Change management is a tool, process, and technique to manage and handle the change in the organization to achieve the required business results and outcomes. Furthermore, change management is a communal term for all approaches and processes to support and prepare teams, organizations, and individuals in making company’s change. The strategic change management may be defined as a process to manage change in an effective way to gain the goals, missions, and objectives of the company. The managers implement the complexity theories to initiate and execute the strategic change in the organization which helps to gain the competitive advantages in the global market (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). There are various complexity theories are used by the organizations to balance and maintain the change that has been discussed below (Hayes, 2014).
Lewin’s management theory: It is one of the significant theories of strategic change management. The three stages are involved in the Lewin’s management theory which includes the following:
- Unfreeze: It is the first stage which is necessary to implement and balance the changes in the organization. This stage is initiated by the employees to overcome and handle the resistance the change.
- Refreeze:When the change is implemented and people have accepted the new manner and way of working then the firm is ready to refreeze. The refreeze stage helps to employees and organization to initiate and internalize the changes. This theory is easy to utilize and dynamic to manage the changes within the organization. In addition, the leaders should develop and build the change by providing the rewards and incentives to the employees (Burnes and Cooke, 2013).
- Transition: Once the change is initiated, the company needs to shift into the transition period to implement changes in the firm. Effective and dynamic leadership styles are used by the companies to make this process effective and successful.
Katter’s step change theory: This theory is formed by Professor John Kotter’s to implement the change process in the firm. It is an important theory to develop and initiate the change. Further, it is focused on the change management process (Burke, 2017). The 8 stages are linked with this theory to balance the change management process in the organization which has been discussed below.
- Raise and improve the urgency of change.
- Develop and enlarge a team and group to initiate the alteration in the firm.
- Create a mission and vision to initiate the change capacity.
- Collaborate and communicate to sustain the organizational changes.
- Promote workers with the capacity to change.
- Generate objectives and goals.
- Stay persistent
- Initiate the change permanent.
Thurley theory of change: This model is created by K.thurley to initiate and develop the change management practices in the organization. The five approaches are used by the company under this theory which has been discussed below.
- Directive:The step is used by the firm in complex situations. This can be possible by implementing of managerial authority and power in the corporation.
- Bargained:In this stage, the power and authority of administration are shared between worker and workers in the organization. Further, some corporation is essential to implement the change management process in the firm.
- Hearts and minds: Under this approach, people get a favraoble and negative response from the employees of the firm. The major purpose of this stage is to gain the desired outcomes and results.
- Analytical: The firm monitors the requirements, plans, and policies to initiate the change management process. For this purpose, the firm needs to generate proposals of the desired policies, strategies, plans and goals and evaluate the outcomes and results of the company.
- Action based: The managers and leaders need to initiate the actions of change management in the organization by creating an analytical model of change management.
The managers and top management make the policies and rules to apply the complexity theory to implement the change. The major aim of these theories is to reduce and eliminate the resistance to change and to motivate the workers to do work effectively. They maintain dynamic and unique communication with employees to implement the change process effectively and successfully. Along with this, the top management and supervisors sit with employees to know and understand the cause of resistance to change. It also helps to resolve and handle the grievances and issues of the workers in the workplace. Mainly, employees do not accept the organizational change due to inefficiency and they avoid the changes. Thus, the managers build and develop the confidence to improve and enhance the efficiency and skills. Training and development sessions are conducted by the firm to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the workers and organization as well. Moreover, employers should explain the benefits of the complexity theories to initiate the change management process in the company. In this way, the managers can apply complexity theories to balance and implement the change process in the firm. In addition, the firm hires the best change management team to execute the changes (Andrews, Cameron and Harris, 2008).
The complexity theories are significant to assess and encourage the workers for doing work effectively. It also helps to align and utilize the existing resources in the firm. Furthermore, change management theories also provide support to manage and operate the day to day business activities within the organization. It reduces risks and inefficiency of the workers and boosts the morale of the workers. It reduces cost and increases the ROI of the company. It also provides several opportunities to the firm and it is the effective techniques to stay out against the competitors in the market (Carnall and By 2007).
The company can make the changes in several activities and operations of the firm, For example, the firm can change its management, competition, processes to overcome on the competitors and to attain the several benefits in the competitive market. Furthermore, the company can make the changes in cost and technology to accomplish the long-term mission and vision of the firm (Murthy, 2007).
Resistance to change: It is the action and step taken by the individuals and groups when they distinguish that change recognizes that is happening as a risk to them. There are several causes for resistance to change that affect the efficiency and productivity of the workers. The employees do not accept the changes easily. It is seen that organizational change is a simple process which helps to increase and enhance the profit and revenue of the firm. Opposition to change is not considered good for the company as well as employees because it affects the progress of the firm. Fear of unknown technology and work is one of the significant causes for resistance to change. Lack of competence and low trust is other biggest causes which influence the progress of the firm. Furthermore, if the managers and top management do not provide benefits and rewards for making the change then employees do not accept the changes (Thomas and Hardy, 2011).
Changes are the inevitable part of every business through which the firm maximizes and enhances the profit and revenue in the global market. Resistance to change affects the implementation of planned organizational change negatively. If affects the long-term mission and vision of the firm adversely. When resistance to changes taking place in the organization, then they feel less hopeful and optimistic about their bright future and objectives. Moreover, lack of communication also affects the organizational change management process in the firm. Resistance to change influences the morale and confidence of the employees. As a result, the company is not able to maintain a financial position and image in the competitive market. If the resistance to change occurs in the workplace, then the employees become lazy and they do not focus on a routine task which is associated with their employment. This leads to decrease the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers which can influence the planned organizational change and growth. The disruptive work environment is another biggest cause of resistance to change which has a negative impact on the performance and productivity of the workers. It may spread the negativity in the working environment among the employees. Due to organizational changes, the employees might feel pressure thus they resist the changes. Many employees think that change is harmful to their performance and effectiveness. Further, it also creates a negative climate in the workplace. It also affects the culture and working environment of the company. Resistance to change is one of the important causes of failure in the execution of organizational changes in the firm (Griffin, 2013).
The organizational change increases stress and mental pressure among the employees in the workplace. In addition, it also increases the high employee turnover in the organization which affects the success and growth of the firm adversely. The overall growth and progress of the company depend on the manpower. None of the company can survive its business without capable and potential employees. Some organizational and managerial changes require major resulting, restructuring in sweeping life changes for a large number of the workers. The complex changes also affect the capabilities and potential of the workers. Now it is assumed that resistance to change affect the execution of planned organizational change (Fleck and Kraemer, 2014).
The workers resist the changes in the workplace because of enormous reasons. Bad and ineffective management is one of the significant causes of resistance to change which influence the change management process adversely. Apart from this, effective and dynamic strategies are not used by the firm thus, employees resist the changes and it influences the planned organizational changes. Dynamic and effective communication is an important tool to maintain a good relationship with employees. If the workers do not know the needs and requirement for change then they will not adopt the changes. In this way, communication is significant to implement the change management process in the firm. Some employees resist the changes because they are involved in the political strategy (Leahy, 2012). In addition, employees are not able to understand and identify the benefits of the organizational change; therefore, they do not accept the changes in the organization (Sonenshein and Dholakia, 2012). The firm can overcome the resistance to change by using several effective and unique strategies and policies in the workplace. The company should create a way to communicate and collaborate with employees to initiate and implement the changes and to overcome the resistance to change. The new business strategy must be developed and used by the company to implement the planned organizational change. The top management should invite the employees to attend the seminars and campaigns related to the change management process. It should select a group of change in order to manage planning and implementation of organizational change. Moreover, the company must create goals and four key milestones to measure and identify the success and growth of the firm (Cameron and Green, 2015).
For talking about an example of resistance to change, Uber is one of the significant examples of this change. The taxi industry resistance to the rise of Uber and similar services is a useless attempt to put the breakes on modernization and innovation. These changes affected the success and growth of the company. The firm can overcome the resistance to change by providing rewards and incentives to the employees. Along with this cooperation and communication must be maintained by the organization to balance and implement the planned organizational change in the workplace. Key deliverables should be developed and built by the firm for each department and person who are involved in new business strategy and process. Moreover, the top management and managers should enhance and increase the capabilities and skills of the workers to build and initiate the change in the company. In this way, the company can easily overcome the competitors and implement the change management process in the firm (Jacobs, van Witteloostuijn, and Christe-Zeyse, 2013).
Employee involvement: Employee involvement may be defined as a direct participation of the workers to support the company in order to fulfill the mission, objectives, and goals by applying and using their own ideas, efforts and expertise towards solving the problems, issues and making decisions (Storey, 2014). It is the philosophy exercised by the organizations which help to the employees to make the effective decisions in the firm. It also allows non-managerial employees to make effective and autonomous decisions. Employee engagement is the key success factor to create an atmosphere in which people have a positive impact on procedures, policies and decisions that affect their roles and jobs in the firm. It is not the goal nor it is a technique, as exercised in many companies rather than it is a leadership and management philosophy about how people are able to contribute in the success and growth of the firm. This involvement increases commitment and ownership and it helps to retain the capable and skilled employees in the firm (Welch, 2011). Various employee involvement theories and models are used by the firm to attain the desired goals and objectives. Employee engagement is the key success factor to overcome the competitors in the competitive market. It is a strategy to stay in the competitive market and it also helps to overcome the risks and challenges of the market (Macey, Schneider, Barbera, and Young, 2011).
Employee engagement helps to increase and build the morale of the workers. Employees are considered as an asset to the company. Furthermore, it also increases and enhances the morale and confidence of the employees. It helps to attain the effective and dynamic organizational changes in the firm. Furthermore, employee engagement also enhances and increases the productivity and efficiency of the workers. Employee engagement allows managerial and administration employees to attend the responsibilities of the firm. Employees’ engagement helps to cultivate improvement and innovation. In this way, it helps to attain effective and dynamic organizational change in the organizational. Furthermore, it determines the growth and sustainability of the organization to achieve the organizational changes. In addition, it also helps to resolve and handle the problems and grievances of the staff. The firm should increase and maximize the employee engagement by providing growth and success opportunities to the employees. It is the effective way to expand and enhance the employment opportunities in the organization. Apart from this, the managers and top management should find the way to recognize and reward the workers in order to increase and maximize the employee participation within the organization (Shuck, 2011).
Furthermore, employee involvement provides encouragement to the staff to boost and develop their performance and efficiency in the firm. A favorable and dynamic culture is developed and maintained by the managers and top management to achieve the organizational change. Moreover, the company can provide training and development coaching to the workers to improve and enhance the efficiency and skills of the workers. It also helps to implement and initiate the changes in the firm. It also helps to explore and expand the business activities and operations of the company globally. Effective tools and techniques must be used by the firm to evaluate and identify the productivity and performance of the workers. The top management and supervisors should listen the key issues and problems of the employees to understand and explain the benefits of change management process (Mone, Eisinger, Guggenheim, Price and Stine, 2011). In addition, the company should focus on the collaboration and coordination in order to achieve the organizational changes in the firm. The firm should also encourage and promote positive health and wellness. It also provides support to attain the targets and goals of the firm. Along with this, the organization should select the employee’s birthday and accomplishments to attain the organizational change in the firm. All these steps can be used by the firm to achieve the mission and vision of the firm and to initiate the organizational changes in the firm. These steps also help to beat the competitors in the market (Mone and London, 2014).
Employee involvement programs also help to promote and encourage the loyalty and morale of the workers. For example, the firm can use suggestion box to collect the feedback of the workers related to the organizational changes. It increases and enhances the employee involvement in the workplace. Safety programs, ideas campaigns, and peer picking program are another example of employee involvement which helps to balance the organizational change in the firm. Employee engagement also increases and enhances the teamwork and collaboration in the organization (Brad Shuck, Rocco, and Albornoz, 2011). It also helps to get better ideas, thoughts, and opinion of the workers to attain the organizational changes in the firm. With effective employee engagement, the company is able to maintain a favorable culture and discipline in the workplace. It also helps to attract and retain the more workers within the organization. The employee will feel happy with working in a team. It also helps to attract more people in the marketplace. Apart from this, it also increases and maximizes the profitability and revenue of the firm (Sørensen, Hasle & Pejtersen, 2011.). Customer satisfaction and loyalty can be attained with the help of teamwork and employee engagement. Changes can be done easily by employee involvement. The employees can easily accept the organizational changes in the firm and they do not resist the changes by using employee involvement practices. It reduces the turnover cost and builds a good image of the company in the competitive market. Employee involvement also encourages and inspires employees for doing work effectively and efficiently. Now it is assumed that the company can achieve the effective and dynamic organizational change with maintaining sustainability in the workplace. The firm can handle and manage the market risks and challenges by exercising the employee involvement practices within the organization (Carnall and By, 2007).
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