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1). Explain normal body responses to everyday activities.

2). Discuss how responses are explained by cellular tissues and structure and physiology.

3). Discus how the body coordinates its internal activities.

4). Explain the recording and use of routine measures in health and social care.

5). Access how routine measures provide information about body functioning.

6). Examine how information about body functioning may inform care planning for individuals.

The Human Body and Homeostasis

Human Physiology and Anatomy

1).The human body consists of a highly sophisticated and complex organs that communicate with one another and are able virtually respond to all physiologic system changes. Through homeostasis, the human body maintains a state of equilibrium, one in which the body has no feelings of dizziness, uneasiness, sicknesses or any unpleasant and unappealing signs and symptoms. This process amount to the normal human body responses to physiological functions.  Our bodies, therefore, manages complex interactions and functions within and through the different body systems so as to maintain a normal balance. The interactions between these syxystems denote changes that correspond to a range of psychological functions including nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, ogen, anxiety, movements.

Body organs like the liver, kidney, and the heart function normally along and in coordination with the nervous and the endocrine systems to avert any anomalies resulting from physiological changes in our bodies or our surrounding.

For a young man, in his 25 and in college will be involved in a series of activities including but not limited to breathing, eating, drinking and elimination. When this man eats, whether it is breakfast, lunch or dinner, a series of body response and activities are initiated by and in different body systems and organs.  Everything start with the brain sending signals to the salivary glands when he thinks of eating, mechanical digestion follows when food is placed in the mouth, and is continued in the stomach, where chemical digestion is initiated by enzyme activity. The process continues in what is called the digestive system with organs like the liver controlling the PH. The nutrients are absorbed and assimilated in our bodies while the remaining materials are passed over as excreta. The nervous system once again will trigger actions when rectum and bladder are full that the student may release himself. His liver will be called upon to maintain a balance between carbohydrates, fat and toxic substance metabolism.

The urinary system on itself will maintain water balance, necessary nutrients’ reabsorption, the amounts of iron and salts in blood and its PH. It also helps in excretion of toxic substances through the urinary system.

2). Cells is defined as the basic functional and structural units of life responsible for the physiological functions and responses produced in the body. They are responsible for processes like gaseous exchange, transport, secretion, protection and osmosis among many others. These units of life come together to form tissues which in turn build up to become structures and body organs.

The Role of Cells in the Human Body

For the young college man, his body responses of cellular structure consist of organisms. Cells regenerates themselves by division, a process through which two types of cells may be produced: the in-vitro cells that are outside the organism and the in-vivo which are inside the organism. While cell structure is highly rigid and complex, it is also well organized and a coordinated one.

Production of ATP accomplished through the process of cellular respiration- a process that involves mechanical breakdown of organic molecules. The cellular system, produces carbon dioxide which is toxic and has to be removed through the gaseous exchange process. This necessitates existence of gaseous exchange structure in the system so that the toxic carbon dioxide is removed and in its place, oxygen gets in.

Like aforementioned, several cells that are similar in structure constitute a tissue. All tissues in the human body work together as a team. Examples of tissues are the epithelial tissues that provide coverage to the deeper layers of the body, connective tissues that combine different tissues (blood, bones, and lymph tissues), and muscle tissues that are straight and include smooth and cardiac muscles and the nerve tissues. The epithelia tissues are known to be thin for easy passage of gases between them and are found in large numbers around the lungs.

Cells with transport epithelia are found in the intestines and the kidney help in the regulation of, and nutrients exchanges and absorption. Cells with protective epithelia prevents us from inhaling external and internal environments and in the linings of upper respiratory tract, skin, vagina, urethra, mouth, and esophagus. All these form connective tissues starting from the basic body structure connecting the different parts, hence coordinating various functions of the body.

The tissues in the students body will mainly be involved in gaseous exchange, transport of waste products (water and urine) out of the body such and in the control of PH level the importance of this functionality is to help avert damaging or otherwise killing of the cells. Blood tissues help remove toxin from the blood and transport energy and nutrients to the body.

3). The human body uses various ways to coordinate all internal activities so as to keep the conditions inside us controllable and under constant/normal states for effective and efficient functioning. As such, homeostasis is used to maintain the body at a point of equilibrium, or stability within the body’s internal environment whenever changes occur to our external environments. The nervous and the endocrine systems also work together so as to “influence other cells with neurotransmitters and hormone”.

Controlling Internal Coordination Through Homeostasis

Homeostasis happens whenever we have a meal, drink or exercise. A specially ‘designed’ feedback serves to alter or manipulate parameters such as carbon dioxide, urea, sugar, water, temperature, nutrients, PH and ions. Homeostatic feedback occur in two loops: through the negative and positive feedback loops. The later loop refers to the body reaction which requires and triggers the body to reverse the direction of change- to act against the change being experienced or induced. These feedback loops are similar to thermo regulators in house that serve to control temperatures in given rooms, with a receptor that detects changes in temperature, a control center and effectors which perform the desired actions hence normalizing the situation.

The nervous and the endocrine systems are systems that are majorly used to control internal co-ordinations of the body. The later controls functions of the body through some automatic, central peripheral nervous system.

Endocrine refers to a set of glands and hormones that plays a very crucial role in controlling and coordinating body functions. They include the thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, testicles, and the parathyroid. Ductless, also called pituitary glands secrete hormones necessary for physical growth and body development while the thyroid contribute to mental growth and development.

The digestive system of the young man breaks down the carbohydrates in the meals eaten to produce glucose which enters into the bloodstream through the small intestines. The pancreases, by help of the nervous system detects an increase in blood sugar level and reacts by releasing the insulin hormone to control usage and storage of glucose by enabling glucose to move from blood to body cells where it is converted to solid-state glycogen through enzyme action and stored for future purposes. The net effect of this process is a lowered blood sugar concentration hence achieving normalcy. When blood sugar falls below the normal range, the same pancreases releases glucagon hormone, triggering cells in the liver to reconvert glycogen into glucose. The obtained glucose is then supplied to the body through the bloodstream.

4). For effective and efficient health planning for an individual, recording of routine measures is considered important in social care. This helps in early diagnosis of ailments which leads to the development of an effective care plan for the affected patients. The recorded data helps medics offer integrated care in terms of professional, geographic or any other related boundaries. Usage of these techniques closes any existing gaps in treatments, medication and care. Recording provides patients with opportunities to access their records, ascertain their previous illnesses, medications, recent diagnosis as well as scheduling appointments.

Health Planning: The Importance of Routine Measures

Measuring and recording of medical data has to be anchored around professionalism, ethics and respect for the land’s existing law. Patients’ privacy, respects and dignity has to be maintained when taking measurements and recording their data. Additionally, recorded data must be protected against malicious alterations and theft. The following are key considerations:

Respect and dignity: in health and social care, patients must be treated with all and accorded due respect and care.  Paying close attention to the patient serves to improve quality of services offered and builds trust between medics and the social community. It is advisable for medical practitioners to take into account of the gender, age, level of education and other factors that help build the much wanted rapport.

Privacy: at the center of health and social care is privacy.  Health workers must ensure that patients’ data and information is kept safe, and secured from unauthorized accesses. Privacy also consist of the health professionals maintain privacy while conducting and recording routine measures.

Rights of service users: users’ accessing medical services must have their rights respected and safeguarded. The practitioners must therefore take into account their patients’ preferences and choices while providing them with medical support and help.

Routine measures are important because they offer helpful and effective insights in decision making processes, helps medical practitioners design effective care plans for their patients through observation on routine measures, monitor a patient’s progress, gives exposures and health determinates data such as pollution, smoking, crime rates and smoking, and giving prevention data such as an outbreak screening and vaccination as well as health outcomes such as healing, death, side effects, etc. taking and maintain these measures helps medics design preventive measures that prevents patients from contracting some other diseases. In addition to this, the aggregation and analysis of such data could be used to benefit a society since it describes all the demographic and geographic features of a given population.

Keeping a well maintained record of a patient’s records helps eliminate some practical barriers which limits use of patient’s health related measures.

5).Accurately collected and recorded routine measures are useful insights regarding the state of body functioning- whether healthy or sick. Measuring vital signs gives clinical data regarding purse rate, temperature and blood pressure that can easily be done in a clinic. However, body fluids can such as the saliva, blood, urine, need a laboratory technician’s assistance while other imaging data like the x-ray and CT scan requires an imaging lab.

When taking these measures, care must be taken to ensure that no room for errors, hyper values removed and normal range is used to accurately record them.

Body temperatures are an indicative of balance between heat loss and production in the body. The core body temperature becomes stable when the rate of heat generation is equal to that of heat loss, a state that is called ‘thermal equilibrium’. Core body temperature is kept in blood and is provided to the different body organs when blood is supplied to them. The hypothalamus, is the thermo regulatory center for the body. Body temperature measures are used to monitor effects antimicrobial infection treatments, monitor and observe patients for changes that could be indications of infections and to obtain baseline temperatures for comparison with future readings among many other uses.

Body mass index

BMI, as it is abbreviated, is used to measure one’s obesity or the fat reservation rate by the human body is a measure that uses one’s height and their weight to determine if they are healthy. BMI is calculated by dividing the individuals’ weight by the square of their height. The measurement classifies individuals into three classes as follows

  1. A BMI value that is less than 18.0 is termed as an underweight,
  2. That one between 18.0 and 24.99 termed a healthy one,
  • Between 25.0 and 29.99, an individual is said to be overweight and
  1. Over 30.0 is interpreted as obese.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An electrocardiogram refers to a detailed test of the human’s heart rhythm and electrical activity. Sticky sensors attached to one’s skin are used to detect electrical activity of the heart. Patients are lied on beds, ten leads then attached to their arms, legs and chests for signal capturing. The signals captured by the stickers are then sent to a machine which prints them as graphs.

This test is very useful as it helps diagnose and monitor heart conditions such as irregular heartbeats, heart attacks, as well as providing details about pulse rate, previous or current cardiovascular attacks or coronary disease

6). Care planning is a critical undertaking in health and social care practice that comes after all routine measures have been taken. A good planning is very important for diseased individuals and is based on collected information/measures. If one is sick, all the information recorded points to the status of the patient’s body’s functions and will always relate to a given ailment and possible treatment and diagnosis.

In the scenario given, care planning for the old man would be supported by availability of essential information, as recorded in the health documents- routine measures. This man could be categorized as either obese, on the basis of the value obtained upon calculating his BMI, a fact that is an indicative of a patient who is at risk lifestyle associated diseases. Once the medics have such information, they get a basis for advising the patient and planning for their support and care that will include balanced/healthy diets, and daily exercise among many others.

For a physician with good knowledge and understanding of their patient’ health records can carefully and skillfully plan prepare a care and a recovery diagnosis algorithm for their patients. Collected information helps answer the questions regarding as to what are the best interventions, medications for prescription, special treatment need and others. Measures and records kept could be successfully used to develop a personalized care and support for people with long term and chronic diseases. This could help them, together with the medics, develop deep knowledge, confidence, and knowledge to manage the situation.

To manage the health of the man in question, further investigations relating to his cholesterol and blood sugar will have to be done.  Taking blood tests will give insight about presence of pathogens in his blood, which could be the reason for the flu and fever in this case. The medics will then be required to include the very effective and efficient medication to treat the ailment.


Cavelaars, M., Tulen, J. H., Van, B., Jah, H., Mulder, P. G., van , d. M., & Anton, H. (2004, januaery). Haemodynamic responses to physical activity and body posture during everyday life. Journal of Hypertension, 22(1), 89-96.

Lista, S. C. (2010). Physiology (4 ed.). Philadephia: Saunders, Inc.

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