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These challenges are posed within the subject topics. You will be able to practise these activities in class each week.

Each leadership challenge has a question for you to address. Your response to the challenge must be substantial, demonstrating that you can apply knowledge from the topic in a critical way. There isn’t usually one correct answer to these challenges; hence, the scope for critical thought. 

References are required: citations within the body of the text, and a reference list. At least three professional or academic references must be included at the end of each leadership challenge addressed.

The Fiedler Contingency Model

According to the Contingency theory, there is no best way to lead an organization. Instead, the action that is to be taken is contingent or dependant on the internal aspects and external aspects of a situation (Uhl-Bien et al., 2014). The Fiedler Contingency Model was developed in 1958 by Professor F.E.Fiedler in his work ‘Leader Attitudes and Group Effectiveness.’

According to Professor F.E.Fiedler, leadership is fixed and it can be measured using a scale that Professor F.E.Fiedler developed which is called the Least Preferred Co –Worker (LPC) scale. The scale asks a person to contemplate and think about a person whom one has enjoyed the least working with. A person is then asked to rate how one feels about this person in various factors and then add up the scores. Low LPC- leaders are said to be very effective in completing tasks. They tend to organize people in a group very quickly and efficiently to get the job done. Low LPC leaders do not place much emphasis on building relationships with leaders and co –workers. High LPC leaders on the other hand give a lot of attention to building relationships with leaders and co – workers and they are good at evading conflict (Day et al., 2014).  According to this model, a high score means that one focuses more on relationships and a low score implies that one is naturally task-focused. Sundar Pichai, the CEO of Google belongs to the second group wherein he is more task – focused.

Conclusion

One of the biggest limitations of this Fiedler Contingency Model is that it does not allow any scope for flexibility The Least preferred co – worker scale is also subjective and characteristics are relative to contexts. According to Fiedler, the Least preferred Co-worker Scale is valid only for groups that are always under supervision rather than open groups, such as teams. To conclude, one can say that there is no one best way of doing things and different situations calls for different solutions for handling an issue. (Jansen et al., 2016).

Day, D. V., Fleenor, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Sturm, R. E., & McKee, R. A. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 63-82.

Jansen, J. J., Kostopoulos, K. C., Mihalache, O. R., & Papalexandris, A. (2016). A Socio?Psychological Perspective on Team Ambidexterity: The Contingency Role of Supportive Leadership Behaviours. Journal of Management Studies, 53(6), 939-965.

Uhl-Bien, M., Riggio, R. E., Lowe, K. B., & Carsten, M. K. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 83-104.

Followership is the opposite of leadership. Followership is essential because not much work is done in an organization if there is no followership. Good followers have a plethora of good qualities, which include judgement. Good judgement is necessary in order to be an excellent follower. If a follower has a good judgement, then chances of that follower becoming a leader is greater (DuBois et al.,2014).

Good followers tend to have a good work ethic. They are conscientious, hardworking people who are also perfectionists, like the CEO of Google, Sundar Pichai. Followers should also be competent to follow instructions of the leader. A follower should also be honest, both as a person and also when it comes voicing one’s opinions. Good leaders are grateful if their team gives them constructive criticism. Followers should also have the courage to voice their opinions and confront a leader if he or she feels that the leader is going wrong somewhere. Followers should also have discretion. Followers should also be loyal and have a strong sense of commitment towards the organization that he/she is working in and also a commitment towards an organization’s goals, like Sundar Pichai, the CEO of Google who thinks more about the welfare of his organization than his personal welfare. He was initially a great follower, who was extremely humble before he turned into a great leader and the CEO of Google (Epitropaki et al., 2017).

Limitations of the Fiedler Contingency Model

Conclusion:

To conclude, one can say that followers should also learn how to manage their egos. Followers should first think about the welfare of the company rather than personal recognition. For them, what matters most is the success of the organization rather than personal recognition. Thus there are no leaders without followers (Garcia, 2017).

DuBois, M., Koch, J., Hanlon, J., Nyatuga, B., & Kerr, N. (2015). Leadership Styles of Effective Project Managers: Techniques and Traits to Lead High Performance Teams. Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance & Marketing, 7(1).

Epitropaki, O., Kark, R., Mainemelis, C., & Lord, R. G. (2017). Leadership and followership identity processes: A multilevel review. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), 104-129.

Garcia, M. (2017). Followers’ Perspective Does Matter!(Follow up to You Have What? Personality! Traits that Predict Leadership Styles for Elementary Principals). J Psychol Psychother, 7(309), 2161-0487.

Raymond Cattell, developed the Leadership Potential equation in 1954. This model which was initially based on a study of military leaders, is now used to determine the traits of a good leader. A good leader should have the following traits which include, honesty, conscientiousness, emotional stability, enthusiasm, assertiveness, having a tough mind and being self-assured (Leroy et al., 2015).

Good leaders should be honest and also a good person from within, setting an example to all those who look up to him. A good leader should also be emotionally stable and be able to tolerate frustration, stress, anxiety etc. A good leader should also be assertive in their thoughts and actions. A good leader is also enthusiastic. A good leader is also conscientious, hardworking and a perfectionist.

In addition to these qualities, “a good leader should also have high energy. A leader usually works for long hours and may have to travel extensively for work” (Jansen et al., 2017). Therefore a good leader should have high levels of energy and stay alert and focused and be energetic. A good leader should also be intuitive. A good leader should also be mature and should realize that collectively one can do a lot of things and should realize that one can achieve more by empowering others rather than simply ruling others. A good leader should also be a good team player. A good leader should also be empathetic and non-judgmental. A leader should also be confident in order to ensure that others follow him. A good leader should also be able to inspire others and ensure that they give their best. If a leader is successful in inspiring his subordinates no challenge would be too big to conquer. A good leader should also be committed and passionate about his work, thereby setting a good example for his employees. A good leader should also be a good communicator. A good leader should also be able to make the right decision at the right time. A good leader should also be creative and innovative. Thus, a good leader is one who possesses all the above qualities and more. A good leader should be honest and straightforward and be a good human being.

Conclusion:

Followership in organization

To conclude, it can be said that an example of a leader who exemplifies all the above characteristics and traits, is Pichai Sundararajan, also known as Sundar Pichai, who is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Google. Low LPC- leaders are said to be very effective in completing tasks. They tend to organize people in a group very quickly and efficiently to get the job done. Low LPC leaders do not place much emphasis on building relationships with co –workers and are very effective in completing all tasks. Sundar Pichai is therefore a low LPC leader who is very effective in getting the work done (Lord et al., 2017)

 Prior to being a good leader, one has to be a good follower. Before Sundar Pichai was appointed to be the CEO of Google, he was a good follower, who was conscientious and had a lot of team spirit and was a bright and an efficient employee at Google before he became a leader

The leader as an individual is also a good team player and Sundar Pichai exemplifies this trait which is very essential to being a good leader. He leads his team from the front, but yet he is very humble. He is a good team player who gets along very well with his colleagues (Srivastava, 2017).

Sundar Pichai is a leader who believes in empathy, the mark of a true leader. Sundar Pichai is also a good listener who listens to all the problems of his colleagues patiently and then tries to help them. Sundar Pichai is also open to learning, the mark of a good leader (Srivastava, 2017).  He is open to suggestions and takes constructive criticism well. Sundar Pichai is also an enthusiastic leader, which is another quality of a good leader. Last but not the least, Sundar Pichai thinks more about the success and welfare of his company and its employees first, rather than thinking about himself, a true sign of a great leader.

Jansen, J. J., Kostopoulos, K. C., Mihalache, O. R., & Papalexandris, A. (2016). A Socio?Psychological Perspective on Team Ambidexterity: The Contingency Role of Supportive Leadership Behaviours. Journal of Management Studies, 53(6), 939-965.

Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. L., & Sels, L. (2015). Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study. Journal of Management, 41(6), 1677-1697.

Lord, R. G., Day, D. V., Zaccaro, S. J., Avolio, B. J., & Eagly, A. H. (2017). Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 434.

Srivastava, D. S. (2017). Digital India–Major Initiatives and their Impact-A Critical Analysis. ELK Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Retail Management, 8(3), 1-10.

References:

Antonakis, J., & Day, D. V. (Eds.). (2017). The nature of leadership. Sage publications.

Day, D. V., Fleenor, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Sturm, R. E., & McKee, R. A. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 63-82.

De Hoogh, A. H., Greer, L. L., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2015). Diabolical dictators or capable commanders? An investigation of the differential effects of autocratic leadership on team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(5), 687-701.

DuBois, M., Koch, J., Hanlon, J., Nyatuga, B., & Kerr, N. (2015). Leadership Styles of Effective Project Managers: Techniques and Traits to Lead High Performance Teams. Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance & Marketing, 7(1).

Epitropaki, O., Kark, R., Mainemelis, C., & Lord, R. G. (2017). Leadership and followership identity processes: A multilevel review. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), 104-129.

Garcia, M. (2017). Followers’ Perspective Does Matter!(Follow up to You Have What? Personality! Traits that Predict Leadership Styles for Elementary Principals). J Psychol Psychother, 7(309), 2161-0487.

Jansen, J. J., Kostopoulos, K. C., Mihalache, O. R., & Papalexandris, A. (2016). A Socio?Psychological Perspective on Team Ambidexterity: The Contingency Role of Supportive Leadership Behaviours. Journal of Management Studies, 53(6), 939-965.

Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. L., & Sels, L. (2015). Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study. Journal of Management, 41(6), 1677-1697.

Lord, R. G., Day, D. V., Zaccaro, S. J., Avolio, B. J., & Eagly, A. H. (2017). Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 434.

Srivastava, D. S. (2017). Digital India–Major Initiatives and their Impact-A Critical Analysis. ELK Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Retail Management, 8(3), 1-10.

Steffens, N. K., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., & Mols, F. (2018). Our followers are lions, theirs are sheep: how social identity shapes theories about followership and social influence. Political Psychology, 39(1), 23-42.

Uhl-Bien, M., Riggio, R. E., Lowe, K. B., & Carsten, M. K. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 83-104.

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