The aim of the write-up is to provide annotated bibliographies on two research materials provided in the assignment and to give an overview or a brief understanding of both the articles.
The first article is on “servant leadership and serving culture” stating how to initiate and help improve the growth of servant leadership by leading others by example.
The second article is on development of transformational leadership, which focuses on training effectiveness and the response of the leaders undergoing training to the different training techniques. It also opens up avenues for future research is respect of the effects of the findings of the tests as also the performative aspects of the samples. The nature of the sample, the effectives of the suitable hypothesis, the reviews of the participants as well as their feedback is studied throughout the entire study.
Reason why Writing Annotated Bibliography is an Important Skill
Annotated bibliographies elaborate the research that has already been conducted on a specific topic or subject. In case of relatively large projects, it is comparatively difficult to understand whether certain sources are relevant to the study or not. Annotated bibliographies help to justify the usefulness of a particular article, which is being investigated. The process of writing the bibliographies also help to hone the analytical and judgement skills. The quality of the annotated bibliographies helps relate to the usefulness and relevance of the researched sources. It also helps to create a connection between the write-up and the literary or other sources cited.
Article 1 Name: “Servant Leadership and Serving Culture: Influence on Individual and Unit Performance”
Article Citation: Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.
Review of Article 1
The article focuses on transformational leadership development and contextual factor identification to explain the variation in reactions of the leaders to different leadership training inventions. The aim of the article is to ascertain how the behavioural and psychological changes come about in the leaders undergoing the special leadership training. The gap in understanding is addressed by exploring the difference between leaders’ reactions in cases when they respond to training and their behaviour improves and also in cases where their behaviour does not show improvement.
Social cognitive theory states that there is a framework to ascertain the relationship and understand the change in psychological behavioural attributes, which is actually a prevalent “triadic bidirectional interaction” between behaviour, personal characteristics and the environment. There is a change in those attributes of the leaders undergoing training which are directly correlated with changes in leadership behaviour. Certain behavioural characteristics like self-efficacy, perspective taking abilities, positive affect and so on. The procedure of training on transformational leadership consisted of one year and several training points on which the participants were trained. The participants learned about the “transformational leadership model” and received “360 degree feedback” of the programme. The training program was extensive and concentrated on a number of factors, which were taught to the participants, and their responses were analysed by suitable questionnaires.
To understand the results of the training programme and the effective responses several tests were conducted. The t-tests did not reveal any significant difference between either pre-training or post training measures. Workshops were conducted to focus on “transformational leadership behaviour”, “leader perspective taking”, “leader self efficacy” and the analyses were discussed. Apart from the t-tests which were conducted to understand change, “hierarchical regression analysis” was also performed to test the change in leaders’ behaviour and understand the correlation between the previous and desired characteristics in the participating individuals. Since the sample on which the analysis was done, was quite small, each of the psychological attributes were analysed separately. The correlations were hardly significant and there was just a slight improvement in leaders pre and post training.
There are different avenues for future research and they should focus on those areas, which have not produced sufficient results on first round of investigation. The sample investigated for example is not a great representative in the sense that it is more or less even throughout the sample. Testing of hypothesis and hierarchical regression analysis can be carried out for a better representative sample. Future investigation can be conducted in cases of efficacy of the leaders, their reaction to different methods of training etc.
Article 2 name: “Transformational Leadership Development: Connecting psychological and behavioral change”
Article citation: Claire Mason, Mark Griffin, Sharon Parker, (2014) "Transformational leadership development: Connecting psychological and behavioral change", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 35 Iss: 3, pp.174 - 194
Review of Article 2
This article focuses on “servant leadership” and “effective servant leadership” in connection to promoting the growth of new and effective servant leaders. These leaders put others’ needs above their own and help motivate followers and help prioritize fulfilment. On the basis of research it can be stated that servant leadership is related to outcomes like good moral conduct, effective relationship with customers, setting a good example for followers and so on. Research shows that servant leadership is related to organizational citizenship behaviour, job attitudes and performance. It also affects outcomes at the work or team unit level.
To help facilitate the study sample is collected and analysed, tests of hypothesis are conducted on the sample data and the results are analysed. The first hypothesis of interest is that “store manager servant leadership is positively related to serving culture”. The second hypothesis of relevance is “serving culture is positively related to store performance” the other hypothesis are related to “serving culture mediation”, “serving culture and employee identification”, “store manager and servant behaviour relationship” “relation of employee identification with in-role creativity, customer service behaviour and turnover intentions”, “serving performance is positively related to employee in role performance, creativity, customer service behaviour, turnover intentions”.
A model is prepared taking the store level variables as “store manager servant leadership”, “serving culture”, “store performance” and the individual level variables “employee identification with the store”, “in-role performance”, “creativity”, “customer service behaviour”, “turnover intentions”. The model is estimated and data aggregation and levels of analysis are discussed. The results of the hypothesis at 95% level of significance are discussed and given in the table. In this analysis, the sample is more representative in the sense that data is taken from five sources. Hence the results are quite reliable and the chances of bias were greatly reduced.
Many trends in organisation all around the globe, point to the fact that servant leadership will be more relevant progressively. Servant leadership is at just a nascent stage of development, but there are several avenues for future research and development. Servant leadership has the potential to prove its worth and implement itself in several avenues of customer and relationship management. This cannot be done, if attention is not given to the underlying mechanisms that govern attitudinal outcomes.
A careful study of both the articles shows that, transformational leadership and servant leadership are very important and contemporary concepts in the present scenario.
A transformational leader is someone who sets an example by his virtues and his leadership qualities. The transformational leadership movement helps to analyse the response of the leaders to their training programme and the growth or decline in their attitudinal and psychological attributes is tested. The aim of this development programme is to ascertain the useful leadership interventions necessary to improve the overall development of a transformational leader.
The concept of servant leadership helps in developing a promise for effective social identity and being an ideal role model for future followers. Thus, it can be concluded that, “transformational leadership” and “servant leadership” both are key ideas for revolutionary transformation in leading by example. Several avenues for future research, open up new possibilities in both these fields.
Claire Mason, Mark Griffin, Sharon Parker, (2014) "Transformational leadership development: Connecting psychological and behavioral change", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 35 Iss: 3, pp.174 - 194
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.