1. You are required to write a report on all project activities involved in all the 10 knowledge areas of project management for the entire project life cycle. You should also include a list of the respective PM documents, for example PM Plan, PM Quality Management Plan, Risk management, Procurement, etc. The report must include the activities that are considered before the project is closed out.
2. Discuss how the project quality management plan can provide adequate standards and controls in managing global teams in projects. Your discussion must provide adequate arguments for the need of cultural awareness and legal issues.
Project Management is one of the necessary disciplines that the business organizations are making use of in the current scenario. There are different methodologies that have been defined for project management and each of these methodologies has its own set of features, advantages, and disadvantages. There are knowledge areas that are defined under project management and each of these areas is essential for efficient management of the projects.
Integration management is the project management knowledge area that deals with the handling and management of project changes to combine all of the project components as a single unit. There are sub-processes that are involved in the project integration management that includes the definition of the project charter, integration planning, execution, monitoring, control, and closure. There are various changes that may come during the various phases of the project. Integration management identifies such changes, plans and analyses the changes, makes recommendations on the steps that shall be used to execute the changes, monitors and control the same for successful closure (Zwikael, 2009). The components are then combined with each other to bring them up on a common platform.
Project scope determines the activities that shall be carried out by the members of the project team and the ones that shall be treated as out of scope. The activities that are included within the scope are then considered for planning out their effort, schedule, and costs. In this knowledge area of project management, scope definition and scope statement is prepared in the first step. The project requirements are analysed and the basis of the same there is a scope statement prepared. Once the scope of the project is defined and is identified, there are management activities for the project scope that are carried out. The project methodology and approach is determined on the basis of the project approach. These are then followed by the effort estimation processes and listing of the individual activities and sub-activities. Scope creep and inflation are some of the risks associated with the project scope and these are managed and handled during scope management (Fageha & Aibinu, 2013).
One of the essential project areas is the project time and schedule. There are numerous activities that are carried out in a project. Each of these activities has a specific time and schedule assigned to it. The project time management is a knowledge area that determines the project schedule and defines the methods to handle and manage the overall schedule. There are estimation techniques, such as top-down estimation, bottom-up estimation, etc. that are used to determine an estimated time for each of the project activity. The estimated project time is then mapped with the start and finish dates for each activity. The knowledge area also carries out the earned value and variance analysis to find out the gaps between the estimated and actual values to avoid the situation of schedule overrun (Solís-Carcano, Corona-Suarez & García-Ibarra, 2015).
It is necessary to estimate and manage the project costs to make sure that the project is carried out within the estimated budget. There are numerous activities that are carried out in a project. Each of these activities has a certain cost associated with it. The project cost management is a knowledge area that determines the project costs and defines the methods to handle and manage the overall costs. There are estimation techniques, such as top-down estimation, bottom-up estimation, etc. that are used to determine an estimated cost for each of the project activity. The estimated project cost is then mapped with project schedule and the resources assigned to the same (Smith, 2014). The knowledge area also carries out the earned value and variance analysis to find out the gaps between the estimated and actual values to avoid the situation of budget overrun.
The satisfaction and experience of the end-user and the project clients is determined on the basis of the quality of the project. The project quality management includes the set of processes and activities for handling and managing the project quality. There is a quality management plan that is prepared in the first step of this knowledge area that includes the definition of quality for the project, quality control and quality assurance activities for the project along with the steps that shall be taken for continuous improvement. The tasks and activities that are listed under the quality management plan are then carried out to make sure that the quality of the project is maintained. The control and assurance activities include a wide range of verification and validation processes including testing methods. The test plan for the project and the defect reporting and defect logging processes are also defined and executed in this knowledge area.
The most significant and essential entity associated with the project are the people resources engaged with the project. It is necessary to identify and allocate the required resources for the project on the basis of their skill set and the project needs. The first step that is carried out in this knowledge area is the identification of the human resources for the project. The roles and responsibilities of each of these resources are determined as per the project requirement. There is a use of RACI (Responsible Accountable Contributed and Informed) matrix that is done to allocate the responsibilities to the resources. Once the resources are assigned with the specific roles, there are conflict resolution and resource discussion measures used. The resources are also informed about the project requirements, ethical and professional codes of conduct to be followed throughout the life cycle. Resource discussions, goal setting, and performance measurement is also managed in this knowledge area.
Project Time Management
It is necessary that all the resources and stakeholders associated with the project are informed about the project details, project progress, and project issues at regular intervals. It is the knowledge area that defines and manages the project communications. There are internal and external communications required to be carried out for a project. A project communication plan is prepared in the first step. The plan includes the communication guidelines, communication methodologies to be followed, modes of communication, communication mechanisms, and roles & responsibilities. Project Manager is usually responsible for the facilitation of the project communications. The meeting guidelines and meeting schedule shall be defined in this knowledge area along with the stakeholder communication process for internal and external stakeholders. The methodology to be followed for the handling and resolution of the conflict & dispute management is also done in this knowledge area. There are various modes of communication, such as verbal, written, formal, informal, etc. that are required for the projects. These communication methods along with their details and reporting structure/schedule is specified and carried out in this knowledge area (Zulch, 2014).
There may be a number of risks that may occur in a project. Some of these risks may be classified in the categories as schedule risks, budget risks, security risks, resource risks, technical risks, operational risks, quality risks, and likewise. It is required to have a risk management plan and process to make sure that the project risks are handled. The knowledge area carried out the processes as risk identification, risk analysis, risk evaluation, risk treatment, risk monitoring, and control followed by risk closure. In the identification process, a list of the project risks is prepared which is mapped with the risk category and risk description (Peixoto, Tereso, Fernandes & Almeida, 2014). The risks are then analysed to calculate their respective probability and impact levels. The risk rank is evaluated on the basis of the probability score and impact score. The evaluation of the risks is then done to understand the risks that may be accepted or non-accepted to determine the risk severity. The risk treatment process is then carried out to find out the methods to avoid, mitigate, transfer, or accept the risks. The mapped treatment strategies are then monitored and controlled followed by the closure of the risk. There is a risk register prepared in the analysis phase and it is updated till the closure of the risk.
Project Cost Management
There are various tools that are required for the project. Some of these tools may be already available with the organization while there may be certain tools that may be required to be procured. Such procurement processes are handled and managed in this knowledge area. The procurement management plan is defined in this knowledge area and there are market surveys and studies conducted to understand the vendors to be selected (de Araujo, Alencar & de Miranda Mota, 2017). There are vendor communication processes that are carried out and the senior management carries out the negotiations with the third-parties on the terms and prices. The final negotiation is carried out with the preparation of a formal and legal contract which is agreed upon by all the parties. The agreed upon tools and services are then provided and configured by the vendor. The set of support and maintenance services needed are also specified in the procurement plan.
The stakeholders of the project are the entities that may have an interest in the project or may be affected by the project progress and completion. There are internal and external stakeholders involved in a project. Some of the internal stakeholders that are usually involved include the project client, project manager, and project team members. The external stakeholders include the business partners, third-party vendors, legal groups, regulatory bodies, and marketing agencies and consultants. The management of the entire project stakeholders is needed to make sure that the stakeholders are kept involved and their interest in the project is preserved at all times. The stakeholder map is created to highlight the level of every stakeholder’s influence, interest, and contribution in the project along with the role of the stakeholders. The communication management with the stakeholders is also carried out in this knowledge area and is synced with communication management knowledge area (Karlsen, 2002). The meeting guidelines and meeting schedule is defined in this knowledge area along with the stakeholder communication process for internal and external stakeholders.
The project quality management plan includes the definition of quality for the project, quality control and quality assurance activities for the project along with the steps that shall be taken for continuous improvement. The tasks and activities that are listed under the quality management plan are then carried out to make sure that the quality of the project is maintained. There are quality standards and protocols that shall be followed in a project area also defined and included in the plan (Iso, 2018).
Project Quality Management
The quality management plan assists in the handling and managing of the global teams in the project. This is because there may be resources from different geographical and cultural backgrounds that may be involved. In order to bring all of these varied resources on a common platform, it will be needed to define certain internationally acceptable standards. The quality management plan defines and describes such standards that shall be followed by all the resources. The varying interests of the resources and the potential areas of conflicts among the resources are eliminated as an outcome. The quality standards, such as Six Sigma or Total Quality Management (TQM) have been established at the international level. These are known and accepted by all bodies all across the globe.
The management and maintenance of the quality as per the applicable set of standards leads to the avoidance of any of the legal obligations and issues. The control and assurance activities include a wide range of verification and validation processes including testing methods. The test plan for the project and the defect reporting and defect logging processes are carried out as per the project requirements (Bbc, 2015). The possibility of an open defect in the project is avoided which enhances the end-user experience levels. The possibilities of operational changes and re-work for the resources are also reduced.
As a result, all of the project areas are managed and balanced with the proper handling and management of the project quality using the quality management plan.
Project management is a discipline that is composed of several knowledge areas. Each of these knowledge areas are significant to ensure that project goals and objectives are achieved. These knowledge areas and the activities that are carried out under them are related and dependent upon each other. The Project Manager and other resources in the project team carry out the project tasks as per the guidelines specified in the knowledge areas defined under the project management methodologies.
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