In this paper, the finer points of Management Information System will be explained, touching upon the significant changes that Information Technology has brought about in the structural and the functional level of the organisation. An enquiry will also be conducted on the necessity of implementing Information Technology at the CEO level.
The progress achieved by Information Technology has given birth to several tools adept at the effective management of information. Thus business houses have come to rely on information systems for the storage, management and analysis of data, Information system, a collection of several sub-systems that work together to achieve the tasks of collecting, store, managing, retrieving, distributing and transferring of information (Burke, 1980). Information Systems aid business grow their productivity by enhancing the operational efficiency of their business operations through the automation of vital informational procedures. He is also of the opinion that business mangers become more effective with their information demands are satisfied by information system.
Information System function has penetrated very deep into the organisational structure of large business houses across multi- functional levels such as Marketing, Finance, Human Resources, Research and Development. The information demanded varies with the organisational levels (Layton, 2007). Different business levels like strategic, operational and planning level require subsystems of Information system in order to have their demand for information satisfied. The various subsystems are listed below (Burke, 1980):
Information systems influence the organisations in which they work and is also in turn influenced by the organisation (Burke, 1980). Once a new information system is introduced, the structure, goal, work design and value design of the organisation also gets affected. The information must made in such a way it caters to the demands of the various organisational groups and is also shaped by the unique features of the organisation such as its culture, vision, activities and policy (Anderson 1992). It should cut down the costs of transaction and agent. Information System should also be such that it provides managerial support to plan, organise, decide and control the various departments. It should facilitate speed and accuracy in the monitoring, planning and forecasting process (Layton, 2007).
Information Systems in aiding business level strategy helps the business become low cost operators and effectively differentiate products and achieve a healthier relationship. It establishes achieve a great customer/supplier relationship through the use of customer response and supply chain management tools (Layton, 2007). Further, at the firm level strategy, information system facilitates the achievement of new efficiencies for better services (Austen 2006). At an industry level, Information Systems can attain a competitive advantage through the creation of a platform with the other businesses in the field for sharing information and facilitating easier co-ordination and transaction (Layton, 2007).
With the advent of IT revolution in the current decade, the inevitable structuring of all things correlating to it has become a living part of our society. As per the Cadbury recommendation, the chief executive has a pivotal role in any organization. The Information Security functioning has a tremendous effect on am organization. It also has its roots deeply spread on a wider role as it is necessary for any successful utilization of resources be it finance, human or physical. At the highest level connectivity is as important as innovation. It may be safe to say that at a CEO level information system will provide the necessary connection that will take the organization forward towards the goal of achieving a global exposure.
As per the recent journals, the best method to be implemented for the best results would be the management information system. A system that automates the results, analyses the data and generates reports (Heinrich, 2002).
Information Technology planning is of crucial importance when it comes to the success of any business organisation because it gives the business a sense of direction and connects to different business processes (Burke 1980). It helps the organisation further by reducing cost implications and minimizing wastage of time in the review process and the implementation of lifecycles of recent Information Technology resources (Beltran 1998). It ensures efficient allocation of the Information Technology resources, facilitates better flow of information in the Information Technology department (Heinrich, 2002). Financial and Information Technology departments also get better connected and co-ordinated.
In choosing an Information Technology plan for my company, I select the Plan-Driven method over the Agile development method (Baase 1996). The Plan-Method concentrates on making plans for the future. It outlines the steps and the features in a manner that everything can be traced and minute attention is paid to the details. This variety of documentation and planning leads to greater standards and minimal interruption even if any important staff leaves the company (Beekman et al 2002). The organisational requirement is analysed by the head of the organisation and using information systems coupled with software product, he tries bringing forth solutions to meet these business requirements.
The areas where Plan-Method scores over the Agile Development method are given below (Burke, 1980):
The Plan Method aims at getting timely solutions. It formalizes the system of documentation in the retention of knowledge thus providing seamless co-ordination between management team and the customer to bring about products that meet all customer requirements (Heinrich, 2002).
Prototyping is referred to as the process to build a model in the system (Englander 2000). With respect to information system, the employment of prototypes are done for helping the designers of system for building a system of information that is intuitive in nature and easy for manipulating the end users (Burke, 1980). Prototyping is referred to as a process that is iterative in nature that is a significant part in the phase of analysis related to the life cycle for the development of systems (Layton 2007). In the duration of the portion for determination of requirements related to the phase for analysis of systems, the analysts of system have been gathering information regarding the present procedures of organization and the processes of business and current procedures of the organization in relation to the system of information being proposed, if there is an involvement of one, and conducting the interviews of user and the documentation being collected (Layton, 2007). This has contributed in helping the analysts for the development of an initial combination of requirements in the system. Prototyping can result in augmenting these as there is conversion of these basic, yet these are somewhat intangible (Layton, 2007). There are specification in the tangible ones but restricted model to work with respect to the desired system of information (Viskovic et al 2008). These feedback of used gained from the development of a physical system that the users should be coming in touch, and a response of evaluation that can be employed by the analyst for the modification of present requirements along with the ones developing newly (Heinrich, 2002). Prototyping is evident in a number of different forms, from the sketches of low technology or screens of paper, from which developers and users can paste objects and controls, towards operational systems of high technology utilizing languages of different generation and across everywhere in the organization (Figierdo et al 1996).
Prototyping is a stage in software development where a basic working model of an information system or one product is built for demonstrative purposes. It is a part of the System Development Life Cycle, where a rudimentary version of a system is constructed and tested (Grotta et al 1998). Changes are kept being incorporated till the desired prototype is made. A complete system or a product is developed from this prototype. Prototyping is again best suited for human computer interface systems (Heinrich, 2002). This is because prototyping makes sure that the end user regularly works with the system thus providing constant feedback to create a user friendly system. It formalizes the system of documentation in the retention of knowledge thus providing seamless co-ordination between management team and the customer to bring about products that meet all customer requirements (Burke, 1980). The organisational requirement is analysed by the head of the organisation and using information systems coupled with software product, he tries bringing forth solutions to meet these business requirements (Ketabchi 1988).
Information is a valuable business asset which needs to be kept confidential. Information Security has thus, mammoth importance in the success of an organisation. Information Security ensures that the confidentiality, quality and the accessibility of the business information is not compromised (Heinrich, 2002). Information Security is achieved through imposing of various security measures across physical, technical and operational environment. Its main function is thus to make sure that a business handles the exchange of information in a secure system.
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