1.Describe the process of water, nutrient and electrolyte reabsorption in the nephron of the kidney. In your answer, make sure to address the following questions:
What is the order of structures that the renal filtrate will pass through as it moves through a nephron?
What molecules are reabsorbed in each tubular element of the nephron?
Describe the structure & function of the countercurrent multiplier (exchange) system.
What property of the peritubular capillaries facilitates the absorption of materials from the interstitial fluid of the kidneys?
Define the term saturation as it relates to the reabsorption of nutrients from the nephron. How does this process affect glucose reabsorption during diabetes mellitus?
2.Describe the hormonal regulation of water and electrolyte reabsorption in the kidneys. In your answer, make sure to address the following questions:
Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) synthesized and where is it secreted? What is the primary stimulus for the secretion of ADH? Where does this hormone act? What effect does ADH have on the osmolarity of the renal filtrate? What is the specific mechanism responsible for producing this effect (Be specific)?
Describe the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). What is the primary stimulus for the production of renin and where is renin secreted from? What are the specific steps involved in the RAAS pathway? Make sure to include the names of all of the enzymes and hormones involved, as well as their specific actions. Where does aldosterone act and what effect does it have?
Where is atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) produced in the body? What stimulates the production of this hormone? What effect does it have on the kidneys?
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