(a) “The simple idea that by pumping up total spending, government can supplement depressed private spending and temporarily boost economic activity has appealed to economists and governments since the Great Depression of the 1930s.” (Page 22)
Explain this “simple idea” due to J.M. Keynes.
(b) “Separating out the automatic changes in the fiscal position from the discretionary ones is difficult, and it is impossible to assess the counterfactual of how the economy would have performed had there been no fiscal response.” (Page 24)
During a recession, automatic changes take place in the fiscal position (budget deficit/surplus). Why? Also give some examples of discretionary changes in the face of a recession and their effect on the budget.
(c) “What has been ignored in current debate is that fiscal contraction that targets wasteful government programs improves macroeconomic performance.”
Explain by what process a fiscal contraction could possibly improve macroeconomic performance.
(d) “The key question is whether Australia really needs fiscal ‘stimulus’ in the form of budgetary outlays when monetary policy is best placed to influence short-run macroeconomic activity.”
In what way can monetary policy be used to create economic ‘stimulus’ and why, does Makin argue, is it more effective than fiscal policy?
2. A tax on sugar intended to shift consumption towards a healthier diet has been suggested and even implemented in some countries. Some people think that individuals should make their own choices and, if they prefer unhealthy products, the government should not interfere. On the other hand, those who become ill from obesity will impose costs on the health service so that others argue that the government has a role to play.
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