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1. How can transportation safety advocates use instrumental conditioning to change consumer behaviour of adults 18+ in Ontario to reduce the incidence of driving while high?

2. Design a persuasive campaign to change attitudes and behavior about drug-impaired driving.

a. What type of argument will you use when constructing this campaign? Using textbook theory, how will you present your argument? Why will your choice be the most effective?

b. What type of message appeal will you choose and why? Will your campaign feature more visual or more verbal messaging? Why?

c. When considering the message source for your campaign, what will be the best way to deliver the message? For example, will you enlist a well-known person to help make the points in the campaign? If yes, name the person (note: big name celebrities are unlikely to be cost effective for an Ontario based campaign) and justify the credibility and attractiveness of your message source. If no, explain what message source will be used and why it will be effective.

d. What media (e.g. radio, out of home, print, digital, social media, etc.) will you use for the campaign? Why and how will you use it?
 

Deductive type of argument based on real scientific facts and incidents

1. The case of driving while high on cannabis is reported to be increasing in Ontario after the legalization of cannabis in Canada. Younger adults are found to be more engaged in this form of behaviour as they find themselves to be in a relaxed and highly conscious state after inhaling cannabis and perceive as a safer option compared to alcohol. However, the report suggests that the driver’s risk of facing a car crash under the influence of cannabis are as high as 30%.Instrumental conditioning here can be beneficial for transportation safety department to advocate about the consequences of driving under the influence of cannabis. The cognition that takes place within an individual through effective instrumental conditioning is far more effective in changing the perception and behaviour than any other means. The instrumental or operant conditioning plays a major role in instigating to avoid a certain kind of behaviours that are most likely to yield negative outcomes. As demonstrated by the psychologist BF Skinner, instrumental conditioning involves a different pattern of the learning process by systematically rewarding for the desired behaviour. Also the operant conditioning involves two factors which influences an individual behaviour- negative reinforcement and punishment. While campaigning the transportation safety can utilise negative reinforcement to associate the behaviour of driving while high on cannabis with severe accidents and worst of all death. Alternatively, if an individual is caught for continuing such behaviour, strict punishment would be arranged that can lead as an example for others who drive while high. Furthermore, the desired behaviour of driving without being high can be instilled among the 18+ adults over some time through this negative reinforcement and punishment, a process that can be related to shaping. Producing information about the incidents that resulted in grieve consequences of individuals after driving high and also punishments of those who violated the regulation are likely to influence individual behaviour. Therefore the thought process will be shaped when an individual takes a step for not driving after smoking cannabis which is the desired behaviour for protecting their own life.  

2.a. While constructing this campaign of awaking the population about adverse effects of driving high on cannabis several arguments can be produced based on real scientific facts and incidents. By researching and gathering relevant data, a deductive type of argument is mostly preferred to be presented to the viewers. This means the transport department advocates would try to validate their statement of risks while high on cannabis by producing results that expose the truth of the conclusion. Behavioural learning theory can be incorporated within this campaigning. Here learning takes place as a result of responses from external events, opposite of thought process. The primary intoxicant THC can be detected by the transportation authority after blood test and some legal actions can be taken. The campaign should mention the punishments of such acts and warn about its consequences. By taking strict actions against the guilty drivers and setting example for others can shape behaviour of other drivers. While constructing the campaign, this theory is expected to be beneficial as punishing them would influence others behaviour of restricting its use while driving. The campaign should solely focus on changing the behaviour of cannabis users by restricting them to drive while high. Cognitive learning theory, therefore, can be utilised for presenting the argument that signifies the internal mental processes of an individual. By tweaking the perspective and views of people regarding driving under the influence of cannabis, the campaign is expected to instigate driver from avoiding it. As the arguments will be deductive and based on real scientific facts and incidents, it is most likely to warn the population with the associated danger and encourage to use their thinking for knowing its adverse effects or consequences. Cognitive learning encourages people to actively participate in a thinking process influenced by the information from the surrounding environment. The campaign will produce the information such as international crash collision studies between 1982 and 2015 which showed the increase in the car crash after cannabis use is 30% as compared to normal drivers along with some real incident that took place. It would further mention the guideline by the Canadian Centre for Addiction and Mental Health which recommends drivers to wait for six hours after using cannabis. Such information does not discourage the population from using the substance but only not to drive under its influence. These facts would instigate the population for thinking personally how much it is important for one to be alert while driving and why is it important to follow the campaign message for own safety. This is the most effective choice for presenting an argument in a campaign as it does not push the concerned individuals for blindly following the safety instructions. Additionally, it will make them think on their own by comparing to the facts and real incidents to understand deeply what this campaign wants to convey and how one can be responsible for their safety and others by not driving under the influence of cannabis. 

Incorporation of behavioral and cognitive learning theories

2.b. The consequence of driving under the influence of cannabis is widely associated with risking one owns life and others who rely on that driver. Therefore a mix of fear and emotional message appeal should be produced within the campaigning by which it would target an individual social and psychological need for abiding the desired behaviours. Drive theory and expectancy theory both can be related with the selected mode of message appeal. Drive theory mainly focuses on the unpleasant states that are instigated by biological needs. Some people find joy in getting high however driving in such states increase the likelihood of car crash. The campaign would appeal for avoiding the feel of euphoric stated during driving and fear the consequence of severe and traumatic accidents and even death is some cases. Further the expectancy theory is inclined towards motivation aspect of cognitive factors. The concerned individuals should be emotionally motivated to participate in the cognitive learning process and start taking the campaigning message on a serious note. The theory will be effective as the appeals work by providing information on the negative consequences that are expected to occur unless an individual changes their attitude or behaviour regarding cannabis use and diving. Both drive theory and expectancy theory is expected to encourage the population into knowing the safer option while driving and minimizing the threat of severe consequences. The awareness spreading campaign would feature more visual messaging and minimum of verbal messaging. Mostly the visual messaging is preferred as the platform for sharing messages are higher in case of visual and also have the potential of grabbing the attention of a large number of population. According to the research, 93% of all human communication is made up in visual. This implies visual content have a greater reach and can be processed faster by a human brain. Visual content is more understandable, influence human emotions and appeals to the senses of a targeted audience. For instance, producing short video clips can be broadcasted over Ontario with few verbal messages can effectively help in spreading the message ‘Don’t Drive High’.

2.c. The message source of the campaigning is based on Ontario and since budget is limited, some small time professional working in video and graphics editing is likely to be selected for conveying the message. By approaching these medium of short video and graphical animation to spread the message would be highly beneficial in achieving the desired behaviour among young adults. Trait theory is an approach to measure identifiable characteristics that define personality. The behaviour of people are distinguished by the different traits. The campaigning message aims at delivering public self-consciousness related to driving while high and state the need for cognition. Message sources like short video clips and info graphics over social media platforms are also expected to produce effective results as 97% of young adults are engaged in different social media platforms. Here trait theory suggests that behaviour of people are mostly instigated by video and graphics which can be utilised within the present campaigning to influence their behaviour. A lot of reasoning will be created, for instance, how cannabis impair the ability to drive are going to be explained by showing its adverse effects over motor skills, balance and coordination, judgment, attention, decision making ability and reaction time. All these needs to be instilled among the young adults by tweaking their cognition process. Therefore the cognition theory comes into action as people will relate with the validated facts and trigger their own though process for altering their own set of behaviours.

Fear and emotional message appeals for changing behavior

2.d. Based on the above discussion about the sources of the message, the media platform that are mainly going to be used for the campaigning is various digital platforms such as social media, broadcasting over radio and television along with print in daily newspapers, posters, billboards and posters advertisements. The mentioned digital platforms will mostly comprise visual contents and going to be consumed by the young adults as the percentage of using these platforms are high among them. Contents in form of a cartoon or some added effects in the video are likely to catch the attention of the targeted people. Social media platform such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and other popular application is an indispensable part of young adults. By approaching the application of classical conditioning, the campaigning messages is expected to be effective in the chosen medium. In the form of advertising in the social media platforms the messages can be broadcasted for conditioning and shaping the behaviour of the individual who perceives driving being high is safe. However, attention will be on radio and television too as they also contribute to spreading news and other messages. Radio will particularly use verbal message approach which can be played in between advertisement. In the television, few different short clippings will be used for the campaign to broadcast and warn about the consequences and also state alternatives. The campaign is expected to gain maximum attention from the young adults and encourage them to drive attentively without being influenced by cannabis.

Asbridge, Mark, C. M. Wickens, R. E. Mann, and J. L. Cartwright. "Alcohol, cannabis and new drivers." Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida(2016).

Capler, Rielle, D. Bilsker, K. Van Pelt, and D. MacPherson. "Cannabis use and driving: evidence review." Burnaby (BC): Simon Fraser University, Canadian Drug Policy Coalition(2017).

Harper, Sam, and Adam Palayew. "The annual cannabis holiday and fatal traffic crashes." Injury Prevention (2019): injuryprev-2018.

Hartman, Malcolm, David Lasry, Ahmad U. Khan, Howie Wu, Shehzad Kassam, Alexander Wong, Owen Litwin et al. "Canadian Federation of Medical Students Position Statement on Recreational Cannabis Legalization." (2018).

Jonah, Brian A., and Paul Boase. "Speeding and Other Risky Driving Behavior among Young Drivers." Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy, and Directions(2016).

Monfort, Samuel S. "Effect of Recreational Marijuana Sales on Police-Reported Crashes in Colorado, Oregon, and Washington." (2018).

Robertson, Robyn D., Heather Woods-Fry, and Kara Morris. Cannabis & road safety: Policy challenges. 2016.

Solomon, Michael R., Katherine White, Dahren William Dahl, Judith Lynne Zaichkowsky, and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being. Boston, MA, USA:: Pearson, 2017.

Stockings, Emily, Wayne D. Hall, Michael Lynskey, Katherine I. Morley, Nicola Reavley, John Strang, George Patton, and Louisa Degenhardt. "Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people." The Lancet Psychiatry 3, no. 3 (2016): 280-296.

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My Assignment Help (2020) Essay: Don't Drive High - Campaign For Raising Awareness About Cannabis's Driving Risks. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bu652-consumer-behaviour-for-transportation-safety-department
[Accessed 19 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Essay: Don't Drive High - Campaign For Raising Awareness About Cannabis's Driving Risks.' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bu652-consumer-behaviour-for-transportation-safety-department> accessed 19 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Essay: Don't Drive High - Campaign For Raising Awareness About Cannabis's Driving Risks. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 19 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bu652-consumer-behaviour-for-transportation-safety-department.

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