The article under review is on ‘Reference values of spirometry for Finish Adults’, with authors based in Helsinki University Central Hospital. It is written by a collaboration of authors based in various institutions in Helsinki. The article is published in the journal of Clinical physiology Functional Imaging issue 36 in pages 346-358 of 2016, (Kainu et al., 2015).
Body of the article
The paper talks about spirometry assessment for the diagnosis of lung function. Theirs need for an updated use of reference values for the purposes of diagnosis. According to the background information of the paper outlines that reference values are usually estimated and randomly selected form the healthy populations. It further says that in Finland the reference values obtained were derived from a cohort assessment of patients in the late 1970s. The paper further gives illustrations from different countries which have utilised these values for the purposes of assessments. Countries such as Poland, Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand have been assessed. The evidence provided in this background information is that they are rich and provide a comparative view of various countries practising the usage of reference values for the diagnosis of lung diagnosis. The references used in this research are old with the oldest reference being 1992 and the latest being 2013, to some extend the reference used in the article were old, however proper referencing was used for the study.
The study objectives and aims were to produce new clinical reference values for diagnosis for the native Finns in Finland. The study further assessed the difference between the existing data for referencing and the others done and used in the European countries and the global 2012 reference values.
In doing this study the authors adopted spirometry performance on the sample respondent, the usage of questionnaires was used in addition to experimental designs used. The study concluded by offering an up to date reference values for native Finns with wide age range, the previous used assessment reference to as GLI2012, were found out to be not suitable for clinical purposes for the native Finns due to the values underestimation of the lung volumes they have.
The study uses a variety of methods to analyze the findings and study result. The results of the study were supported with good rich study findings, with various uses of data analysis aspects. The usage of various methods was the best as it analyses results in different perspectives, the graphic presentations used were effective. The experimental design used was specific for assessment the methods used were to seclude non smoker’s accurate values to be found. This assisted in supporting the data for conclusion purposes. The design aimed at describing the variation of values for the spirometry for the hypothesis testing for the reference values for use in the hypothesis of getting the reference values for the Elderly Finnish. The method used was able to predict the outcome by introducing the change conditions like the dependent variable s and independent variables for the selection of the suitable outcome for the experiment. However in article the issues of validity, reliability and replicability of the tools and the methods used were found not clarified. The study did not utilised the use of hypothesis method assessment but rather the used aims and objectives thus indicating the use of research questions. This in research can affect the accuracy of results found and in general the quality of data obtained.
The study used the R statistical tool for analysis; the reliability of the method is accurate and definite for data processing. If well coded can yield sound result which are relevant for the study under focus. The importance of maintaining quality standards in spirometry studies are that they require careful attention with the usage of the guidelines given, (Miler et al., 2005). Challenges have been evident in large studies due to paying great detail on the adequacy of the individual measurement which are taken, process must also be considered for over sighting and feedback to centres of data control for overall improvement of quality control for such studies, however in this study definitive assurance of such usage is not guaranteed , (Stoller, 2008) which it has an effect on the overall significant values obtained from the study. The study findings were presented in a scientific way with key detail on proper usage of scientific terms including the basic names and terms used in clinical physiology for spirometry analysis.
The study outline and write befits the minimum threshold for scientific research, as it uses proper sampling techniques, reliable statistical tool, the presentations of data finding s and the conclusion are thus enabling the research to have sound scientific evidence and findings backed up by use of appropriate methodology and analysis.
Kainu, A., Timonen, K.L., Toikka, J., Qaiser, B., Pitkäniemi, J., Kotaniemi, J.T., Lindqvist, A., Vanninen, E., Länsimies, E. and Sovijärvi, A.R.A., 2015. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults. Clinical physiology and functional imaging.
Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 2005;26(2):319-338.
Stoller, J.K., 2008. Quality control for spirometry in large epidemiologic studies:“breathing quality” into our work.