$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Building And Managing Information Systems

tag 61 Downloads13 Pages 3,080 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT


You are in charge of IT planning for your company. What planning method would you use and why? Evaluate prototyping and why it is used. How do you determine when to use prototyping on your project? What are three advantages and three disadvantages of prototyping? How would you go about using the IS function for security in a corporation with regards to the Internet? Give examples of the measures and technologies you would use.



In this paper, the finer points of Management Information System will be explained, touching upon the significant changes that Information Technology has brought about in the structural and the functional level of the organisation. An enquiry will also be conducted on the necessity of implementing Information Technology at the CEO level.

The progress achieved by Information Technology has given birth to several tools adept at the effective management of information. Thus business houses have come to rely on information systems for the storage, management and analysis of data, Information system, a collection of several sub-systems that work together to achieve the tasks of collecting, store, managing, retrieving, distributing and transferring of information (Burke, 1980). Information Systems aid business grow their productivity by enhancing the operational efficiency of their business operations through the automation of vital informational procedures. He is also of the opinion that business mangers become more effective with their information demands are satisfied by information system.

Subsystems of Information System

 Information System function has penetrated very deep into the organisational structure of large business houses across multi- functional levels such as Marketing, Finance, Human Resources, Research and Development. The information demanded varies with the organisational levels (Layton, 2007). Different business levels like strategic, operational and planning level require subsystems of Information system in order to have their demand for information satisfied. The various subsystems are listed below (Burke, 1980):

  • Management Information System (MIS): Management information system provides a summary of the data to the middle level management for business level activities. It has information collected from the various internal sources, the transaction process systems for example.

  • Decision Support System (DSS): Decision Support Systems are made to help the top management to make decision at uncertain situations. It points out the possible outcomes of the various decisions using a pre-defined set of logic. Spread sheets and databases are used to create the what-if models.
  • Knowledge Management System (KMS): Knowledge Management Systems are designed to aid business to help organisations in the creation and sharing of information. Employees create the knowledge using their own expertise and communicate it to the organisation.

  • Expert System (ES): An expert system is one computer program that simulates the knowledge of experts. It is also known as Artificial Intelligence.

  • Executive Information System (EIS): Executive Support System aids senior managers for strategic decision making. This information system displays the statuses of all critical business activities. It features large information analysis and thus facilitates strategic decision making (Aitken 2000). It is thus, that is comprises of information from both external and internal sources. Internal sources consists of information gathered from the information systems whereas external sources have external data collected though e-commerce actions, external marketing analysis etc.

  • Transaction Processing System (TPS): Transaction Processing Systems processes the routine activities and transactions in an automated and efficient manner. The automacy increases the accurateness of the information. An organisation typically consists of numerous recurring transactions (Anderson 1999). Examples of Transaction Processing System are the Billing system, inventory management system, payroll management system, etc.

  • Accounting Information System (AIS): The accounting information system (AIS) helps an organisation in the collection, storing, retrieval and reporting of financial data for the use of professionals such as charter accountants, tax consultants, business analysts etc.


Information systems influence the organisations in which they work and is also in turn influenced by the organisation (Burke, 1980). Once a new information system is introduced, the structure, goal, work design and value design of the organisation also gets affected. The information must made in such a way it  caters to the demands of the various organisational groups and is also shaped by the unique features of the organisation such as its culture, vision, activities and policy (Anderson 1992). It should cut down the costs of transaction and agent. Information System should also be such that it provides managerial support to plan, organise, decide and control the various departments.  It should facilitate speed and accuracy in the monitoring, planning and forecasting process (Layton, 2007).

Information Systems in aiding business level strategy helps the business become low cost operators and effectively differentiate products and achieve a healthier relationship. It establishes achieve a great customer/supplier relationship through the use of customer response and supply chain management tools (Layton, 2007). Further, at the firm level strategy, information system facilitates the achievement of new efficiencies for better services (Austen 2006). At an industry level, Information Systems can attain a competitive advantage through the creation of a platform with the other businesses in the field for sharing information and facilitating easier co-ordination and transaction (Layton, 2007).

With the advent of IT revolution in the current decade, the inevitable structuring of all things correlating to it has become a living part of our society. As per the Cadbury recommendation, the chief executive has a pivotal role in any organization. The Information Security functioning has a tremendous effect on am organization. It also has its roots deeply spread on a wider role as it is necessary for any successful utilization of resources be it finance, human or physical. At the highest level connectivity is as important as innovation. It may be safe to say that at a CEO level information system will provide the necessary connection that will take the organization forward towards the goal of achieving a global exposure.

As per the recent journals, the best method to be implemented for the best results would be the management information system. A system that automates the results, analyses the data and generates reports (Heinrich, 2002).

Information Technology planning is of crucial importance when it comes to the success of any business organisation because it gives the business a sense of direction and connects to different business processes (Burke 1980). It helps the organisation further by reducing cost implications and minimizing wastage of time in the review process and the implementation of lifecycles of recent Information Technology resources (Beltran 1998). It ensures efficient allocation of the Information Technology resources, facilitates better flow of information in the Information Technology department (Heinrich, 2002). Financial and Information Technology departments also get better connected and co-ordinated.

In choosing an Information Technology plan for my company, I select the Plan-Driven method over the Agile development method (Baase 1996). The Plan-Method concentrates on making plans for the future. It outlines the steps and the features in a manner that everything can be traced and minute attention is paid to the details. This variety of documentation and planning leads to greater standards and minimal interruption even if any important staff leaves the company (Beekman et al 2002). The organisational requirement is analysed by the head of the organisation and using information systems coupled with software product, he tries bringing forth solutions to meet these business requirements.

The areas where Plan-Method scores over the Agile Development method are given below (Burke, 1980):

  • Customer Needs: The plan method takes more time at the front end stage of development thus understanding customer needs and translating them to system level requirements (Blatner et al 1998). The customers are attended to by the client site team which facilities the learning of their needs, preferences and a further verification of these with the customers and then sends them for off-shore development (Bureau of labor statistics 2007). This is a formal, well-documented procedure.

  • The Agile Development method, however devotes lesser time at frontal development processes and instead depends upon constant communication with the customer as the development process continues (Eisenberg 2007). Thus changes need to be incorporated continuously and is too flexible to be efficient. Also developers may fail to understand the customer requirement.

  • Co-operation among various sites: The Plan Development processes are designed in a manner that they can function with multiple site locations. Standardisation of communication is done to facilitate accountability for task assigned among the team members (Divis 2003).

  • Agile Development Method however is individual centric, lacking in structure and dependant on informal communication.

The Plan Method aims at getting timely solutions. It formalizes the system of documentation in the retention of knowledge thus providing seamless co-ordination between management team and the customer to bring about products that meet all customer requirements (Heinrich, 2002).



Prototyping is referred to as the process to build a model in the system (Englander 2000). With respect to information system, the employment of prototypes are done for helping the designers of system for building a system of information that is intuitive in nature and easy for manipulating the end users (Burke, 1980). Prototyping is referred to as a process that is iterative in nature that is a significant part in the phase of analysis related to the life cycle for the development of systems (Layton 2007). In the duration of the portion for determination of requirements related to the phase for analysis of systems, the analysts of system have been gathering information regarding the present procedures of organization and the processes of business and current procedures of the organization in relation to the system of information being proposed, if there is an involvement of one, and conducting the interviews of user and the documentation being collected (Layton, 2007). This has contributed in helping the analysts for the development of an initial combination of requirements in the system. Prototyping can result in augmenting these as there is conversion of these basic, yet these are somewhat intangible (Layton, 2007). There are specification in the tangible ones but restricted model to work with respect to the desired system of information (Viskovic et al 2008). These feedback of used gained from the development of a physical system that the users should be coming in touch, and a response of evaluation that can be employed by the analyst for the modification of present requirements along with the ones developing newly (Heinrich, 2002). Prototyping is evident in a number of different forms, from the sketches of low technology or screens of paper, from which developers and users can paste objects and controls, towards operational systems of high technology utilizing languages of different generation and across everywhere in the organization (Figierdo et al 1996). 

Prototyping is a stage in software development where a basic working model of an information system or one product is built for demonstrative purposes. It is a part of the System Development Life Cycle, where a rudimentary version of a system is constructed and tested (Grotta et al 1998). Changes are kept being incorporated till the desired prototype is made. A complete system or a product is developed from this prototype. Prototyping is again best suited for human computer interface systems (Heinrich, 2002). This is because prototyping makes sure that the end user regularly works with the system thus providing constant feedback to create a user friendly system. It formalizes the system of documentation in the retention of knowledge thus providing seamless co-ordination between management team and the customer to bring about products that meet all customer requirements (Burke, 1980). The organisational requirement is analysed by the head of the organisation and using information systems coupled with software product, he tries bringing forth solutions to meet these business requirements (Ketabchi 1988).

When to use a Prototype model?

  • A Prototype model is best used when the said system requires a lot of end user interaction.

  • A prototype system should be used for online systems because web interfaces possesses a high intensity end user interaction. A system which is end-user friendly requires time in construction (Heinrich, 2002).

  • Prototyping is again best suited for human computer interface systems. This is because prototyping makes sure that the end user regularly works with the system thus providing constant feedback to create a user friendly system.

Advantages of a prototype Model

  • The dynamic of involvement of the end-user in the development process

  • The errors if any are detected much earlier

  • Prompt user feedback facilitates improved solutions.

  • Reduction in the time of development

  • Reduction in the costs of development

  • Requires the involvement of users

  • Developers are known to be receiving quantifiable feedback of usersFacilitating the implementation of system since the users have been acknowledging what expectations they have (Plummer 2008) (Heinrich 2002)

  • Results in the higher satisfaction of users

  • Exposure of developer towards the potentiality of enhancing system in the future

Disadvantages of the prototype Model

  • It complicates the systems because the scope of system is well is something that is well beyond the scope envisaged originally.

  • It leads to implementation prior to building the system.

  • Developer may grow attached to the prototype: Developers may get over-attached to the prototype thus may end up spending a huge amount of time trying to develop a limited prototype to final system even though there is the lack of the underlying architecture (Burke, 1980)

  • Can result in insufficiencies of analysis

  • Users hold the expectation that the performance of the final system for being the same as that of the prototype

  • There can be more attachment of the developed with their prototypes

Functions of Information Security

Information is a valuable business asset which needs to be kept confidential. Information Security has thus, mammoth importance in the success of an organisation. Information Security ensures that the confidentiality, quality and the accessibility of the business information is not compromised (Heinrich, 2002). Information Security is achieved through imposing of various security measures across physical, technical and operational environment. Its main function is thus to make sure that a business handles the exchange of information in a secure system. 

Implementing Information Security over the Internet for the company

1. The first step towards internet security is a risk assessment analysis. Knowing the threats that are posed to the Information Technology System of the company, along with their results, will equip the company with the ability to counter these threats, if they happen (Ketabchi, 1988).

2. A good anti-virus is an absolute requirement when it comes to securing the network of the computer (Heinrich, 2002).

3. A firewall similarly is one the most basic security measures in the building up of internet security defence.

4. Anti-viruses and Firewalls require frequent and timely updating. Otherwise they are of no value. The intensity and the reach of internet threats are dynamic and to keep up with them it is absolutely essential that the antivirus and the firewall software and fully working and up-to date. It is ideal, that is function is set to run in the background automatically (Layton, 2007).

5. Authentication is a great measure to prevent unwanted access to the computer network. There are different levels in this and hence the selection of the authentication solution should be dependent on the specific needs of the business.

6. Providing secure access to the remote workers is of paramount importance. A remote weakness stands to be exploited by the attacker (Layton, 2007).

7. Encrypted VPNs are needed to effectively manage wireless technologies which pose serious technology threats.

8. Encryption is the need of the hour, considering the amount of laptops with classified information. A unified encryption approach at a staged level of implementation is essential.

9. Anti-spam solutions be used to counter the threat of spam. There is the option of outsourcing spam management but the need for the proper control and reporting of spam needs to be considered (Layton, 2007).

10. Unified threat management systems provide the entire gamut of security solutions in a cohesive product. But the fact which has to be considered that malfunctioning of any one aspect will also mean the loss of an entire security system

11. Penetration testing is an effective means of scrutinising the security of the corporate networks are and consequently identifying the points of latent weakness.

12. The people factor should be borne in mind, all the given security measures will work only with user co-operations (Heinrich, 2002). The user should be aware of all the company security policies. These security policies should be enforced at all employee level including the top management.



1. Aitken, P., 2000, Tips on Scanning), Available: (Accessed: 2000, April 21)

2. Anderson, D., 1999, The PC Technology Guide), Available: (Accessed: 2000, April 6)

3. Anderson, S., 1992, Computer Literacy for Health Care Professionals. Albany, NY: Delmar

4. Austen, I., 2006, A Scanner Skips the ID Card and Zeroes In on the Eyes,, (accessed August 17, 2006).

5. Beltran, R.A., 1998, Beyond flatbeds: unusual scanning solutions, PC Magazine, vol. 17, no. 18, October, pp. 188-189.

6. Burke, M., 1980, The NYU Ada Translator and Interpreter, ACM SIGPLAN Notices - Proceedings of the ACM-SIGPLAN Symposium on the Ada Programming Language15 (11): 194–201.

7. Baase, S., `1996, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice-Hall, 1996.

8. Beekman, G., Computer Confluence: Exploring Tomorrow’s Technology. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.

9. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007, Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH), 2006–07 Edition. https:// www. (accessed November)

10. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. and Roth, S., 1998, Real world scanning and halftones, 2nd ed., Peachpit Press, New York.

11. Divis, D.A., 2003, Bill would Push Driver’s License with Chip, The Washington Times

12. Eisenberg, A., 2007, When the Athlete’s Heart Falters, a Monitor Dials for Help,, 9B03E0DE113EF93AA35752C0A9659C8B63 (accessed November 12, 2007).

13. Englander, I., 2000, The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software, John Wiley, New York.

14. Figeiredo, P., McIllree. J. and Thomas, N., 1996, Introducing information technology, 2nd ed., Jacaranda Press, Singapore.

15. Grotta, D., and Wiener, S., 1998, "What's now, What's next," ( PC Magazine), Available: (Accessed: 2000, April 8).

16. Ketabchi, L., 1988, A Computer-Aided Prototyping System. IEEE Software5(2): 66–72.

17. Layton, P., 2007, Information security: design, implementation, measurement and compliance.

18. Heinrich, L.J., 2002, Informations management. 7th ed.. Munich: Oldenbourg.

19. Plummer, D., 2008, Gartner’s Top Predictions for IT Organizations and Users, 2008 and Beyond: Going Green and Self-Healing,” Prentice Hall

20. Viskovic, D., Varga, M., and Curko, K., 2008, Bad practices in complex IT projects’, ITI 2008 – 30Th International Conference On Information Technology Interfaces, p. 301, Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File, EBSCO host

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2016). Building And Managing Information Systems. Retrieved from

"Building And Managing Information Systems." My Assignment Help, 2016,

My Assignment Help (2016) Building And Managing Information Systems [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 20 February 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Building And Managing Information Systems' (My Assignment Help, 2016) <> accessed 20 February 2020.

My Assignment Help. Building And Managing Information Systems [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2016 [cited 20 February 2020]. Available from:

At, we understand that when students get stuck with tough assignments, they look for affordable services. To assist students with complex assignments, we have built a team of skilled cheap essay writers. has become one stop solution for all students who often look for answers related to their search similar to do my essay at the cheap rate or who can write my essay at affordable prices. Students prefer hiring us as we have the best provisions to render services related to do my essay online at a reasonable rate.

Latest Management Samples

EST202-Introduction To Science Technology And Society Studies

Download : 0 | Pages : 9
  • Course Code: EST202
  • University: Stony Brook University
  • Country: United States

Answer Essay Plan Introduction Background: This essay debates on the current and the historical state of bilingual languages on the whole but particularly talks about the aboriginal languages which are becoming extinct in Australia now days. Purpose and thesis statement: The purpose of this essay is to know about these languages, the state of the languages in Australia and the ways to retain them for the upcoming generations. Main Body...

Read More arrow

BUS8404 Consumer Behavior For Depth Market Research

Download : 0 | Pages : 6

Answer: Literature review  Yes, the use of different source articles are utilized in order to gather information regarding the NZ context concerning the baby food products. The evaluation of the depth market research helps in understanding the desired requirements of the customer regarding the products. According to Gioia, Sobell, Sobell, & Agrawal, (2016), Understanding of the effective target market is crucial as it helps in evalua...

Read More arrow

IKC101-Indigenous Australian Culture And Histories

Download : 0 | Pages : 8
  • Course Code: IKC101
  • University: Charles Sturt University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: The indigenous or the aboriginal people in Australia are the original inhabitants of the land who have faced oppression, discrimination and humiliation for decades by the colonists. Before the year 1788, approximately 700 languages were spoken throughout Australia which hosted only the indigenous people with a population of 7,50,000. The country used to be a land of diverse cultures. The aboriginal Australians constitute to 3% of the t...

Read More arrow

ACC303 Contemporary Issues In Accounting For Conceptual Framework

Download : 0 | Pages : 8
  • Course Code: ACC303
  • University: Kings Own Institute
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction In general, the concepts associated to the conceptual framework is identified with several factors which are used by the businesses for financial reporting. The main aspects of the conceptual framework used by the business relates to the presentation of annual reports of an organization. The information provided in the conceptual framework is identified to be conducive for solving number of business problems which may be ...

Read More arrow

300725 Construction Technology For Directly Proportional To The Quality

Download : 0 | Pages : 3

Answer: 2. Estimation of the passenger demand and the sizing-check against the specification. Office floor area = (266.16m2)/12 = 22.18m2 = 23 people per floor 23× 10 = 230 total population = 230 × 8 =184 80% of the total population Sizing= 300/ 30 (number of trips in I minute)  = 10 trips Number of people per trip = 23/10 2.3 2.3 people per trip Required cost = 2.3 Required cost = 2.875 Question 2 b Handling ...

Read More arrow

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

2279 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Zachary Perez

PhD in Computer Science and Information System

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

453 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Howard Asuncion

LLM in Criminal Law

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

529 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Ivan Blank

PhD in Functional Human Biology

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

1692 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Alfred Dodd

PhD in Computer and Information Science with specialization in Database

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

The writer followed directions well. Gave great detail. Work was delivered within the given time.


User Id: 239259 - 19 Feb 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Work was delivered within the time frame given. Work was just as I expected. Well written.


User Id: 239259 - 19 Feb 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great quality paper, very impressive! Very happy about the writer! .....................................................................................................................


User Id: 363978 - 19 Feb 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

great work! delivered on time, the questions are sloved in details and clearly explained


User Id: 374436 - 19 Feb 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?