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BIOL121 Human Biological Science

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Question:

1. Which type of immunity is expressed in the following scenarios? Choose between:

  • Non-specific (first line defence)
  • Specific (antibody-mediated)
  • Specific (cell-mediated immunity)

Scenario

Type of immunity

Bacterial septicaemia (bacterial contamination in systemic circulation)

 

The pH of hydrochloric acid in the stomach acts to destroy ingested bacteria

 

A liver cell mutates and becomes cancerous

 

A virus multiplies inside the epithelial cells in your throat.

 

2. Describe how bone cells respond to the hormones involved in the homeostasis of blood calcium ion concentration.  

3. Choose ONE of the below scenarios and highlight this row bold.  State which general property of adaptive immunity the scenario illustrates in the second column. Select ONE phrase (from the list below) that BEST describes what is happening at a cellular level to result in this property of adaptive immunity. Write the letter corresponding to this phrase in the third column.  An example is included in italics.  

Scenario

General property of immunity

Explanation

Even though your body contains a relatively small number of lymphocytes, your immune system is capable of mounting a response against almost any antigen it encounters.

Versatility

A

Generally, after an initial infection, subsequent immune responses to that antigen are faster, stronger and more sustained.

 

 

You can suffer from ‘the flu’ multiple times throughout your lifetime.

 

 

Your immune system is capable of distinguishing between antigens on your own cells, and those of an invading pathogen.

 

 

Possible phrases are listed below. Not all phrases will need to be used and only ONE phrase is required per row. If you record more than one, you will not be awarded any marks for your explanation. 

A

There are millions of different lymphocyte populations, each of which is sensitive to a different antigen. Lymphocytes proliferate when activated by their specific antigen.

B

The immune response ignores self-antigens and targets non-self antigens.

C

B cells differentiate into T cells to create a long-lived immune response.

D

Each T and B cell can recognise many antigens and respond to a wide variety of possible threats.

E

Each T or B cell has receptors that respond to only one antigen and ignores all others.

F

Phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens during subsequent infections.

G

T cells are versatile because they produce copious quantities of antibodies that can respond to a wide variety of threats.

H

Activated lymphocytes produce two groups of cells: one group that attacks the invader immediately, and another that remains inactive unless it is exposed to the same antigen at a later date

4.a) Using the patellar reflex as an example, explain the purpose of a neural reflex.  

   b) What happens to the patellar reflex when someone clasps their hands and squeezes them strongly? Why does this occur?  

5. Using the diagram provided as a prompt, outline the four steps involved in the transmission of an electrical impulse from the presynaptic neurone to the post synaptic neurone.  

Step

Outline

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

6. Describe the series of events occurring at a neuromuscular junction required for muscular contraction. 

7. Think about how the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system acts to maintain normal blood pressure. Susan has sustained damage to her adrenal glands.  Consequently, her circulating levels of aldosterone are abnormally low. 

a) Where are the target cells for aldosterone located in the body?

b) What do you expect the lack of aldosterone to do to Susan’s blood pressure? Explain your answer.

8. Explain the term ‘normal sinus rhythm’.

9. For each of the scenarios below, indicate whether you would you expect resting heart rate to be greater or less than that associated with normal sinus rhythm.  Explain the cardiac physiology underlying the identified change. 

Heart rate

Situation

Explanation

 

A person of average fitness running a 5km fun run.

 

 

An endurance athlete at rest.

 

 
10.Explain how baroreceptors contribute to control blood pressure during a short period of widespread vasodilation.  

11. Parents, a father who is heterozygous for blood group A and a mother who is heterozygous for blood group B, are wondering what, if any, are their chances of producing a child with blood group O.

a) State the genotype of each parent, and complete the Punnett square below.  

Parent

Genotype

Father

 

Mother

 

b) What is the chance of these parents producing a blood group O child? Explain your reasoning. 

12. Describe TWO differences between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in blood clotting.  

13. The Wigger’s diagram (below) represents pressure and volume relationships in the left side of the heart during one cardiac cycle.  To answer this , you should focus on the changes in pressure in different chambers of, or vessels leading from, the left side of the heart.

For ONE of the labelled points, state which valve is open/closed at that time.  Highlight your chosen point in bold.  You must also explain WHY that valve opened/closed and where the blood is flowing immediately after this point in time, due to the change in position of the valve.  An example is provided in italics.  

Label

Valve (name and open/closed)

Explanation

A

 

 

B

 

 

C

 

 

D

Left AV/bicuspid valve opens

The pressure in the left ventricle becomes lower than that in the left atrium.  Blood flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle.

                                            

 

14. Consider the events occurring after you have eaten a high carbohydrate meal. For each of the organs listed in the table below, describe ONE mechanical and ONE chemical digestion event that will contribute to the digestion of carbohydrates. 

Location

Mechanical digestion event

Chemical digestion event

Mouth

 

 

Stomach

 

 

Small intestine

 

 

15. Continue to consider the events occurring after you have eaten a high carbohydrate meal.  In the table below explain how the listed organs are involved in the absorption and metabolism events (specific to carbohydrates) that occur after this meal. 

Location

Absorption and metabolism events

Small intestine

 

Liver

 

 
16. The figure below illustrates inspiration and expiration.  Refer to this figure to answer the following s. 


                               

 

Answer

Contraction of which muscle/s produces the movement labelled "1"?

 

Contraction of which muscle/s produces the movement labelled “2”?

 

At label “3”, is pressure outside greater than or less than pressure inside the lungs?

 

Is the pressure in the space labelled "4", higher or lower compared to the atmospheric pressure?

 

At label “8”, is pressure outside greater than or less than pressure inside the lungs?

 

Name any ONE muscle that contracts to cause the extra movement required when you need to expire forcefully (indicated by the arrows labelled "6" and "7").

 

17.a)Complete the below table of partial pressures in internal respiration. 

 

pO2 (mmHg)

pCO2 (mmHg)

Capillary

 

 

Tissue

 

 

 
b) Describe how the differences in partial pressures drives the direction of gas movement between the blood and tissues 

18. a) Describe the epithelium lining in the trachea? 

     b) How does the structure of this epithelium relate to its function in the trachea?  

19. What personal protective equipment should be worn when handling someone else’s urine?  Explain.  

20. The results of dipstick urinalysis of two urine samples are listed below. 

Sample 1 belongs to a 16-year-old male ‘gamer’ who has locked himself in his room all weekend to play computer games (he didn’t really even come out to eat or drink).  

Sample 2 belongs to a 22-year-old female triathlete who is careful with her diet, hydration, and almost exercises to excess. 

For each parameter, fill in the normal values. (Hint: Refer to the Week 10 laboratory activity to get you started). 

Parameter

Normal values

Sample 1

Sample 2

Colour

 

Dark yellow

Reddish tinge

Glucose

 

-

-

Bilirubin

 

-

-

Ketones

 

++

-

Specific gravity

 

1.039

1.010

Blood

 

-

++

pH

 

5.5

6.0

Protein

 

-

++

Nitrite

 

-

-

Leukocytes

 

-

-

Choose ONE of the samples described above and answer the following s in the space provided.

  1. Compare the normal and sample values. List any abnormalities you observe in the section below. Are they higher or lower than normal? 
  2. Give a situation in which you might expect to see these changes in an otherwise healthy 
  3. What might have been happening in the nephron to cause these abnormal results? Explain your observed abnormalities by linking them with the part of the nephron involved and the process involved (ie filtration, secretion or reabsorption). Ensure that any relationships between the abnormal readings are made clear in your response.  

Chosen sample:

A

 

B

 

C

 

 
21. In regards to the nervous endocrine system, explain the appearance of urine with a higher than normal specific gravity.
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