C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 36Pi + 36ADP + 36H+ 6CO2 + 36ATP + 42H20
Therefore, 4-moles of glucose after complete aerobic oxidative metabolism in liver would produce approximately 144 (= 4 x 36) molecules of ATP.
(b): The metabolism of glucose in muscle tissue follows the anaerobic glycolysis in context to the ATP production. The incomplete oxidation of glucose in muscle tissue leads to the formation of lactic acid under the influence of lactate dehydrogenase, resulting in the formation of 2 molecules of ATP from a single molecule of glucose (Lodish et al, 2000). Therefore, the net production of 8 ATP molecules (= 4 x 2) achieved from four molecules of glucose under the process of anaerobic metabolism of glucose in muscle tissue.
2. (a): The patients with diabetic ketoacidosis experience fruity smelling breath following lack of nourishment and episodes of abdominal pain and vomiting. Indeed, the excessive vomiting in diabetic ketoacidosis results in removal of acetone, thereby resulting in fruity order indicating the defect in fatty metabolism (Springhouse, 2008:p. 54).
(b): The diabetic patients with high blood glucose levels are unable to utilize the additional glucose due to the increased insulin resistance, thereby resulting in the episodes of hyperglycaemia (Ranson, 2007:p.191). Indeed, the increased production of glucose in liver cells attributes to the glucose intolerance by hepatocytes under the influence of impaired insulin metabolism and disrupted insulin sensitivity associated with the beta cells dysfunction (Goldstein & Muller-Wieland, 2007:p.13-14).
(c): The clinical literature reveals the formation of ketone bodies in healthy people with a concentration of 1 milligram per 100 millilitres in human blood (Satake 2003, pp. 316-317). This production of ketone bodies in trace amount is the normal physiological process in healthy individuals attributing to the production of acetoacetic acid and processing of tricarboxylic acid cycle.
3. (a): The immediate metabolic fate of protein based on its conversion to amino acids under the influence of pancreatic, gastric and hepatic enzymes, thereby resulting in the production of alpha-ketoacids attributing to the production of calories inside the human body. The evidence-based literature reveals the enhancement of protein synthesis and inconsistent patterns of protein degradation following the increase in protein uptake (Walsh & Wright 1995:p.7).
(b): The fasting state triggers the production of glucagon under the influence of protein kinase leading to glycogen catabolism and ATP production to antagonize the state of starvation. However, during prolonged starvation the intestinal, pancreatic and muscle proteins undergo gradual degradation for glucose production to meet the energy requirements of the body.
(c): Vegetarians recommended adding complementary sources of proteins including nuts, grains and legumes in diet to ascertain the intake of essential amino acids required to accomplish the protein requirement of the body.
(d): The intent of administering the complementary proteins follows the contention of supplying the essential amino acids through the foods that complement each other in context to accomplishing the requirement of all essential amino acids for the body tissues (Sizer et al, 2012:p. 208). The concept of mutual supplementation ensures the inclusion of protein rich supplements in food for generating complementary proteins, thereby avoiding the need to include single source of protein in one particular meal.
4. (a): The citric acid cycle attributes to the efficient metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in human body resulting in the production of ATP for accomplishing the energy requirements of the body.
(b): From the biochemical perspective, the molecules of GTP and ATP display different configuration; however, exhibit same energy content in their triphosphate groups as evidenced by the clinical literature.
(c): The oxidation of NADH results in the production of 3 ATP molecules through the TCA cycle; however, FADH2 processing leads to the generation of 2 ATP molecules attributing to the consequent production of 12 ATP from the metabolism of single molecule of Acetyl CoA.
Goldstein, B & Muller-Wieland, D 2007, Type 2 Diabetes: Principles and Practice, CRC, Florida
Lodish, H, Berk, A & Zipursky, SL 2000, Molecular Cell Biology (4th edn.), W. H. Freeman, NY
Peet, A 2013, Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry (4th edn.), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia
Ranson, B 2007, Type 4 Diabetes: Elevated Insulin. Lower Blood Sugar. 24/7 Pain, BBG-Media, USA
Satake, M 2003, Chemistry For Health Science (2nd edn.), Discovery, New Delhi
Sizer, F, Whitney, E & Piche L 2012, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies (2nd edn.), Nelson Education, Toronto
Springhouse 2008, Nursing Know-how: Evaluating signs & symptoms, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA
Walsh & Wright 1995, Nitrogen Metabolism and Excretion, CRC, USA