The process of administration of antigenic materials in its weakened or killed form to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity towards a particular pathogen is called the vaccination (Westbrook and Duscheiko 2014). Vaccines mainly help in preventing as well as ameliorating morbidity from any kinds of infection caused by microorganisms (Grohskopf et al. 2015). The present essay will help to enlighten the invention of vaccines and will help to shed light on the development of vaccinations over the years. It will also show the associated barriers in implementation of the vaccines over the years.
Louise Pasteur is a renowned French biologist, chemist and also microbiologist. He was mainly famous for his discoveries in the fields of vaccination, pasteurization as well as microbial fermentation. His discoveries have saved millions of lives and he has garnered huge respect for the different breakthroughs in the field of prevention of different diseases. He enlightened the world with the disapproval of the theory that was put forward by Aristotle, regarding the birth of lives on the earth. For millions of years, people thought that lives appeared on earth spontaneously. They believed that fleas’ flew form dust and maggots took birth form dead flesh (Gottleib et al. 2014). He disapproved the theory with the help of an elegant experiment stating that food usually turns bad mainly due to contamination of the food by microbes in the air. He argued with the fact these micro-organisms often develop the capability of causing various kinds of diseases (Hussain et al. 2015). His germ theory was controversial during that time as people of this time believed that he was a chemist but not a doctor and therefore his theory could not have been accepted by them. However, it led to the development of different types of antiseptics which changed healthcare forever. After his immense contribution to the saving of the wine as well as the silk industry, he invented the famous concept of vaccination. He had a pathetic family tragedy which made him lose the lives of three of his daughters, the first two due to typhoid and the last one due to tumor (Lipton and Decker 2015). In those days, large number of children used to lose their lives due to different infectious diseases. Hence, people were highly concerned regarding these incidences and there was a high demand of a way that would help people from getting relief from infectious diseases.
The discovery of vaccines took by chance when Louise Pasteur and his team were working with chicken cholera. He had received some old cultures of bacteria form Jean Joseph Henri Toussant. He then cultivated them in chicken broth. However, the culture of the bacteria that he was preparing to infect the chickens failed and got spoiled. Therefore when this weak bacterium was injected in the chickens, the chickens did not get affected and therefore they did not show any symptoms (Bruce et al. 2016). Following this incidence, later Louise Pasteur injected some freshly cultured bacteria in the same chickens so that chicken cholera occurs in them. However, this provided a shocking result. Although he injected fresh bacteria which had strong power of infection, it could not infect the chicken and did not result in the occurrence of chicken cholera which usually occurs when injected. Therefore he came to the conclusion that the weakened bacteria played a role in developing a form of immunity that prevented the newly administered bacteria to cause infection. Actually in the year 1879, he had instructed Charles Chamberland to inoculate the chickens after he had gone to holiday. However, his colleague failed to perform it and also went on holiday. When he came back the culture was already month old and lost its potency (Drolet et al. 2014). Although the culture made the chickens unwell but none died. They survived somehow. His assistant wanted to discard the culture but Pasteur stopped him. In pace he injected virulent strains of bacteria in the same chickens once again along with injecting virulent strains to the other fresh chickens a swell. The previous set of chickens did not get affected by the virulent strains while the other set did. All these proved that the weakened culture developed immunity in the chickens. Previously, Edward Jenner had also found that the germ of cowpox is successful in protecting against smallpox. However, this time Louis Pasteur had been successful to create vaccines in the lab which was often regarded as a turning point in the fight against infectious diseases. Edward Jenner also put forward his theory that mild cow pox pus when injected into healthy individuals, those individuals become immune from the development of small pox. Small pox during the 1700s was often considered to be deadly diseases and used to take a large number of lives. In this way, Jenner first termed the coin vaccine form the Latin word “vacca” which means cow (Esparza 2013). However his discovery was rejected by the Royal society stating that it needed more proof for it. He was so determined to prove his point that he conducted his experiment on several children including his 11 month old son which finally led to the publish of his paper in the year 1798. However he was ridiculed for his discovery as it acted against human ethics. propel commented that it was repulsive and also ungodly to inoculate someone with material form a diseased animal. In 1880 Pasteur’s rival namely Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint used killed bacteria as vaccine on sheep. Pasteur was determined that killed bacteria would not bring positive results because he believed that attenuated bacteria resulted in all the utilization of nutrients on which the bacteria grow (McNeil et al. 2014). He was of the idea that oxygen using bacteria would make it less virulent and hence this would bring better effects. He discovered that growth of anthrax bacilli at about 42 degree Celsius made them unable to produce spores and resulted in weakening of the culture. This was a success as declared by French Academy of Sciences but he did not disclose the preparation. One may arise a question that what is the main difference between the invention of vaccines by Jenner as well as Pasteur. To this, it can stated that Pasteur knew the process of artificially making the strains of bacteria weaker within a laboratory which was unlike that of Jenner who used naturally weak form of bacteria which needed to be found (Bopanna and Britt 2014). Therefore, Pasteur gave these artificially modified strains of bacteria as the vaccines in the honor of Jenner’s discovery.
The medical approach that consists of the utilization of antimicrobial agents consist a number of limitations. These are because these drugs are only helpful for treating only a restricted number of micro-organisms. Many diseases occurring due to bacteria are only preventive in measure as the curative form of the treatment does not yield proper results. Although due to void of sufficient number of antimicrobial treatment, prevention of such diseases by vaccines have become important over the years. In the present generation, vaccination along with proper public health measures had been the best options for the control of different infectious diseases. It has been declared as the greatest public health achievement in the last century which had successfully contributed to the global morbidity as well as mortality (Skinner et al. 2015). From the time of 1988 about more that 2 billion children have undergone the process of immunization. This has helped in saving the lives of about 3 million pediatric lives in each year. The significant impact of immunization as well as vaccination was well illustrated in the 1977 which marked the complete eradication of small pox. Global eradication of poliomyelitis is also carried out by different nations under the guidance of WHO. It has been found that many Asian and African developing countries have become successful in eradication of polio by proper public health programs. A number of other vaccines are also found to be successful such as the measles vaccines. The application of vaccines had resulted in declares in reporting of measles cases in United states for only about 37 measles in the year 2002. Vaccines for the microorganisms like Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitides have mainly helped in the reduction of the spread of the diseases (Andrews et al. 2015). Although, it had been possible to erridiacte small pox form the different nations, recent concerns of utilizing the diseases as a biological warfare cannot be totally avoided. Therefore renewed interests in the production of small pox vaccine have been developed from within the last decades. Vaccination for three important classic childhood diseases like the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) have been also produced which had helped in handling such diseases effectively by the health authorities of different nations. A two dose MMR vaccine is usually found to be the best method for the control of the diseases. This is because it had been seen in many cases that a single dose of the vaccine often fails to invoke immunological response in children. Therefore the twpo dose course has been initiated (McLean et al. 2014). Recommendations by the CDC has been now followed which states that the first dose to be administered in children in the 12 to 15 months gap with the second dose being given a the age of 4 t 6 years. As the vaccine consists of live attenuated germs, therefore they are no provided to pregnant women. It has been declared for use of citizens in the year 1960 and after widespread implementation in the United States, the number of cases of injections has been found to be decreased by 98%. The success of the vaccines had helped in saving lives of millions of children all over the world. Adenovirus vaccination was initiated for military personnel and the route of administration proposed was mainly oral. Hepatitis A Virus have been also prevented by the development of hepatitis A Virus vaccine which is the only type licensed vaccine available and are usually have been found to provide the best effects in different randomized control trials when imposed in two doses. Usually it has been seen that about 97% to 99% recipients had developed protective levels of antibodies within the first month and 99% to 100% antibodies are protected after one month of second dose that determines the success levels of the antibodies. Before the implementation of hepatitis B virus, about 200000 to 300000 persons worldwide used to be infected worldwide. Therefore this vaccine came in reality in 1981 due to the licensing of the plasma derived vaccine in United States. Although it invoked immunity, it had many drawbacks. The supply of the suitable carrier plasma that was important to make the vaccine was not available in huge amounts and could not produced in huge amounts either. There was also a risk of HIV infection. In the year 1986 the issue was resolved with the introduction of the yeast recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with the help of recombinant DNA technology. The Varicella zoster virus vaccine which is currently introduced in different individuals is mainly helpful in the prevention of infection and was first published in the year 1995 with the help of the Oka strain. Anthrax vaccine was also introduced. As early as 1881, Pasteur was the one who invented the efficacy of the first anthrax vaccine after his injection to sheep with the help of the heat attenuated B Anthraxis (Garland et al. 2016). Again in the year 1930, use of Sterne staring helped in the significant decrease of the anthrax in domesticated animals in many industrialized countries. In the year 1950, a study of wool sorters revealed that immunization with vaccine AVA couples with that of long experiences with AVA as well as the united Kingdom vaccines shows a critical level of serum antibodies to the PA that helps in the immunization to anthrax. These showed that immunization in the previous years resulted in decrease in the level of the diseases occurring in individuals in the following years who are working in the wool stations. The main individuals who are advised to take vaccines for anthrax are those exposed to high levels of aerosol exposure, person in military and also other in many select populations. Vaccines for Lyme disease, Neisseria meningitides had also been implemented. However, in the present era, many new investigational vaccines are proposed. Most of the vaccines of the 20th century mainly helped to prevent different diseases (Lahariya 2014). However nowadays, researchers are trying to bring out vaccines which will help to cure certain disorders. The different vaccines which are currently under investigation are both prophylactic as well as therapeutic in nature. These include HIV, HSV, HPV, Hepatitis C, dengue fever, and many others. Lesihmania, Aspergillus species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, are also others.
The development of vaccines has a very rich history with some of the renowned names like Edward Jenner as well as Louise Pasteur being associated with the discovery. In the year 1928, discovery of the antimicrobial drugs with the intent of the use of penicillin in curing bacterial infection had supported public health along with that of vaccine. Despite this, infectious diseases still prevails and act as one of true significant threat to human lives. In many cases, it has been reported that effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in most of the developing countries. Every year, millions of people are still found to be dying from vaccine preventable as well as from drug treatable diseases. Furthermore more successful vaccines also need to be prepared for many major diseases like tuberculosis being one of the most important ones. Moreover researchers have also found that technologies that rea utilized for the mass production for vaccines are often outdated (Bopanna and Britt 2014). They are also not easily adaptable for rapidly responding to diseases outbreaks like that of influenza. Often it becomes difficult for the researchers and scientists to predict the dominant circulating influenza strains every season. A good example can be provided here like that of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Rapid preparation for distribution of new vaccine is often found to be challenging. Often in order to make people properly administer vaccines in their children, it becomes extremely important for the guardians to be well aware of the vaccination systems available and the different vaccines that can be provided to the children to keep them safe. Proper programs for making citizens of a nation aware of the immunization programs are very necessary however many nations fail to make locals aware of the system of protection. As a result, many people fail to protect their child from such diseases. These are mostly common towards the suburban as well as the rural sides and also among people with low educational background and low socio-economic status. One of the contemporary barriers that have been noted is the funding constraint in many developing countries (Doro et al. 2014). Human resource factors that also result in improper communication among the different regions of the nation include health worker shortages and poor attitude of the health workers and also vaccination teams. Moreover training deficiencies for such teams also result in acting as barriers in proper implementation of vaccination trends in a nation. Again many researchers conducting observational studies all over the world shows that inadequate infrastructure as well as improper old equipments also acts as barriers in huge scale production of vaccines (Andrews et al. 2015). Weak political promises also act as additional barriers behind the already weakened system structure of vaccine implementation over the entire nation in both rural or urban areas. Often community level factors mainly include attitudes of community stakeholders as well as of parents and caregivers which also act as major reasons for failure of proper implementation of vaccination programs. Many researchers also suggested that political supports, engagement of traditional as well as religious institutions and also use of organized communications committees when inculcated may bring out best results (Vellozi et al. 2014).
Hence it can be seen that invention of vaccine and its subsequent implementation had been challenging. Even after invention of the vaccines, it took the inventors to undertake a lot of hard work to prove their effectivity. Even after their acceptance in the science world, the researchers over the years have faced a number of different types of barriers for it successful establishments. A large number of vaccines have been produced over the years with different doses and for different target groups in order to save the human kind from the ill effects of micro-organisms. Although most of the vaccines are prophylactic in nature, researchers are also trying to develop many new therapeutic vaccines as well. Different barriers in implementation of vaccination programs and also proper mode of using the services are depicted which states that it is important to overcome them for a nation to achieve best health of its populations.
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