass and strength decline as we age. As a result, muscle fibres are reduced and cellular mechanisms that produce forces are altered, causing these modifications. A decrease in bone density and integrity may lead to fractures. As a result, the functional effectiveness of soft tissue is reduced (Frontera, 2017).

Wilkinson, Piasecki and Atherton (2018) In his book he talked about that in Sarcopenia, the time of life decrease of muscular strength and functioning is connected with physical frailty as well as a higher likelihood of morbidity (chronic illnesses) and death from any cause. The loss of skeletal muscle mass begins to develop Montreal from midlife and, in extreme cases, may result in a loss of 50% of muscle strength by the eighth or ninth decade of life. This analysis will concentrate on the degradation of muscular with ageing and will emphasize the two basic processes that regulate decreases in lean muscle and feature: muscle fibre shortening and muscular loss (hypoplasia) – as well as the methods for measuring these processes (Wilkinson,  Piasecki  & Atherton 2018).

Yari et al., (2019) In his article author says that Sarcopenia, the loss of muscular performance that comes with age, is often cited as a leading cause of incapacity in the elderly. It's surprising that there aren't any characteristics that may assist a doctor to identify people with muscular weakness. We studied the effects of aging on men and women with and without neurological disorders on muscle strength and Achilles tendon area using information from a huge sample group of the overall population. As a result of the study's results, an intermittent handgrip test might be developed as an inexpensive diagnostic biomarker for sarcopenia. We need to conduct a long-term investigation to confirm our results (Yari et al., 2019).

Kummer, eta al., (2022). writes in their article that the loss of muscular tissue is a contributing factor to this decline (atrophy). The volume and speed with which muscle alterations appear to be controlled by genes appear to be the case. Men's muscular adaptations often begin in their twenties, while women's alterations typically begin in their forties. During the ageing process, lipid droplets (a pigment associated with age) and fat accumulate in muscle cells. Muscle fibres contract as a result of this (Taylor, 2021). Muscle cells replace themselves at a slower rate. Muscle tissue that has been lost may be replaced by strong fibrous connective tissue. This is especially visible in the wrists, which may seem thin and bony as a result of the condition. Modifications in muscle tissue, as well as typical aging-related alterations in the neurological system, lead muscles to become less trained and less able to twitch. Muscles can become inflexible and lose tension as we get older, even if we exercise regularly (Roberts, 2015).

The industrialized world's improved healthcare and nourishment have contributed to longer life expectancy, hastened the onset of an ageing population. Ageing populations have led to a rise in chronic diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular/respiratory disorders, arthritic disorders and malignancies (Amarya, Singh & Sabharwal 2018). As a result, there has been a tremendous amount of work put into developing therapies to prevent the onset of such chronic illnesses, such as physical exercise and dietary change. Muscle, joint, and bone issues may be slowed or prevented with regular exercise. Mild physical activity may help you maintain your stamina, coordination, and flexibility. Bone health is improved with regular physical activity. As a health care professional, it's critical to consult with them before embarking on a new fitness regimen. Calcium-rich foods are essential to maintaining a healthy weight. As women become older, they need to be more cautious about getting adequate calcium and vitamin D (Neumann, 2016).

Conclusion

Age-related orthopaedic deterioration place a heavy load on people and society. Nutrition and fitness are still essential in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, as well as many other diseases . There have been no licenced drugs to avoid or cure sarcopenia. Several medications exist to prevent osteoporosis, however they is only used in certain cases. Early prevention of muscle and skeletal deterioration, early storage of fat inside muscle mass, and concomitant endocannabinoid responses are developing areas of research. It is also critical to keep extra excess weight from affecting musculoskeletal function and, in general, developing into chronic illnesses early in adulthood, to avoid the emergence of these later-life chronic disorders. An individual's daily trajectory may be better understood and improved with a holistic solution to preventive.

References

Andrieieva, O., Hakman, ?., Kashuba, V., Vasylenko, M., Patsaliuk, K., Koshura, A., & Istyniuk, I. (2019). Effects of physical activity on aging processes in elderly persons.

Dalle, S., Rossmeislova, L., & Koppo, K. (2017). The role of inflammation in age-related sarcopenia. Frontiers in physiology, 8, 1045.

Hunter, S. K., Pereira, H. M., & Keenan, K. G. (2016). The aging neuromuscular system and motor performance. Journal of applied physiology, 121(4), 982-995.

Neumann, D. A. (2016). Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system-e-book: foundations for rehabilitation. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Taylor, A. W. (Ed.). (2021). Physiology of exercise and healthy aging. Human Kinetics.

Tieland, M., Trouwborst, I., & Clark, B. C. (2018). Skeletal muscle performance and ageing. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle, 9(1), 3-19.

Wilkinson, D. J., Piasecki, M., & Atherton, P. J. (2018). The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function: Measurement and physiology of muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss in humans. Ageing research reviews, 47, 123-132.

Wintermeyer, E., Ihle, C., Ehnert, S., Stöckle, U., Ochs, G., De Zwart, P., ... & Nussler, A. K. (2016). Crucial role of vitamin D in the musculoskeletal system. Nutrients, 8(6), 319.

Yari, L., Chiara, B., Sara, T., Vincenza, V. A., Elisa, A., Michele, P., ... & Marcello, G. M. (2019). Proactive interception and care of frailty and multimorbidity in older persons: the experience of the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing and the response of parma local health trust and lab through European projects. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis, 90(2), 364.

Beard, J. R., Officer, A., De Carvalho, I. A., Sadana, R., Pot, A. M., Michel, J. P., ... & Chatterji, S. (2016). The World report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing. The lancet, 387(10033), 2145-2154.

McPhee, J. S., French, D. P., Jackson, D., Nazroo, J., Pendleton, N., & Degens, H. (2016). Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty. Biogerontology, 17(3), 567-580.

Frontera, W. R. (2017). Physiologic changes of the musculoskeletal system with aging: a brief review. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 28(4), 705-711.

Roberts, S., Colombier, P., Sowman, A., Mennan, C., Rölfing, J. H., Guicheux, J., & Edwards, J. R. (2016). Ageing in the musculoskeletal system: cellular function and dysfunction throughout life. Acta orthopaedica, 87(sup363), 15-25.

Amarya, S., Singh, K., & Sabharwal, M. (2018). Ageing process and physiological changes. In Gerontology. IntechOpen.

Blyth, F. M., & Noguchi, N. (2017). Chronic musculoskeletal pain and its impact on older people. Best practice & research Clinical rheumatology, 31(2), 160-168.

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