The report focuses on the various aspects concerned with the leadership performance of people and its impact on better performances by workers and further leading to enhanced organisational productivity with ease and effectiveness. The business organisation Caterpillar has been considered as the case study here where several problems have been faced along with relevant solutions to overcome those effectively and conveniently. The most important causes with the utilisation of organisational behaviours concepts have been illustrated here as well and how these causes can lead to issues at various levels such as individual level, group level and at the organisational level (Aamir et al. 2012). The problems faced by the organisation Caterpillar have been illustrated here along with the gaps that are defined between the present and expected situation. One of the major problems is the lack of motivation, turnover of 30,000 employees in the year 2009 (Cat.com 2017). Based on the case study, the 3 –step problem solving approach in leadership is essential for overcoming these kinds of problems and ensure successful functioning of the business organisation. It is the responsibility of the leader of Caterpillar to solve the problems by following all these three steps properly (Ahmed and Shepherd 2012).
Step 1: Defining the problem
The most important problem here is the reduced benefits provided to the workers, which has even de-motivated many workers. It is a major problem in this case because any workers gain the positive mindset when they are paid good amounts of wages along with other added benefits to keep them motivated and perform to their potential. This is considered as a major problem, because though the profit level of Caterpillar has increased along with the high amount of wages paid to the CEO Oberhelman of Caterpillar in Australia. To identify the problem, it is important to know all the variables and gather relevant information related to the problem faced by the organization (Bello 2012). The facts are obtained to gain a proper understanding of the problem and make a clarification as well. The problem here is the less amount of wages and benefits provided to the new and existing employees of Caterpillar (Cat.com 2017).
When asked about the issue, the company’s higher officials stated that the company cannot afford to provide more benefits because they are not aware of the issues that may be experienced in the future. Though it could be seen that there had been few areas where the company had lacked growth and development, still the company maintained a good financial status, because of which the higher management staffs are CEO were paid well (Cameron 2012). The company maintains a good corporate culture, according to opinions of few members, though most of them stated their unwillingness regarding lack of opportunities to advance in their professional career, not considering the issues within workplace properly, reduced wages and other benefits and lack of skills and knowledge of products and business processes (Choudhary, Akhtar and Zaheer 2013).
Step 2: Identification of causes using OB concepts
The facts obtained are weighed to make a final decision and make sure that proper approaches are developed to handle the problem with ease and effectiveness. The Integrative framework for Understanding and Appling OB has been used to manage inputs, processes and outcomes. The inputs include personal factors such as fewer wage paid to employees, and new hires are also provided with lesser benefits that resulted in the business problem. The various processes are managed at individual, group or team level and organisational level, based on which the outcomes are derived too. The processes in business include annual savings of $8.8 million that resulted from reduced attrition and rate of employee turnover (Grant 2012). The outputs have increased largely within few months along with $2 million increased profit level, and the break-even point has decreased by 50 percent. The company wants to expand its operations overseas but there has been reduced efficiency of labour, and they have been provided with lower benefits as well, which is the problem here (Cat.com 2017).
The personal attributes and skills achieved by studying the organisational behaviour could be positive behaviour and attitude, ability to work as a team and leadership skills too. The interpersonal skills can allow the individual to actively listen and communicate with others to understand the problem that is needed to be resolved (Jehanzeb et al. 2012). The causes of these problems, as seen from the case study could be lack of investments in human capital by the employers. Unethical behaviours, reduced cooperation can be caused by inappropriate goals, pressure from the higher officials and lack of reward system. At the group level, lack of communication is the major cause of such problems while at the organisational level, lack of good corporate culture can lead to issues such as decreased productivity, deteriorated performances, etc. If all these roots of problems are prevented, then the problems will be overcome as well (Nixon, Harrington and Parker 2012).
Step 3: Recommended solutions to overcome the issues
As soon as the decision is made, it is important to act accordingly and achieve the desired positive results. Determination and willingness to act accordingly are important for acting on the decision that has been made. The leader of Caterpillar must consider the views and opinions of the employees and then make a proper decision that can bring positive outcomes in business. At present, the high amount of peaks achieved by Caterpillar has decreased due to the higher use of natural gas and reduction in prices of coals, and it further decreased the sales of big mining trucks. This made the company to reduce the production level and lay off many workers from the Asian mining sector (Northouse 2015). Still, from the various articles and responses of staffs, it could be understood that the company had been doing quite well and even better than before, so rewards must be provided to the employees in the form of increased wages and added benefits for allowing them to perform better.
To mitigate the problems faced by Caterpillar, it is important to address the causes. In the present days, employers need to focus on the motivation. It is recommended to provide them sufficient wages and provide them with various benefits as well to ensure that they perform to their potential and drive the workforce efficiency. There are two different types of motivation such as the extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation (Rock 2014). The major aspects of motivation include the content theories, which have helped the managers and leaders of the organisation to identify the needs and requirements of employees that are needed to be fulfilled for keeping them satisfied along with the focus on internal and environmental factors impacting on the motivation of employees (Wong and Laschinger 2013).
The McGregor's Theory X and Y can be used where the problems like employees disliking to work can be identified. The major cause due to which employees dislike work is the fewer wages and benefits provided to them. The Theory Y shows that employees can be self-engaged and remain committed to their responsibilities, once their needs and preferences are fulfilled. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory can be used within Caterpillar to fulfill the needs at various levels such as self-actualisation, esteem, love and belonging, safety and physiological needs (Wright, Christensen and Isett 2013). Thus, it is recommended that the company uses proper motivation theories and fulfill the needs and requirement of employees so that they are kept satisfied, and there is lesser turnover of employees. This would create positive outcomes in terms of better performances, positive work behaviours, lesser turnover and job satisfaction too (Cat.com 2017).
The topic was concerned with the people leadership performance and how leaders could keep the employees motivated by reducing the chances of issues experienced at Caterpillar. The salaries were also reduced along with lesser numbers of benefits provided to the new employees. The new employees who are recruited are also paid lesser wages, which is a major problem too. Based on the case study, the 3-step problem solving approach was applied where the first step helped to identify the main problem faced. The second step identified the causes of such problems using OB concepts within the organisation and the third and last step in the topic provided some recommendations that could resolve the issues and ensure that those might not occur again.
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