1.There are so many reason to as why many Linux System Administrators must be proficient in using Linux command line tools as opposed to graphical user interface (GUI) based tools.
The command line tools always provide us with a lot benefits that maybe unavailable, difficult in achieving them or them that are always incomplete with any of the Graphical-User-Interface applications. Some of the benefits of this are such as the command line tool allows the scalability and this is experienced in the way it tries to handle the scalability very quickly and easily. The other benefit is that of scripting. The other benefit is the simplicity which make the to be a tool that is very secure and this elaborated in the context where we the commands are written as smaller and simpler tools in the UNIX tradition. Another benefit is that with command lines we can created very simple interfaces while in graphical user interfaces we have to rely on buttons and most of it all menus in getting something done. The last benefit is the design being stable for a long time and this has been hard for GUI administrators to control as there are new versions invented everyday hence this has made GUI applications to be even more complex. The backward compatibility is not possible in GUI but very much convincing in Command line tools. Many are times that we see the GUI to be best and have many benefits but there are some particular tasks in existence whose ample proficiency is essential in even encountering the benefits of a command line approach because we want the inexpert user will be hindered because of the lack of a captive interface.
2.Use the following commands on a Linux machine running any flavour of Linux (e.g., Ubuntu, Kali), and document the following for each command:
The command is used in finding out what or which files are opened and by which process. The reason to use the lsof command is when a disk cannot be mounted when it says the files are in use. With lsof use we can easily identify the files which are in use.
The syntax for lsof command is
lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX] [ -A A ] [ -cc ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ][ +|-D
D ] [ +|-e s ] [+|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ][ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i]
] [ -k k ] [ -K k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ][ -p s
] [ +|-r [t[m_fmt_]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [
+|-w] [ -x [fl] ] [-z [z]] [-Z [Z]] [--] [names]
The syntax varies with what you want to open.
The example to be used will be that of the list of open files except those given by the user.
The syntax will be
#lsof -u <username>
Figure 1 lsof command screenshot
A command that provides info and the statistics about the protocols that are used by the current TCP/IP networks.
The syntax is as follows.
Netstat [-a] [-b] [-e] [-f] [-n] [-o] [-p proto] [-r] [-s] [-t] [-v] [interval]
Figure 2 Netstat screenshot
This a command that is used for diagnosing the network connections errors and much more problems.
The syntax is as follows
mtr [-hvrctglspni46] [--help] [--version] [--report] [--report-cycles COUNT][--curses] [--split] [--raw] [--no-dns] [--gtk] [--address IP.ADD.RE.SS] [PACKETSIZE][--interval SECONDS] [--psize BYTES | -s BYTES] HOSTNAME