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BSB20307-7 Global Strategic Management For External And Internal Environment

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  • Course Code: BSB20307-7
  • University: Asia Pacific University Of Technology And Innovation
  • Country: Malaysia

Questions:

1.Critically understand strategic management concepts, their contribution to organisational purpose and development, and how to apply such concepts in an international/global context.
2 Apply appropriate techniques for strategic appraisal and evaluation of strategy options for both domestic and global business. Will also be able to demonstrate an understanding of the problems of making strategic choices from limited data and the limitations of modern driven analysis.
3 Apply and critically analyse key operations management principles, concepts, theories and models in both service and manufacturing contexts and settings.
4. Recognise the difficulties associated with the planning and implementation of strategies, and the problems for organisations in changing internal beliefs and perceptions to maintain a viable fit with a changing, often global environment.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

The aim of this report is to introduce Emirates Airline, its vision, mission, products, and key issues. Further, this report will analyse the external and internal environment and provide strategy alternative and recommendations for sustaining the company’s future growth.

About the company

The Garhoud, Dubai, UAE headquarters based airline, Emirates, was founded in 25th March 1985 and it started its business of providing commercial air transportation services on 25th October 1985 worldwide (Emirates, 2018a). The company is a subsidiary of ‘The Emirates Group’, and it is wholly owned by the Investment Corporation of Dubai’s government. In the aviation industry, the corporation has gained a prestigious rank due to its effective business strategies that focus on encouraging fair competition, open skies policies, and transparency. The fleet size of the firm includes 270 aircraft, and it has planned to add more than 20 aircraft in the future (Planes Potters, 2018).

Currently, the company fly its passengers to more than 155 destinations in over 80 countries around the world. Each week, more than 1,500 Emirates flights departed from Dubai airport, and they fly its passengers on six continents (Altaf, 2017). The corporation has employed more than 64,768 employees around the world (Emirates, 2017a). The services of the company include worldwide destinations, regionally inspired cuisine, world-class facilities, industry-leading in-flight entertainment and others. The seating options offered by the firm include a full suite with doors, horizontal bed (without doors) and sleeper seats.

In 2017, Emirates Airline generated a profit of US$340 million, and the Emirates Group reported a profit of US$670 million. The company reported a drop of 82.5 percent in its profits as compared to 2016 profits. It is the first drop in the firm’s annual profit in previous five years which caused due to competition, US dollar’s rise and travel restrictions (Al Jazeera, 2017). As per Latest Oxford Economic Report, the aviation industry will contribute US$53.1 billion in the economy or 37.5 percent of the GDP of Dubai by 2020. It is also predicted that in the report that more than 754,500 jobs will be supported by the aviation industry (Gulf News, 2014). Emirates Airline plays a crucial role in contributing to the country’s economy as it is the largest airline in the Middle East.

 

 

Vision

To make the experience of civil aviation flight safer for its passengers and leading and sustaining growth by focusing on providing industry-leading services (Emirates, 2017a).

Mission

To become the world leader in the aviation industry by delivering the world’s best in-flight experience to our passengers (Emirates, 2017a).

Key Issues Face by Emirates Airline

Increased Competition

Emirates Airline has provided in its announcement of half-year performance for 2017-18 that stiff competition resulted in decreasing its profits in 2017 (Emirates, 2017b). The company was under pressure to reduce its ticker prices due to fierce competition from other airline firms such as Etihad Airways, British Airways, Singapore Airlines, Lufthansa, Malaysia Airways and others. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the growing regional competition in UAE is one of the major factors that negatively affect the growth of already established airline companies such as Emirates Airline. The newest “super-contender” in the UAE aviation industry, the Turkish Airline, is a particular threat to the Emirates Airline (Dudley, 2017).

Hike in Fuel Prices

As provided in the data of IATA, the jet fuel price worldwide has increased in 2017 which negatively affected the profits of Emirates Airline (IATA, 2018). The increased fuel prices resulted in increasing the operating cost of the firm which resulted in increasing its ticket amount that adversely affected the company’s growth.

Political Issues

The aviation industry has faced negative impact of Trump administration due to the introduction of travel restriction on Muslim-majority countries called Executive Order 13769 which effect from 27th January 2017. Due to the fear of ban policies, the number of people using UAE based airlines such as Emirates Airline for visiting the Middle East has reduced. The passengers fear that they might face problems re-entering the United States after visiting Middle East (Dehghan, Otten, Ross, and Shaheen, 2017). Therefore, it negatively affected the profits of Emirates Airline as the passengers reduced. However, the number of people using UAE based flights to the US has increased which is positive for Emirates Airline (Maceda, 2017).

Analysis of External Environment

PEST Analysis

A PEST analysis is a framework which assists in scanning macro-environmental factors of a corporation that influence it business which assist top-level management in creating strategic business policies (CIPD, 2017).

 

Political Factors

There are a number of political factors that influence airline corporations that operates in Avaiation industry in UAE such as change in government regulations, foreign trade policies, environmental protection laws, taxation laws, stability of the government, terrorist activities, government attitude towards the company and others. For example, the ban imposed by the US President Donald Trump on different Muslim-majority nations resulted in negatively affecting the business of airline companies because the number of people visiting the Middle East has reduced (Parasie, 2017). The threat of terrorist attacks negatively affects the profitability of corporations because it reduces the number of travellers in the country. As per the research of Stephenson (2014), the number of travellers using UAE based flights to visit Middle East countries has reduced because of the threat of terrorist activities. The negative impact of terrorism affects the business of airline firms operating in UAE.

Economic Factors

The economic factors that influence the business of airline companies include GDP trends, income level, inflation rates, wage controls, currency convertibility and others. For example, the GDP growth of UAE has dropped significantly in 2017 (from 3.04 percent to 1.34 percent) which adversely affected the business of firms operating in the aviation industry (Figure 3) (Statista, 2018). The hike in jet fuel prices in 2017 also negatively affected the business of airline enterprises operating in UAE since it increases their operating costs 

Socio-cultural Factors

The socio-cultural factors that influence the business of airline companies in UAE include change in lifestyle, consumer activism, demography, literacy rates, population and others. As per the data of IATA, the number of travellers using airline as a mode of travelling has increased 7 percent in 2017 (IATA, 2017). This data shows a potential growth in the profits of airlines as the number of Asia-Pacific market share has grown and people prefer to pay extra for luxury travel. The Middle East market share in number of passengers has grown 9.1 percent over 2015 which is also positive for airline organisations. On the other hand, the population growth rate of the country is low (1.41 percent) in 2017, and it is increasing at a substantial slow pace. From 2016 to 2017, the population growth rate has increased from 1.26 percent to 1.41 percent, and it is expected to grow up to 1.5 percent in 2018 (Figure 5) (Worldometers, 2018). The slow growth in population negatively affects the business of airlines operating in UAE. Airline companies focus on improving their social image by investing in different charities and social causes.

Technological Factors

Various technological factors influence the business of airline companies operating in UAE such as total spending on research and development, new product innovation, energy availability, the skill level of the workforce, and others. The companies use the latest technology in its aircraft to providing high-quality luxury experience to its customers, for example, many corporations are investing in modern wide-body fleets that reduce noise and used lower engine emissions (Parmar, 2013). The airports in UAE require airlines to use carefully planned flight plan and optimise routes to save fuel and increase efficiency. Organisations invest billions of dollars in biofuel that are cost competitive, technically safe and truly sustainable (Lane, 2014). The government of UAE is focusing on building “smart cities” that use technology for providing various conveyances to public. The concept of smart airports requires airline companies to use technology in their operating such as ticket booking, passengers identification checking, flight scheduling and others. The Smart Gate technology is popular in airports of UAE which reduces the time taken in check-out and check-in for passengers (Shouk, 2017). These technological advancements assist airlines operating in UAE to improve their performance and attract customers who appreciate luxury travel experience. However, new advancement of technology in aviation sector poses a threat to the enterprise such as artificial intelligence, robotics, Blockchain, biometrics and others.

Porter’s Five Forces

The Porter’s five force model assists is analysing the competitive advantage in which a product, services or corporation works. The five forces include threat of entry, supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalry and the threat of substitutes (The Economic Times, 2018). These factors shape every industry and help in identifying its strengths and weaknesses.

Threat of new entrants

The threat of new entrants is high for Emirates Airline. The competition faced by the enterprise is increasing with the entry of new competitors in the aviation sector. The Middle East government provide various good sources of finance options to airline corporations which increases the competition for Emirates Airline. The main new competitor of the company is ‘Turkish Airline’ which is providing fierce competition to the firm due to its luxury and relatively cheap flying experience (Gazzar, 2016).

Supplier Power

The two main suppliers of Emirates Airline include Boeing and Airbus. They are the major suppliers in the aviation industry and the competition between them is considerably high. The demand of low fuel consumption and efficient aircraft is growing rapidly in the aviation industry and being the major players in the market, Boeing and Airbus are focusing on manufacturing new low-cost aircraft (Zhang, 2017). Emirates Flight Catering Co is the catering suppliers of Emirates Airline which handle its catering requirements. The company is a subsidiary of Emirates and it ensures that demand of each customer is fulfilled (CAPA, 2018). Food Point is the food production facility which offers luxury catering food services to passengers traveling with Emirates (Emirates Flight Catering, 2018). Emirates Airline has a positive relationship with the suppliers, but they can refuse to work with the firm in economic turmoil, therefore, the power of suppliers is high. 

 

Buyer Power

The bargaining power of buyer for Emirates Airline is moderate. The buyers are divided into two groups for the enterprise. The first group include individuals who purchase tickets for personal or professional travel reasons. Emirates Airline offers high-quality luxury services to its passengers and charges high ticket prices, therefore, the income level of the passengers affects the firm’s business. The second category includes travel agents that provide the facility of booking tickets to customers (Emirates, 2016). The firm is required to maintain a positive relationship by providing them discounts and offers since they promote the business of the enterprise.

Threat of Substitution

The substitution of air travel includes other modes of transportation that include bus, train, car or boat. The airline corporations have an advantage in this section since they are the fastest mode of transportation which provides benefits to the airline companies. Emirates Airline also offers high quality, luxury and comfortable travelling option to its customers which attract them towards the services of the enterprise (Emirates, 2018b). In domestic market, Etihad and Air Arabia are the substitutes of emirates airlines which also provide luxury services to customers. Therefore, the threat of substation is low for the Emirates Airline.

Competitive Rivalry

The competitive rivalry in the aviation industry is intense, and Emirates Airline faces fierce competition from established as well as new competitors. Due to huge profits and government financial support, the number of competitors in the aviation industry is increasing. According to Skytrax, Emirates Airline is the world’s fourth top airline company in 2017, Qatar Airways being the first (Skytrax, 2017). The company has dropped from its position of number one in 2016 to number four which shows the intensity of the competition in the industry.

Analysis of the Internal Environment

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis

Porter’s value chain model assists in determining the internal strengths and weaknesses of Emirates Airline.

Primary activities

Inbound Logistics

Emirates Airline has established a well-organised and effective inbound system that focuses on meeting the requirements and expectations of its passengers. The route selection procedure of the company ensures that flights are not delayed due to operational errors. The flight scheduling system ensures that allow the flights operated by the company are on time and they offer luxury services to customers. The corporation has a large fleet of aircraft which include 270 plains and pilots. Effective inbound system ensures that activities such as Experienced and skilled employees assist the organisation in effectively performing activities such as route selection, flight scheduling, crew scheduling, passenger service system and others regarding each flight is on time (O’Connell, 2011). High-quality customer services assist Emirates Airline in maintaining an effective inbound logistics system.

Operations

The main operations of Emirates Airline include gate operations, maintaining ticket offices, ticket counter and aircraft operations. The company focuses on reducing passengers’ waiting time in the airport by improving the internal operations such as baggage handling, check-ins, boarding and others. The corporation has increased the number of skilled employees in the aircraft to reduce the overall waiting time of the passengers which improve their flying experience (Wu, 2016).

Outbound Logistics

The outbound activities of the firm include flight connections, baggage system, hotel reservation and rental car system and others. The firm focuses on improving its outbound process in order to reduce the time taken by passengers during checkouts. The corporation also ensures that it gathers all the required aircraft equipment on fastest possible time to reduce flight delays (Li, Wang and Cui, 2015). Passengers choose Emirates Airline because of its high-quality services, and they appreciate the rental car and hotel reservation facilities provided by the enterprise.

Marketing and Sales

The main focus on the enterprise is providing safe and luxury flying experience to its customers, and the company use many marketing techniques to promote its motto such as advertising, travel agent programs, advantage program and others. The slogan for company’s marketing campaign is “Fly Emirates”, and the firm promotes its high-quality services through marketing campaigns. The firm has hired skilled marketing professionals who handled its brand management and ensure that the corporation maintains its positive reputation in the aviation industry (Hazledine, 2011).

Service

The firm offers three types of first-class chairs to its passengers that include a full suite with doors, horizontal bed (without doors) and sleeper seats. The company also offers various other direct services to its customers such as lodging and lunge services, luggage, check-in services and others. In addition, there are various others facilities provided by the enterprise such as Emirates sky cargo, Emirates hotels and resorts, Emirates Aviation College for new pilots and engineering centre for maintenance, repair, and training, catering, business support and many others (Plunkett, 2008). The firm also has compliant follow-up department for its passengers along with lost baggage service.

Support Activities

Firm Infrastructure

The company has implemented vertical integration arrangement that focuses on enhancing the quality of services provided to the passengers. The government of Dubai wholly owns Emirates Airline; therefore, the government supports it by providing tax incentives to the corporation. The firm ensures it complies with different local and international aviation regulations for ensuring that it provides high-quality services to its passengers. For example, the company comply with Modern Slavery Act 2015 implemented by the government of the United Kingdom for maintaining transparency in its operations. The corporation also adhered to Advanced Passenger Information which is provided by the United States Transportation Security Administration for ensuring that all the details of passengers travelling to or from the US are correct and valid (Emirates, 2018c). 

 

Human Resource Management

Emirates Airline has hired more than 64,768 employees across the globe for providing quality services to its employees and maintaining efficiency in its operations. Employees are highly trained, and they offer quality services to the passengers. The company has expert engineers, airline maintenance staff, aircraft controllers, flight deck crew, cabin crew and others. The company invest more than AED 73 million in order to provide crew training to its employees (Malta Today, 2015). The EAC Crew Training facility provide an intense 7.5 weeks training program to employees that improve their performing relating to various aspects such as cabin service, medical, emergency procedures and others. The Emirates Flight Training Academy (EETA) is an industry leading training program that provides training to aspiring pilots (Staples, 2017).

Technological Development

The company invest heavily in research and development for incorporating new technology in its aircraft to ensure that it improves quality services to its customers. For example, the company is bringing 3D printing technology for manufacturing aircraft components for aeroplane cabins (Nelson, 2017). The firm uses Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) for creating video monitor shrouds, air vent grills and other aircraft parts. The company has collaborated with Sabre Corporation to provide personalised experience to its passengers by using merchandising technology (Sabre, 2017).

Procurement

Emirates Airline invests in increasing its fleet size for becoming the industry leader in terms of aircraft number. Currently, the firm is planning to add 20 new aircraft in its fleet size from leading industry aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus (Goldstein, 2018). The emirates engineering centre also provide support and training that assists the organisation in effectively providing its services worldwide.

TOWS Matrix

 

Internal Strengths:

1. Positive reputation in the market due to effective marketing strategies developed by professionals.

2. Effective training and development programs for crew members and pilots.

3. Luxury facilities for customers such as hotels and resorts booking, rental car facility, check in check out support, catering, and others.

4. Effective marketing strategy with the assistance from professionals.

Internal Weaknesses:

1. Lack of options for middle or low-class traveller as the company has only three expensive seating options available.

2. Difficulty in retaining employees in the industry.

3. Due to slow procurement strategy, fleet size of Emirates is low (270) than compared to competitors like American Airlines (1,556).

4. High operating cost due to luxury services, T&D programs and investment in new technology.

External Opportunities:

1. Increase market share by expanding its fleet size, for example, planning to add 20 new aircraft.

2. Innovative technology advancement in aviation industry for reducing operating costs, manufacturing fuel-efficient aircraft and others.

3. Financial support from the government of Dubai.

4. The company can use advanced technology in value chain operations such as 3D printing technology and customised fare system for improving efficiency.

SO (Maxi-Maxi)

1. Using modern technology to reduce the cost of operations by manufacturing fuel-efficient aircraft.

2. Using effective human resource management strategies to improving outbound services such as faster check-out.

3. Taking financial help from the government of Dubai to increase the fleet size.

4. Introducing cheaper flights with quality services to passengers for increasing the market share and using effective marketing techniques for promoting such offers.

WO (Mini-Maxi)

1. The company can tackle its competitors by offering new competitive priced seat options for passengers.

2. High operating cost can be reduced by use of modern technology and effective outbound procedures.

External Threats:

1. Change in political environment, for example, travel ban on Muslim-majority nations due to Trump administration.

2. Fierce competition from new and established competitors like Turkish Airline and Quarter Airways.

3. Slow procurement strategy of the enterprise.

4. Increase in Jet Fuel price.

5. Rapid increase in low-cost airlines.

ST (Maxi-Mini)

1. Strong brand image and highly skilled labour can assist Emirates in proving strong competition to competitors.

2. The company can take funding from the government of Dubai for improving its procurement strategy and increasing its fleet size.

WT (Mini-Mini)

1. Using modern technology to increase the efficiency of inbound and outbound processes of the firm for reducing operating costs and tackling competition.

2. Increasing the investment in biofuel for tackling the issue of increased fuel prices.

Recommended strategies

Based on TOWS Matrix, Emirates Airline can adopt different strategies for enhancing its market share and performance of the enterprise such as diversification, market penetration, product development and market development. Following are different maxi-maxi and maxi-mini strategies for Emirates Airline which is based on its TOWS matrix which can assist it in expanding its business and sustaining its future growth.

Maxi-Maxi Strategies

  • Taking financial help from Dubai Government for expanding its business in emerging markets such as China and India.
  • Use of 3D printing technology for manufacturing cheaper airline parts.
  • Emirates can improve its inbound and outbound facility by improving its human resource management services which enables them to provide faster check-in and check-out services (Alzughoul, 2010).
  • Introduction of new cheaper flight options, especially in emerging markets, can assist the organisation in expanding its business and increasing its customer base.

Maxi-Mini Strategies

  • The company can use its strong and positive brand image to capture new emerging markets and expand its customer base.
  • In order to offer cheaper flight options, the firm can take financial assistance from the government of Dubai for improving its procurement strategy. The company can purchase new aircraft and use them to offer relatively lower flight options to its customers. It will assist the corporation in expanding its market and gain a competitive advantage over its competitors.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Emirates Airline is one of the leading airline firms which offer luxury services to its passengers. The corporation focuses on providing safe and luxury flying experience to its passengers. The company is facing various issues such as fierce competition, increased fuel prices, and changing political environment. Porter’s five force and PEST analysis were conducted in the report for evaluating different factors that affect the company’s business such as suppliers’ bargaining power, increase in number of low-cost flights, rapid changes in technology and others. Emirates Airline has established an effective value chain framework that focuses on providing quality services to passengers and increasing efficiency of operations. High competition, increasing fuel prices, changing technology and unstable political environment require the organisation to revamp its business strategies. The firm can offer low-cost flight options to increase its customer base; expand its fleet size by taking financial help from Dubai’s government. It can use the latest technology for improving the fuel efficiency of aircraft and implement effective marketing strategy for increasing its market share. These strategies can assist Emirates Airline in expanding its market and sustaining its future growth. 

 

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Zhang, B. (2017) Boeing has been eating Airbus's lunch this year and $42 billion in new deals this week confirms it. [Online] Business Insider. Available at: https://www.businessinsider.in/Boeing-has-been-eating-Airbuss-lunch-this-year-and-42-billion-in-new-deals-this-week-confirms-it/articleshow/61665339.cms [Accessed 8 March 2018].

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