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Bureaucratic Procedures And Cultural Control

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Question:

Identify two of the four forms of control (Knights and Willmott, 2012) which have been used in Unit 2 as a framework. You should therefore choose TWO from the following:

Direct supervision.
Bureaucratic procedures.
Cultural control.
Output and self-regulation.
 
Use these two frameworks for organising ideas, concepts and theories that relate to the different techniques associated with getting employees to do what the organisation wants them to do.
 
 

Answer:

Bureaucratic procedures:

Bureaucracy within an organization refers to the system and its procedures which contribute in maintaining the authority and a sense of uniformity within the organization. This form of control within the organization is mostly common for the large organizations where the administrator has a specific rule of controlling the internal behavior. It is basically a structure of the organization which defines the rules and regulations of the organization. According to Grove and Hinton (2013), bureaucracy is the superior to any other organizational form and within any large organization, the bureaucratic procedures are indispensable. However, this practice becomes omnipresent in the formulation and implementation of any policy within the organization. The implementation of any policy in the organization also strengthens the bureaucratic procedures and its operational spheres (Stamatovic, Maksimovic and Tornjanski 2016). The theories of motivation and control such as Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation and Vroom's expectancy theory indicate the form of direct control over the employees.

Within the bureaucratic procedures, there are three frameworks which indicate the reflection of the comparative performance of these forms along with the shifts in the cultural issues with the organizational performances. The frameworks are discussed below:

Functional Performance

The formal organizations are methods of governing the performance and the administrative behaviors along with the fact that the organizational forms only increase while they are capable of providing solutions.

 

Cultural Prescriptions

This framework suggests that the formal organizations have infused the value across the technical requirements of the organization. As stated by Stamatovic, Maksimovic and Tornjanski (2016) every organization carries a particular cultural value and its expectations but the organization only flourishes when it matches both the organizational expectations and the expectations of the employees.

Power Distributions

This framework suggests a conflict over the standard of performances. With a large organization, there is always a power struggle amongst the administrative figures (Grove and Hinton 2013). If the bureaucratic organization declines, it shows a regular shift in the power relations which brings several new kinds of problems.

In the bureaucratic organizations, there are mostly full time employees with the employment contract of life-long, organized salaries, careers and pension plans, promotion after a certain gap of time on the basis of their merit, education and their tenure, legal protection and several other amenities. These exercises are tied to the public resources and the authorities as well. Within such organizations with bureaucratic practices, they are expected to follow the orders the rules on a voluntarily basis as they have been given legitimate and rational orders (Dan-Cohen 2016). However, the organizations are also expected to follow the basic rules and provide its employees their primary requirement in order to motivate them towards the shared goal. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation identifies that there are two kinds of motivational factors that the organization can provide its employees. The first one being the hygiene factors and the later one is the motivational factors (Dan-Cohen 2016). The hygiene factors are the essential job factors which contribute to the motivations of the employees within the organization. Even if these factors do not contribute to provide a satisfaction right away, but if these hygiene factors are not present within the organization, it may lead to the dissatisfaction of the employees. These factors include pay structure of the employees, administrative policy of the company, fringe benefits, employee status, working conditions and interpersonal relations (Lukwago, Basheka and ODUBUKER 2014). In the bureaucratic organizations, the pay structure and the employee benefits are fixed, the organization should make sure that the employees are receiving their individual benefits on a regular basis. The entire structure of the administration should be transparent so that it ensures that the employees are receiving their benefits and their pay structure is justified according to the industry structure. Other than these factors, there are also motivational factors such as recognition, promotional opportunities, sense of achievements, meaningful work and several others. Even though within the bureaucratic procedures the promotional opportunities are fixed, the authority should ensure that they are being recognized for their job performance and they are considering themselves to be responsible for their own mistakes. These factors will contribute to the motivational level of the employees and will emphasize on the enrichment of the jobs of the employees.

 


Another theory, Expectancy Theory put emphasis on the fact that if the effort increases, it will also contribute to the increased performances of the employees. This effort can be influenced by several factors such as skills of the employees, resources and the necessary support (Vroom, Yetton and Jago 2015). Within the bureaucratic organizations, the employees are hired on the basis of their skills and education, but the authority requires ensuring that the employees are receiving enough resources and necessary support from the management. This will increase the level of their performance as well.

Cultural Control

Every organization needs to go through a series of definite systems that help them to gain a sustainable future in the industry. In order to do so, it is extremely effective to have control over the staffs of the organizations v The management of the organizations should look to establish that control. The organizations should maintain certain ethics and control over the employees so that they can behave themselves. It is not just fine to tell them to do certain things in the organization. Their actions should be changed and they should be motivated properly to behave in a certain way (Chen 2012).

There can be four types of control that can be effective within the organization. These are the direct control or behavior, control through rules and procedures, control through maintain a good organizational culture and controlling the employees through performance. In this segment, the control through culture has to be described because organizational culture is an extremely important factor in every organization (Chen 2012).

 

Control through culture

In every organization, certain patterns of behavior, rules, rituals have to be maintained so that so that the professional environment can become more competitive and well-behaved. There are certain individuals within every organization who violate all the social norms and professional ethics and disrupt the organizational culture (Alvesson 2012). This has to be looked as negative. They have to be punished properly for doing that and make sure the proper organizational culture is restored.

It has been seen almost in every organization that certain social norms are maintained, whether they encourage individuality or conformity. The seniors of the organizations very often enforce these social norms on the organizations. The unethical practices within the organization must be discouraged by the management (Goetsch and Davis 2014).

Almost all the companies have written mission statements that help them to secure the organizational culture. All the employees and members of the organization have to maintain these etiquettes that ensure a proper business environment. The business environment and culture has to be spontaneous and it has to be deliberate (Goetsch and Davis 2014). These mission statements help the employees to behave in a certain way that helps to keep up the good reputation and brand image of the organization. The employees have to be motivated, be able to work as a team and maintain their ethical responsibilities properly (Anitha 2014).

 


The employees are provided with all the details on the first day of their job. They should be able to behave in a proper way after they get that and try be on the same page with other employees as teamwork is very necessary (Goetsch and Davis 2014). The company handbooks provide the employees with many important details like the nondisclosure agreements, anti-discrimination policies, expected work schedules, various codes of conduct within the office premises, maintenance of the business ethics and other general information regarding the company. The employees should follow these things properly and if in any case these rules and regulations are violated, they may be aware of the outcomes too. This could result in written oral reprimands by the senior managers and even this could lead to the termination of the employees (Anitha 2014).

There is a term in the modern business organizations known as ‘deliberate role modeling’ (Goetsch and Davis 2014). This is to be in line with the fact that the employees receive training in the organization when they are hired in a new job. They are made aware of the ethics and culture that the employees have to maintain in the office and what should they face if they do not maintain these things. They should be informed about their job roles and expectations from the management. They should maintain the organizational culture and values at any cost.

There are certain theories in the context of cultural control of the management. The expectancy theory focuses on the fact that effort of the employees can lead to improve the performance of the employees (Renko, Kroeck and Bullough 2012). The better the employee performs, the more he will be rewarded by the organization. Bad performance of the employees will lead to bad impressions. The rewards they get will help them to achieve their personal goals. The equity theory of motivation says that the employees have to be treated as same in the organization so that there should exist no jealousy between them (Al-Zawahreh and Al-Madi, 2012). Pay rise and promotions may have de-motivating effect on others. All of them should be treated and be motivated by the leaders to achieve the organizational goals. This will create a helpful working environment and cultural competency as well. The management will have a better control over the employees by applying these organizational cultural factors.

 

Reference List

Alvesson, M., 2012. Understanding organizational culture. Sage.

Al-Zawahreh, A. and Al-Madi, F., 2012. The utility of equity theory in enhancing organizational effectiveness. European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences, 46, pp.158-170.

Anitha, J., 2014. Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management.

Chen, X., 2012. Culture, peer interaction, and socioemotional development. Child Development Perspectives, 6(1), pp.27-34.

Dan-Cohen, M., 2016. Rights, persons, and organizations: A legal theory for bureaucratic society (Vol. 26). Quid Pro Books.

Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.

Groves, L. and Hinton, R. eds., 2013. Inclusive aid: Changing power and relationships in international development. Routledge.

Lukwago, G., Basheka, B. and ODUBUKER, D.E.P., 2014. USING HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY TO DEVELOP A CONSTRUCT VALIDITY FOR MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN UGANDA’S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION (NARO): A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 3(3), pp.59-65.

Renko, M., Kroeck, K.G. and Bullough, A., 2012. Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(3), pp.667-684.          

Stamatovic, M., Maksimovic, S. and Tornjanski, A., 2016. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR EFFICIENCY-ARE THE BUREAUCRATIC PROCEDURES THE SOURCE OF INEFFICIENCY?. Ekonomika, 62(3), p.111.

Vroom, V., Yetton, P. and Jago, A., 2015. Normative decision process theory. chair in human resources at the State University of New York–Buffalo and was faculty director of the Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership there. Previously he was Research Professor of Management at Georgia State University. He has written over fifty books and over 135 other publications., p.207.

     

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