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BIOH12008 Human Pathophysiology

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  • Course Code: BIOH12008
  • University: Central Queensland University
  • Country: Australia


Describe what you learnt from pamphlet The causes of acnes include anxiety and stress. I also learnt about the signs and symptoms. The modes of treatment of acne are many and each one has a distinct mode of action against the causative factors of acne development

What is difficult The difference between the whitehead and blackhead has been difficult to understand. The explanation of the treatment methods

How did the pamphlet help you to understand acnes The simple illustration assists one to know the causes of the disease. An individual can state the symptoms of the complications from the pamphlet

How did the pamphlet help you understand the disease?



Word count: Acne is a condition of the skin that is chronic and leads to the development of inflammatory lesions on the surface (Guzman, Choi, & James, 2018). The condition develops when the hair follicles are plugged with dead skin cells and oil. Acne often leads to whiteheads, and blackheads, and are found to be appearing on the upper back, shoulders, chest and forehead. The signs and symptoms of acne might be varying depending on the severity of the condition that an individual develops. Apart from the symptoms mentioned above, some other symptoms are small, red, tender bumps known as papules, and pimples which are papules with pus at the tips. In addition, individuals are prone to develop nodules which are solid and large lump beneath the skin’s surface. Cyctic lesions might also develop that re painful and pus-filled lumps beneath the skin’s surface.


The disease is predominant in individuals below the age of thirty. The most affected gender is women; however, anybody can contact the disease (Harris, & Cooper, 2017). Suffering from acne has a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals in relation to different life aspects. The condition might be having a negative impact on the social relationships of the individual. The appearance of the pimples on the face can make an individual lose confidence. Most individuals face awkwardness in the public or in a social gathering. Therefore, the affected individuals find difficulties in interacting with others. The diagnosis is through observation of the skin.

The risk factors for development of acne are multiple. Acne develops as a result of increased secretion of androgen in the body. The hormone triggers the growth of oil glands beneath the epidermal layer of the skin (Danby, 2015). Medications that have lithium and androgen also cause the development of pimples. Additionally, cosmetics that are oily and contain grease leads to acne on the face. Menstruation and stress also trigger the formation of blisters on the chest. Acne development can also be due to genetics as an individual can inherit the condition from the parents. The changes in climatic conditions can also lead to the occurrence of the disease. Furthermore, squeezing of pimples also causes acne.

There are a variety of medications that cure or clear acne from the skin. Resorcinol and Salicylic acid are examples of medical remedies against pimples.  Resorcinol assists in the removal of both the white and blackheads (Thiboutot et al., 2018). Apart from the two drugs, Azelaic acid and Benzoyl peroxide are also remedies to the lesions. Azelaic acid reinforces the cellular lining of the hair follicles. Moreover, the acid prevents the eruption of sebum and inhibits the growth of bacteria. Benzoyl peroxide eliminates bacteria hence accelerating skin replacement.



Injection of corticosteroid drugs also helps in the treatment and management of the skin lesions. The infusion is necessary if the cyst erupts leading to the development of painful lump. The physician must dilute the corticosteroid to enhance its level of effectiveness (Zaenglein et al., 2016). Furthermore, corticosteroids minimise the chances of an individual to develop inflammation. Corticosteroids also enable the affected individual to undergo a fast process of healing and recovery from acne. The lumps and the heads break down after three days from the time of injection.

Physicians can prescribe antibiotics for patients who are allergic to injections. The drugs have an effective action for individuals with chronic acne infection (Verkaik, Schurink, & Melles, 2018). The patient should take the medication for six months to reduce the causative agents of the disease. Furthermore, the affected individuals should take high amounts of antibiotics at the beginning of treatment. However, the patient should reduce the uptake of the drug as the acne decrease. The shortcoming of the medicines is the ability of the causative agents of the disease to develop resistance towards them.

Word count: The interviewees agree that the pamphlet is informative and they have responded positively to it. A distinct understanding has been gained regarding the extent to which the pamphlet has been successful in imparting information on acne. The individuals have gained increased information about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment methods regarding the condition. The causes include stress and anxiety among others. The symptoms include the development of white and blackheads, pimples with pus and lesions. More symptoms are the appearance of cysts and the painful lumps on the areas that are affected by acne. The diagnosis is through the identification of the signs that are the common characteristic of acne. The treatment can be through injection of corticosteroids that helps in reduction of inflammation and augments healing. Additionally, the physicians can recommend the intake of antibiotics that help in inhibiting the growth of bacteria on the site of acne (Sinnott, Bhate, Margolis, & Langan, 2016). Therefore, the medical pamphlet impacts knowledge about acne to the audience. The information that has been presented is structured in a logical manner. 


Some interviewees did not find difficulty in understanding any detail in the pamphlet. However, others found minimal problems when navigating the document. Some interviewees faced difficulties in understanding the differences between blackheads and whiteheads which are cores signs of acne. Moreover, certain individuals did not know the difference between cysts and the whiteheads. The difference between pimples and cysts were also difficult to be understood. The pamphlet further lacked detailed information of the modes of action of the different treatment methods. Individuals were therefore not able to develop a thorough knowledge on the best available treatment options for acne under different circumstances. However, the booklet enabled them to understand the basic information regarding the treatment options. Moreover, the readers can now explain how physicians diagnose individuals with the disease.

The language in the pamphlet is easy to understand. Therefore, the interviewees did not have difficulties in interpreting the document. The design of the material is also simple and easy to gauge. Moreover, the images show that acne affects children, women, and men. The illustrations attract the attention of the readers hence giving them additional insight into the spectrum of the disease. A majority of the interviewees agree that the design is perfect and that more information is necessary for the pamphlet. Therefore, the language and the design are excellent.

The interviewees call for additional information on the pamphlet. The document has focused on two primary causes of acne which are stress and anxiety. However, other causes include genetics, menstrual flow, and changes in climatic conditions (Lam, & Vasey, 2018). Moreover, the use of cosmetics and alteration in the concentration of hormones also causes lesions. The individuals also call for the addition of symptoms apart from the cysts and the pimples. Other symptoms include the painful lumps and whiteheads (Beinvogl et al., 2015).


Word count: The first pamphlet is precise and educative to the interviewers. However, changes should involve the addition of extra information. Acne occurs across all age groups and gender; the pictures show the spectrum of the disease. However, the most affected group is ladies below the age of thirty years. There are numerous causes of the complication; however, the pamphlet only talks about two causes. The second pamphlet contains all the causes of the lesions. Acne develops as a result of anxiety and depression (Akhnikh, de Korte, & de Winter, 2014). Additionally, menstrual flow and genetics also lead to the development of the pimples.

Apart from the mentioned causes, the improved pamphlet states other causes of acne. Medications that contain lithium and cosmetics also cause the disease. The first pamphlet includes few symptoms which include cysts and pimples. However, the second document illustrates has more information on the symptoms such as white and blackhead. The changes are justified on the basis of the request made by the interviews. However, the basic scientific information remains unchanged in both pamphlets. Physicians diagnose the disease by spotting any lesions on the skin of the patient. The individuals appreciate the effort of mentioning the signs and symptoms of acne but have put forward the request for additional information in the following document. The treatment options are simple and self-explanatory. The first one is an oral intake of antibiotics to clear the lesions (Costill, & Eichenfield, 2015). The patient should take high amounts of antibiotics at the beginning of treatment and reduce the levels as they heal. However, the causative agents can develop resistance towards the antibiotics. Therefore, the doctor should prescribe another antimicrobial in case of resistance. Injection by the use of corticosteroids also eliminates the lesions by preventing the formation of scars.

The interviewees have requested for additional treatment options. Therefore, the second pamphlet has more alternatives for individuals who are allergic to both injections and taking medications. The possibilities are the application of salicylate and Resorcinol. The two chances help in the clearing of the black and whiteheads. The interviewees commend the use of language in the pamphlet. Therefore, the second pamphlet is also precise and straightforward. The design also does not change from one document to the other. However, there is a slight difference in the pictorial illustration. Therefore, the difference in the two pamphlets is the depth of information.



Akhnikh, S., de Korte, N., & de Winter, P. (2014). Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES): the forgotten diagnosis. European journal of paediatrics, 173(4), 445-449.

Beinvogl, B., Dinakar, P., Logan, D., Schechter, N., & Nurko, S. (2015). Su1164 Ultrasound Guided (USG) Nerve Blocks in Pediatric Patients With Functional Abdominal Pain and Abdominal Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES): Impact on Pain and Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Gastroenterology, 148(4), S-424.

Costill, D., & Eichenfield, L. F. (2015). Use of antibiotics for acne exceeds guideline recommendations. Infectious Diseases in Children, 28(12), 20.

Danby, F. W. (2015). Acne: causes and practical management. John Wiley & Sons.

Gollnick, H. P. M. (2015). From new findings in acne pathogenesis to new approaches in treatment. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 29, 1-7.

Guzman, A. K., Choi, J. K., & James, W. D. (2018). Safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin in the treatment of inflammatory acne. International Journal of Women's Dermatology.

Harris, V. R., & Cooper, A. J. (2017). Modern management of acne. The Medical journal of Australia, 206(1), 41-45.

Lam, K., & Vasey, C. (2018). Diagnostic dilemma: think about anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) in patients with atypical abdominal pain and Crohn's disease. BMJ case reports, 2018.

Sinnott, S. J., Bhate, K., Margolis, D. J., & Langan, S. M. (2016). Antibiotics and acne: an emerging iceberg of antibiotic resistance?. British Journal of Dermatology, 175(6), 1127-1128.

Thiboutot, D. M., Dréno, B., Abanmi, A., Alexis, A. F., Araviiskaia, E., Cabal, M. I. B., ... & El Ouazzani, T. (2018). Practical management of acne for clinicians: An international consensus from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 78(2), S1-S23.

Verkaik, N. J., Schurink, C. A. M., & Melles, D. C. (2018). Antibiotic treatment of Propionibacterium acnes endocarditis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 24(2), 209.

Zaenglein, A. L., Pathy, A. L., Schlosser, B. J., Alikhan, A., Baldwin, H. E., Berson, D. S., ... & Keri, J. E. (2016). Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 74(5), 945-973


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