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How Organizational Goals can be made effective by a good leadership development programme?
This research will highlight the impact of effective leadership program on achieving the organizational goals. The organization selected for the study is National Health Services, which is public health service in United Kingdom. It had been established in England in the year of 1948. NHS provides free services to all the general population living in the United Kingdom and to other members of European Union on emergency basis (Nhs.uk 2018). However, there are few cases where the patients are charged for example: optical and dental care. This research deals with the new programs that can be developed by the organization so that they can mitigate their current issues. National Health Service has been facing issues in the field of funding, impact of BREXIT, increase in social costs and security breaches. Moreover, all the NHS organizations have been struggling to provide the patients with quality, compassion and safety. In order to shape the culture of the organization, effective leadership is required. The funding has always been an issue for NHS so the management will have to identify a suitable solution for providing the general citizens with better facilities. The majority of the funding is from national insurance contributions and general taxations. However, there has been increase in pay of 1% that is affecting the overall budget of NHS (Matthews-King 2017). The health spending has increased significantly in the past few years, which has developed funding issues for NHS. Similarly, BREXIT has impacted the workforce as there are many physicians that feel unwelcome in United Kingdom. Therefore, these issues will have to be solved by identifying the shortcomings in the leadership of the organization.
Research methodology is the systematic way of collecting raw data and converting them into meaning data (Neuman 2013). This study is an applied research where a particular problem is addressed and the results in the study will assist the management to resolve issues they have been facing (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). The purpose and nature of the study will determine the type of research methodology used in a research. Research philosophy identifies the different methods that will be used for conducting the study. The different types of research philosophies are, pragmatism, realism, intepretivism and positivism (Lewis 2015). In this study, pragmatism has been chosen as the philosophy of research as it will determine the relevancy of each of the theories and can consist of multiple theories. According to pragmatism, multiple realities can exist and there are multiple ways of interpreting and addressing an issue (Gray 2013).
Pragmatism will assist in using both quantitative and qualitative data for the given study. The research design is sequential explanatory, which will initially conduct quantitative data analysis and then the quantitative data will be backed by qualitative data to provide a different dimension to the study. In this study, both primary and secondary data has been used. The secondary data has been collected form journals, articles, websites links to form the literature review whereas primary data has been collected to conduct the quantitative and qualitative analysis of data. Quantitative analysis will consist of proving the hypothesis formulated in the study by developed close-ended questions asked to the lower level employees of National Health Services. This will consist of using statistical tools for identifying the frequency of the respondents and using correlation and regression to identify the nature and degree of relationship between the two variables. SPSS is the statistical tool used for examining the relationship between the variables and developing respecting charts and graphs (Pallant 2013). Qualitative analysis has been conducted by forming open-ended questionnaires asked to the managers of the organizations. The patterns in their answers will be identified to collect data that will provide a different dimension to the study. There are research approaches and they are inductive, deductive and abductive. In this study, deductive approach will used to validate the theories mentioned in the literature review.
Sampling is method of selecting population sample from the whole population (Levy and Lemeshow 2013). As this study consist of mixed method both probabilistic sampling and non-probabilistic sampling will be used. In this study, quantitative data has been collected from 140 employees of National Health Service and simple random sampling has been used to select 50 respondents for selecting the overall population. Therefore, randomization is the basis of sampling which provides equal opportunity to all the participants of being selected. On the other hand, qualitative analysis has been conducted on 5 managers of Nation Health Service so non-probabilistic sampling has been used as the sample size is small and difficult to find participants. In order to keep high validity and reliability in the study, pilot test has been conducted where sample questionnaires were sent out to 20 respondents. Moreover, the data has been collected multiple times and test rated reliability is used to examine if the results were using the same methodology.
Research ethics is the appropriateness of the methods used by the researcher for executing the study (Battiste 2016). The anonymity of the respondents has been maintained and none of their personal data has been revealed. The data collected in the study has not been used for any other purpose. The respondents were made aware of the purpose of the study so none of them were strained to take part in the survey. The respondents have participated of their own desire and none of the data used in the study has been manipulated to reach a desired result.
As stated by Ledlow and Coppola (2013), leadership has been categorized into different phases and can be divided according to their traits, behavior and style. The history of research in leadership reveals that early studies were focused on examining personality of traits of effective leadership. According to trait theory of leadership, the non-leaders and successful leaders are easily differentiated by their innate qualities (Chemers 2014). The individuals are born with these qualities, which mean that it is quite difficult to incorporate these abilities within the individuals for changing their personality. However, validation and categorizing of personalities based on the trait is quite difficult which is the main reason for criticizing this theory. These gave rise to the need of developing other theories, which can easily characterize the different leadership approaches. Thus, style and behavioral approaches appeared which moved the focus from personality traits to behavior and style.
Research conducted on behavioral and style theories suggest that participative or democratic style of leadership has been more successful. However, all these studies have been focused on identifying the most effective method of leadership. The major drawbacks of these theories are similar to the trait theory as they have failed to consider the situational factors. The effectiveness of leadership is highly affected by the situational factors (Yukl 2013). Contingency and situational theories are developed to deal with the drawbacks of the early theories. These theories have moved their focus from the best possible way to the context-sensitive leadership. According to the contingency theory of leadership, it can be stated that the adaptability of the leadership style is important in making the leadership effective (Waters 2013). Therefore, there is no best way of leadership and the leadership style of individuals change depending upon the situational factors. Moreover, it is essential to keep a balance between the different leadership approaches so that all the situations can be dealt in an effective manner. Therefore, appropriate styles are developed to deal with the different circumstances within an organization. Transformational and transactional styles of leadership are developed from these theories, which show both importance of using both the aspect. Effective leadership is the most crucial determinant of organization failure and success. As stated by Bryman (2013), effective leadership will be able to deal with all the market uncertainties and reach the organizational goals.
The huge, largely raging changes that where a part of the characteristics of the business organizations back in the 1970s and 1980s directed towards the concept of the “new paradigm”, emphasizing mostly on the traits of being charismatic, transformational and visionary. These traits were seen as identifiers of the conception of the leader being a person who describes organizational reality by means of defining the mission and values of any organization that would be supportive. Hence, inside the latest leadership approach, leaders are viewed as the managers of meaning, instead of being just an influence process. Over the past decade the swift changes experienced all over the world have asked for the development of effective leadership skills, especially in terms of achieving the organizational goals. As a result of that, organizations started giving increasing priority to different leadership development programs (Koech and Namusonge 2012).
The term “leadership” connotes pictures of dynamic and powerful individuals who direct corporate empires and victorious armies from gleaming skyscrapers, or are sharing the course of different nations. Burns (1978, p. 2) mentioned that “Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth”. It was from the commencement of civilization that history has focused on the study of leaders and still today leadership is an area of vigorous inquiry. As Bass (1990) said, leadership is justifiably time and again considered as the sole critical element that plays a role in the success or failure of any organization. The debate over leadership as a kind of process might have most probably been initiated by Machiavelli back in the sixteenth century (Pendleton and Furnham 2016).
Even though the brief summary above points out that the discussion over leadership has crossed periods of skepticism, some recent interests into the subject has concentrated on the value of the role of leadership in bringing success to the organization by fulfillment of goals. Kelloway and Barling (2010) has stressed that leadership is not just bounded to individuals in only formal leadership positions. They have argued these individuals might be having a specifically broad remit of impact inside an organization and its goals. The idea of leadership has brought in active interest, occasional confusion and debate as the thought regarding management has developed. However, still today, defining leadership is not easy and based on the complexity of the topic; there exists no solid consensus regarding the delimitation of the field.
The different elements of leadership will consist of the various approaches and the leadership programs used to achieve the organizational goals. The most commonly used approaches of leadership are transactional, transformational and laissez-faire. Another critical aspect of achieving the organizational goals is leadership development programs, which consist of various tools for training the managers.
Laissez- faire style of leadership describes those leaders that tend to avoid responsibilities or does not interfere with the work of their subordinates. These leaders are unlikely to put any effort to develop a relationship with their subordinates. As stated by Furtner, Baldegger and Rauthmann (2013), Laissez faire style is effective in certain circumstances and there have been famous leaders that have followed this style of leadership to achieve all the goals of the organization. Warren Buffet is one of the charismatic leaders that have effectively followed this style of leadership. Berkshire Hathaway has reached new heights due to his supervision. Buffet never interfered with the works of his subordinates and allowed them to do their own thing. However, at the end of each fiscal year, Buffet delivers a message for their employees, which contains advice on the various decisions made by the employees. This has enabled the employees to work more freely and grow at both personal and professional level.
Transactional leadership style has minimum level of interaction with their subordinates. The relationship between the leader and the subordinates are based on the security and physical needs. Therefore, these types of leaders will provide reward to employees with good performance and impose penalties on employees with low performance (Dumdum, Lowe and Avolio 2013). Contingent reward, action management and passive management are the components of transactional type of leadership. Contingent reward is the method of recognizing the employees based on their performance. Passive management is the method where the leader does not intervene until the problem becomes seriously. Active Management is the method where the performances of the employees are monitored all times and corrective measures are taken if there is any deviation from the desired result. Jeff Bezos had lead Amazon to great by using these style of leadership where the employees are made to work extremely hard at all times and the employees having low performance were made to leave the organization. Even though, this work culture it has produced wonderful results for Amazon and they have become the market leader in their segment.
Transformational leadership style is considered the most widely used style of leadership where leaders encourage and motivate their subordinates to go beyond their expectation by putting in extra effort (Odumeru and Ogbonna 2013). The transformational leaders are able to gain loyalty, trust, respect and admiration from the employees. This makes the employees motivated to work in a better way as they are able to inspire their subordinates to do so. This leadership style as proved to be the most effective one as it increases the level of organizational commitment and organizational performance. After the demise of Steve Jobs various article stated that he would always be remembered as a transformational leader. He has transformed Apple into the market leader by using a blue ocean strategy where Jobs was able to able to create a different market segment for themselves where there is less competition.
As stated by Child (2015), every organization sets its specific targets for a particular time for maintaining sustainability and achieving success in the market. Organizational goals are of two types, one is the official goals and the other is the operational goals. The aim and objectives of the organizations publish in the public statement and annual reports are known as official goals. On the other hand, operational goals are the actual goals, which consist of concrete steps that have to be taken in order to fulfill the purpose of the official objectives. Therefore, the goals of any organization can be short term, long term and immediate. The immediate goals will consist of the current goals of the organization, the short term goals will include the goals for one or two fiscal years. However, the long-term goals are set at least for a period of five years and the short goals are aligned in such a way that they will facilitate in fulfilling the long-term goals of the organization. It is essential for the organization to communicate their organizational goals to the employees to improve their engagement in the work they do. This enables the employees to align their personal goals with that of that of the organizational goal. The organization can convey their goals to the employees by means of a formal channel however; the most effective of communicating the goals of the organization is direct communication through supervisors. It is essential for the organization to develop a two-way communication channel for improving the performance of the organization. Direct communication is the best way of communicating the goals of the organization as it enables the managers to develop SMART goals, which will be in alignment to organizational goals. The key organizational goals set by the management are productivity goals, employee and management performance goals, social responsibility goals, market share goal, profitability goals, and innovation goals (Eden and Ackermann 2013).
According to Scott and Davis (2015), there are few basic functions which the organizational goals serve and to be specific there are four basic functions of using effective organizational goals. The organizational goals facilitate in planning and motivating employees and at the same time will assist in monitoring and control performance of employees and organizations. Moreover, the goals are set to provide guidance and direction to the employees and management. Therefore, at times of difficult situations the employees can refer to the organizational goals and objectives to while making a tough choice. Similarly, the planning of the different strategies becomes easier if the goals are clear to the employees and the management. The monitoring and control of organizational processes and performance enables to measure and compare the actual performance and the benchmark performance that has been set.
Even though there are no specific theories to explaining organizational goals, the SMART model is used to develop goals for both the organization and the employees. The goals of the organizations have become more and more challenging. Goal setting is essential to maintain a structural approach and tractability of the objectives of the organizations (Izhar et al. 2013). However, it is one of the most effective and less used tools in the industry. This helps in better evaluation of the objectives and the progress the organization has made towards it. This also increases the level of transparency within the organization and so it provides better flow of information within the organization. Therefore, the employees have knowledge regarding the different goals and their nature of origin. Therefore, it becomes easier for the employees to realize these goals, as they are able to align their personal goals along with the goals of the organization. The increase in competitiveness among different organizations has made it essential for the organization to develop smart goals. The significance of S.M.A.R.T goals and how it should be defined so that the objectives can be fulfilled needs to be discussed.
S.M.A.R.T goals stand for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and timely, this are the criteria required for effectively developing the goals of the organization. However, each of the criteria will have to have to be evaluated to understand how effective goals and the different parameters for setting such goals. The first criterion is specific which signifies that goals will have to be specific. If the goals are more specific then it is easier to achieve the exact objective that has been decided. In order to make goals more specific all the related factors will have to be defined. Therefore, few questions have to be clarified before specifying the requirement such as what, where, how, when, with whom and limitations. The next criterion is measurable which means that breaking the elements of goals, which should be achieved at the end of goals. This will enable to measure the desired objective and the deviation from the original objective. Therefore, the physical manifestations of the goals have to be defined for better clarity. The next criterion is attainability of the goals; the goals will have to be feasible as defining unrealistic goals are something the organization should avoid. Therefore, before setting a goal it has to be evaluated that whether the goals are achievable or not. The next criterion is relevancy of the goal; the goals developed should be relevant to the mission and vision of the organization. The goal should have meaningful purpose for the organization. The final criterion is time as it is most crucial component for achieving the goal. Therefore, effective time schedule has to be developed for achieving the goals at the right time (Shields et al. 2015).
Relationship between leadership and organizational goals is a topic that has been debated over often. Majority of the research point out that leadership can boast of having a significant association with organizational goal achievement and performance, with different elements of leadership having either a positive or a negative correlation with organizational goals and performance, based on the researchers’ variables (Wang, Chich-Jen and Mei-Ling 2010). Leadership is a vital factor in bringing success for any organization. It can be seen as an art or procedure of influencing people into performing their responsibilities efficiently, willingly and competently. Good leadership, if is seen placed within an organization, then its effect can be felt throughout. Good leadership develops organizational culture instead of forcing it. In any organization, the focal point of acquiring success is the high performance of its employees, which can be secured with the help of effective leadership. Leadership is vital in case of realizing organizational goals and the execution of work, also helping in maximizing efficiency and achieving organizational goals.
As stated by Goleman (2017), leadership development and it affects on organization goals and processes has remained highly debatable. Reports suggest that leadership development programs are effective, as enhancement in leadership quality will have a direct influence on productivity, quality, investment and delivery. However, other reports question the value of leadership development programs in context to organizational goals. The main question that arises is that whether it is possible to train and develop leaders. The early theories have suggested that great leaders are born with some innate personality traits and abilities. However, various models have suggested that leadership traits and competencies can be acquired over a period. In the present view, it is considered that some of the leadership qualities can be learnt such as communication, self-awareness and strategic thinking but the personal characteristics of a person will not change. Therefore, it is essential for the employees to identify their own personality traits so that they can mould themselves into the leadership approach that is suitable to their personality.
According to Joo and Park (2010), leadership and leadership development approaches have changed significantly in the past decade. The market of executive education have seen rapid growth in the past few years which shows the rise in demand for different programs for improving the skill set of the employees. Various universities are providing the employees in different organizations with the opportunity of developing their skills as a leader. As stated by Selznick (2011), by evaluating the perspective of the employers it is viable to develop leaders from within the organization that to appoint someone from outside the organization as it will increase the cost structure. Moreover, the employees in the modern generation are influenced more by their growth within the organization. The employees tend to leave a job when there is no growth for the employees which increases the attrition rate. Therefore, the overall cost structure of the organization increases significantly. Moreover, the changing nature of the industry is demanding development of new abilities, skills, self- awareness and knowledge. Therefore, effective use of leadership development program is necessary for achieving the organizational goals. Solansky (2010) opined, that even though leadership development programs are being used within the organizations but the significant question is whether this development programs are able to meet the needs of the organization. Therefore, the leadership development programs have become more flexible and the organizations are putting more focus on the internal job markets. The promising employees are being provided with adequate training so that they can take over as future managers.
These new development policies require the organization to change the tradition practices of training and development. The new development program consists of different structures and has a specific goal and objective attached to it. The changes in the leadership and development programs are due to the changing requirement of the organizations. Globalization has changed the level of competition so every organization needs to cope with the changing business environment in order to maintain their sustainability and the competitive advantage. Therefore, it is imperative from the perspective of the employers to use leadership development programs to enhance leadership and development programs due to the extreme change in the nature of work. This means that organizations require relevant abilities, skills and knowledge to fulfill their requirements. As stated by Cummings and Worley (2014), the change in the external business of the organization results in the adaptation of new human resources strategies. This has given rise to demand in the context of executive education and different training programs that would enhance the skills and management skills of the employees. Moreover, these programs have become much more informal and flexible as facilitates in personal development of the employees. Therefore, these have led to the change in traditional practices in the organization. These rapid changes to the organizational processes have various transformational concept linked to it. The organizations in order to increase their market competitiveness have been focused on developing more and more effective leaders and managers.
However, there is a distinct difference among development, education and training and Garavan, Carbery and Rock (2012) states that training is used to focus on the current job role of the employee, education is focused on improving future prospect of the employees and development is focused on organization and it goals. Similar conclusions have drawn by Daley (2012), which has presented three contrasting model of leadership development. The three models are humanist, pragmatic and scientific where the scientific approach focuses on training so that clearly defined targets can be met. On the other hand, humanist approach focuses on empowering the employees by transforming them through interactions and pragmatic approach is more focused on the project and immediate goals of the groups and individuals. Moreover, these approaches of leadership development are one of the most effective ways of developing sense of belonging among the workforce.
The leadership development programs are developed in accordance to the goals of the organizations. In order to identify the significant importance of the leadership development on effectiveness of organization, it can be said that leadership development programs can make the goals of the organization more effective than before. As stated by Cameron and Green (2015), the current trend in the market shows that there has been significant change in the purpose and nature of management within the organization. Therefore, the organizations are changing the tradition methods to a more flexible method. It is remarkable to see that even though the organizational requirements have changed dramatically, educational and development concept has not been incorporated in most of the leadership development programs. Therefore, emphases on holistic approach have increased significantly.
According to Bryson (2018), organizational goals are developed as per the needs of the stakeholders and effectiveness of the organizational goals can only be increased by focusing on development programs. The increase in the number of personalized learning programs within the organization is indicating that in order to make the goals an effective, various organization have been making an effort. However, it is difficult for small-scale organizations to incorporate this entire factor, as they will face resourcing challenges to these policies. The implementation of all these policies into the organizational setting is not easy so few organizations has been able to implement these policies effectively.
The literature used in the study have emphasized on leadership approaches and the development programs. There is little emphasis on organizational goals and how it can be made more effective using leadership development programs. Therefore, none of the literature has provided relevant opinions about organizational effectiveness. However, even though as there are lack of literature in this subject it will be difficult to compare secondary and primary data. The major drawbacks of these theories are similar to the trait theory as they have failed to consider the situational factors. The effectiveness of leadership is highly affected by the situational factors.
The study is aiming to find out the existing relationship between leader, leadership development programs and effectiveness of the organizational goals. Therefore, the study will try to evaluate the current situation within NHS, which will enable to identify the current issues in leadership and development programs. Therefore, effective recommendations can be made so that the issues prevalent within the organization can be mitigated. Therefore, the research hypothesis developed are based on the literature and will be the model for the study. The hypotheses will establish the relation discussed in the literature review of the study.
H10-Leadership does not have any impact on the effectiveness of organizational goals in National Health Services
H11-Leadership does have any impact on the effectiveness of organizational goals in National Health Services
H20-Leadership development program does not have any impact on the effectiveness of organizational goals in National Health Services
H21-Leadership development program does have any impact on the effectiveness of organizational goals in National Health Services
This chapter of the study will analyze the findings of the data collected from the respondents. This will consist of quantitative analysis of data using SPSS, which is a statistical software for calculating descriptive statistics, correlation and regression. Therefore, the concepts discussed within the second chapter of the study will be validated using quantitative analysis. The hypotheses developed using the secondary data collection will be validated in this chapter. These findings will also consist of ANOVA, which define the relationship between multiple variables at the same time.
Reliability testing has been performed in the study based on the develop questionnaire on different populations to check the result. Reliability is the ability of the study to develop similar result using different sample population. The reliability coefficient in the study is greater than 0.7 that signifies that the data collected is reliable.
1. How old are you?
Table 1: Age
The above table shows the correlation of the variables at a significance level of at 0.01 and it can be clearly seen that there is highly degree of correlation between effectiveness of organizational goals and the leadership development programs. The findings have been very clear that the management in National Health Services will have to change policies at their management level if they want to make their goals more effective than before.
Carter et al. (2014) stated that triangulation refers to the things through which the significance of one thing can be determined by from the other selected procedures. Turner et al. (2017) furthermore depicts that using more than one method for gathering same set of data is also known as triangulation. In terms of this research study, the term triangulation means that how the chosen research strategies and methods is helpful in addressing the chosen research objectives and questions. This chapter explains the effectiveness of the theories that is gathered from the literature review and the data collected and analysis of the questions for addressing the research questions and also validates the chosen research types to explain the same.
The research comprised of four research objectives that is to identify the impact of good leadership on organizational goals in National Health Services (NHS), to find out the various issues in leadership in order to identify possible solutions in the selected organization, evaluating the different elements of leadership affecting the organizational goals in NHS and lastly, recommending suitable strategies for improving the leadership in NHS.
The literature review of the research also highlights the importance of leadership in developing organizational goals. It has been identified that instead of being just an influence process, leaders performs as the managers of meaning and thus it is important for them to highlight all the necessary things for the organization and set different goals through which the organizational objectives can be obtained.
The literature review of the research study also identifies the elements of the leadership and also highlights different forms of leadership style that are transactional, transformational and laissez-faire leadership style. Through laissez-faire leadership style it is found that a leader should possess the nature to understand the work what their subordinates are doing. Thus, this will highlight the impact of good leadership through which the leaders can make decisions son what goals can be formatted that best defines their working ability and helps them to obtain the organizational goals with more effectiveness. On the other hand, the other two leadership styles helps in identifying the motivation needs of the employees like rewards and incentives and gaining of more trust which helps to address the first research objective.
It is also found that the SMART model is considered as the most effective factor for developing the organizational goals. These goals will also help the managers to develop goals that is attainable and within a specific period of time and can be measured precisely. The literature review also addresses the condition of the past and present leadership development procedures that helps in highlighting the required materials and procedure for providing effective training to the present employee of the NHS. These elements are cross-checked by the answers that are given by the managers in the interview process. Thus, the literature review that is developed is also valid and helps in addressing the research questions.
There are two hypothesis selected for the research study. The first hypothesis highlights that leadership has a role in effective organizational goals; whereas, the second hypothesis is that leadership development program plays an effective role in making organizational goals. Since the hypothesis is developed at first prior gathering any data collection from research respondents. Thus, the method of deductive research purpose justifies the research process. This is because no new theories have been generated and the literature review and the data collection from the respondents are used to answer the research objectives by validating or rejecting the hypothesis.
In order to highlight the relationship between the two researches variables in the research study that is the leadership development program and goals making, SPSS statistical tool has been adopted. This method also allows in finding the co-relation of each of the research questions and the regression shows the relation between. This process will help in accepting or rejecting the hypothesis formulated for the research study. Particularly for this research, both the research hypothesis is accepted. Moreover, the reason for selecting SPSS tool is because it allows multiple regressions at once and hence this process is valid and suitable for the research study.
The questionnaire that is formulated in this research highlights details about NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme and some of its crucial elements like efficient in addressing organizational objectives, develops good leadership skills, growth of the employees, facilitating employees to attain organizational objectives. These questions are answered by the employees of the NHS and the remaining questions like leadership succession plan of the NHS, support of the system-level action plan idea, effective communication through the program and advancement of the employee careers and increasing engagement of the employee in the organization. Thus, both closed ended and open-ended question has been developed in order to make apply both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. Thus, both the method used is valid and effective in addressing the research objectives.
The first imitation of the research study is the small sample size. Only 55 respondents have been selected for the research out of which 50 are the employees of the NHS; while, the research of the 5 are the managers of the same organization. The smaller size though helps in generating more detailed and in-depth analysis of their response but the perception of all the NHS employees of leadership development program is not attained through this research study.
Another limitation of this research study is that it is based on a single industry that is Medicare and health industry. This research thus shows whether or not a good leadership development program impacts the organizational goals of the National Health Services. This research does no highlight the effectiveness of development of organizational goals on any other industry or other hospitals and medical centre that is not present under NHS. Moreover, the organization that is selected is only for United Kingdom and nor for other nations or states. Thus, the in terms of demographics, the research study has limitation.
Objective 1: To identify the impact of goods leadership on organizational goals in National Health Services
The literature review shows that a good leader understand what their subordinates are doing and also understands their situation by having in-depth knowledge of the working process. Moreover, leaders should also identify the factors through which these employees can be motivated and can outperform. It is also found from the literature review that these leaders should also gain trust with the employees and thus have to develop effective interpersonal relationship.
Objective 2: To investigate the various issues in leadership in order to identify possible solutions in NHS
Through the data analysis, it has been found that the employees of the NHS do not use the Graduate Management Training Scheme frequently as a result they lack the knowledge they require to perform more effectively. Moreover, it has been also found that NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme is not effective enough to address their organizational goals and total of 37 out of 50 employees stated shows a negative perception on their training program. Another issue that is highlighted in their program the training program that is provided in the NHS does not supports the growth of the employees and total of 39 research respondents out of 50 agrees with this fact. The respondents also stated that the training program adopted in the NHS is not at all effective and this is agreed by 20 of the total respondents; while, additional 23 of the respondents gives a neutral perspective.
Objective 3: To evaluate the different elements of leadership affecting the organizational goals in NHS
The literature review highlighted that these are the most important element of the leadership is the approach that is possessed by the leader. The three leadership approaches that are highlighted in this research study are transactional, transformational and laissez-faire. The transactional leadership style highlight that leaders prefers rewarding the subordinate, who are outperforming and also highlight the different competency of some employee in front of others so that they can also get the motivation to achieve goals with more effectiveness. Transformation leadership style believes in gaining more trust, respect and admiration and this will enhances the commitment and organizational performance of the employees. Lastly, the Laissez- faire style of leadership highlights the sense of responsibility that a leader should possess. This sense will help the employees that their managers are also interested in their working approach and they will on the other hand develop to share their concern with their managers or leaders.
Objective 4: To recommend the suitable strategies for improving the leadership in NHS
All the employees should have to remind about the organizational goals for which they have to align their competency so that they all can achieve the objectives set by the organization. This process will help the trainees or the employees to perform better. Moreover, NHS should also ask for established medical trainer to give training so that they can give them proper knowledge on improve medical system. These leaders can also encourage the employees more and also provide them the opportunity to implement their preferred thoughts. Many experts also stated that it is better to consider employees demands prior conducting any training program. It is recommended to follow employee’s concern so that they can show their interest to attend the program once they see that their concern and suggestion has been followed by the organization.
It is important to make the training activities compulsory for all the employees and they have to attend it for a particular interval of time. It is has been noted that in some organization due to loss of pay, many employees do not prefer to attend the training programs. Another reason is that these training programs are held after the working hour, which furthermore decreases the chance for the employees to attend the training programs. Thus NHS should develop training session that is paid and within the working hour. This will increase the chances of the employees to attend the training program.
The more interesting is the training program, the more will be the employee enjoys the training session. Thus, the leadership development training program that the NHS should implement should comprise with group work, quizzes and different assessments through which two-way communication medium can be developed. Computer based training session can also be conducted. This will help the NHS to give training to those employees, who are not present in the hospital campus or in the training centre.
NHS should also give for chance of all the trainees to perform as a leader. The trainer can also develop some situations through which their competencies can be judged. This will help all the candidates to showcase their talent. The managers should also conduct several assessments through which they can highlight their progress and offer challenging job roles and responsibilities along with financial rewards.
A leader should also have to communicate with their team members or subordinate more effectively. These leaders should also have knowledge about emotional intelligences so that they can identify the emotions and concern of the employees. These employees should also give training in conveying their message to the subordinates through both verbal and non-verbal training procedures.
This research is based on both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. However, the sample size taken in this research study is smalls and thus in future this research can be conducted on a larger sample size so that the role of the leadership development programme can be well identified on the entire organization. Another limitation that these researches have is the lack of secondary research. Thus, secondary research should also be incorporate on order to cross-check the finding through the primary research and quantitative data analysis method. In addition to that, this research can be conducted on other health care organizations of other nations other than NHS in United Kingdom or other industry of the same nations. This approach will highlight the difference of utilization of different type of leadership style that can be attained through leadership development program.
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