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Discrimination may create an issue for each individual at the workplace. Discrimination may also decline the human capital whereas generating an aggressive working atmosphere for the workforces and employers. Moreover, workplace discrimination is a phrase that many human resource managers apply to their workplace. It is defined as discrimination in promotion, compensation, termination, job assignment, hiring and promotion (Gov.Uk. 2018). It is addressed that there is much authority that prohibited certain kinds of workplace discrimination. However, this forbidding discrimination is relied on some feature. Moreover, discrimination within an organisation must not be mystified with genuine advice and comment such as feasible unfavourable remark and criticisms with supervisors and managers on the task and work-linked attitude of a person and set of individuals (Independent, 2018).
In addition, employment discrimination regulations seek to avoid discrimination as per sex, religion, race, age, physical injury and national origin by supervisors. An increasing legislation also focuses on avoiding discrimination of employment as per the sexual category. Along with this, discriminatory activities involve partiality in recruiting, task allocation, promotion, retaliation, different kind of harassment (Vickers, 2016).
The procedure of offering criticism to employees at the time of formal performance appraisal, and counseling employees towards tasks, will not be liberated from anxiety. Hence, supervisor must organise this kinds of procedures with feeling; however, they should not eliminate their accountabilities to offer full and honest comments to employees (Verniers, and Vala, 2018).
In current decades, discrimination highly exists in the workplace. It is identified that workplace conceals these practices from the external atmosphere. However, there are different regulation and human resources program to contradict it and to endorse gratitude of differentiation. Moreover, discrimination might be insignificant, but different researches have analysed its impact. Two individuals who have alike experiences and competencies however diverse background could be pushed in different paths. The key issue is that prejudice highly unintentional together with mainly undetectable. It may occur in each day practices like assignments of task, familiar mentoring together with appraisals of performance (Offermann, et. al., 2014).
For example, in Tesco, discrimination creates a serious hazard in an effective discharge of its duties. It is assessed that women face discrimination at the time of promotion to get a higher rank. This discrimination disrupts the dreams of workforces at the workplace. This study tries to provide awareness to avoid discrimination in the workplace of UK (Sipe, et. al., 2016).
This investigation would be beneficial for gaining awareness about the element of discrimination in the workplace. It would be also effective for comprehending the impact of discrimination on the workplace. This research would be prominent for comprehending the remedies to eliminate the discrimination within an organization (Verniers, and Vala, 2018).
The main aim of this research is to identify discrimination in the workplace. Following objectives are used to accomplish key aim of this investigation:
RO1: To explore the conceptual understanding about elements of discrimination in the Workplace
RO2: To assess the impact of discrimination on the workplace
RO3: To recommend the remedies to avoid discrimination at the workplace
RQ1: What are the conceptual understanding regarding elements of discrimination in the Workplace?
RQ2: What is the impact of discrimination on the workplace?
RQ3: What could be remedied to avoid discrimination in the workplace?
According to Jemal Gardiner and Bloeser (2018), discrimination is illustrated as distinguishing differences amid things and treating someone as inferior as per their national origin, race, age and sex, and other characteristics. Moreover, discrimination within an organisation is a key issue in current society of business. The increase in gender with cultural diversity within an organisation has constrained workforces from diverse backgrounds and ethnicities to collaborate for attaining the goal of the corporation.
In contrast to this, Bayl?Smith and Griffin (2014) evaluated that distinguishes between people have a propensity to guide to misunderstanding and, the outcome in discrimination and conflict. Moreover, supervisors have accountability towards their employees to secure them from unfairness and inequitable conduct within an organisation.
In the view of Brouwers et al. (2016), discrimination based on race is key types of disenfranchisement at the workplace. As per the view of EEOC, racial discrimination entails treating either job applicants or employee adversely because of a certain race or personal characteristics related to specific race. As per the EEOC, racial discrimination could occur while the workforce is married to and related to someone of the particular race along with, if that workforce is somehow related to race-based group and organization. Racial discrimination can happen in an overt way like with the practice of racial slurs with respect to workforces and not promoting a workforce due to their skin color.
On the other side, Ozeren (2014) stated that religious discrimination entails the unfavorable conduct of employees or job applicants due to their religious beliefs. In the U.K., the federal regulation prohibits the religious discrimination and defends not only those who are members of more traditional religions like Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, and Judaism but also, defend an individual who has moral, religious beliefs and ethical. In the U.K., managers must also make sensible grooming and dress code accommodations for workforces as per the religious beliefs if such accommodations would not generate excessive adversity at the workplace.
Jones et al. (2017) stated that pregnancy discrimination entails treating a female job applicant or workforces unfavorably due to pregnancy, medical condition, and childbirth-related to these conditions. The pregnancy discrimination act restricts discrimination with respect to employment such as firing, hiring, promotion, training, firing and benefits and any other terms and circumstance of employment. When a woman is temporarily unable to carry out their usual job responsibilities due to a medical condition associated to childbirth or pregnancy then, the employer would be restricted by the federal government to treat them as temporarily disabled workforces. It can involve light duty, disability leave, alternative assignment, and unpaid leave.
In support of this Hagelskamp and Hughes (2014), evaluated that discriminating against a person due to their sex is not only wrong but also illegal activities. Sex-based discrimination entails treating an individual in an unfavorable way because that person is transgendered. This kind of discrimination is defined as gender identity discrimination. Moreover, undesirable sexual advances, demands, and needs for sexual positive discrimination and other physical and vocal harassment all breach the federal regulation about sexual harassment. With sex-based discrimination, both women and men can be fatalities and perpetrators.
According to Malos (2015), the equality act 2010 lawfully secures the individual from prejudice within an organisation and in the wider community. It swaps the earlier anti-discrimination regulation with a single regulation because it is easier to comprehend and strengthening safety in certain circumstances. It is stated that federal regulation avoids the discrimination at the workplace and are enforced by EEOC. These are passed by the legislative body and signed by the head of the department.
In support of this, Seiner (2018) stated that the equality act 2010 makes it illegal to discriminate against workforces, trainees, job seekers due to race. It involves the different elements of color, ethnic, nationality, and ethnic and national source. For instance, some companies reject the best applicant for a job because they do not belong to the UK. Since, employer feels that they would not ‘fit in’ with the rest of the staff because they are all English.
Vanhove and Gordon (2014) stated that the equality act 2010 makes it unlawful to discriminate in against workforces due to physical and mental disability. In the equality act 2010, an individual would be disabled when they have a mental and physical injury. It may have significant long-standing and adverse impact on the ability to perform normal day to day practices. At the workplace, these activities involve different things such as a computer, telephone, communicating with colleagues, driving and carrying everyday objects, following instructions and interacting with colleagues. The equality act 2010 offers disabled people with securing from discrimination in a range of areas such as employment.
On the other side, Choi et al. (2018) evaluated that three-quarter of UK employees feel age-discrimination at the workplace and due to this, both the oldest and youngest feeling more distressed. As per job-listings site and CV-library, a third of employees state that they have been discriminated adversely due to their age.
Davey (2014) stated that the law on equal pay is determined in the equality of terms provision of equality act 2010. This act provides a right to equal pay amid women and men for their equal work. It covers an individual in the same employment and involves equality in pay and all other terms of the contract.
On the other side, Marcus and Fritzsche (2016) described that the employment act 2008 was developed on 13th November 2008. This focuses on the process of resolution of employment disputes. It involves the reward for underpayment and enforcement of least wages. The employment agencies together with trade unions have also involved in the employment act 2008. This issue covered under the act that demonstrates a clear purpose to focus on fairness with the low of employment and keeps a legal certainty. Furthermore, the different ambiguous concept has been eliminated through the act under argument.
According to Macdonald and Levy (2016), the employer must protect their employees from discrimination at the workplace. They must involve feasible procedures to avoid unwanted discrimination behavior. Failure to perform this can result in fines, criminal penalties, and lawsuits in against the corporation. Moreover, employers are accountable to generate sensible accommodation for workforces that have a disability and needs special services.
On the other side, Dalton (2015) stated that although employees have different rights related to anti-discrimination yet they are accountable to keep their own security. Workforces are obliged to notify supervisors of any discrimination that they practice and any extraordinary accommodation that they could require within an organization. They are auxiliary constrained to keep themselves from added injury if at all doable. Breakdown to perform can discharge the manager from legal responsibility claim that may consequence in upcoming period. Moreover, a manager who is unconscious about the desires of employees cannot help them.
According to Kinzel (2014), when an individual is experiencing gender discrimination at the workplace then they may face mental health issue. A person is being discriminated against developing higher anxiety level. It may be more prone to outbreak and depression. These employees might shift towards the drugs and alcohol to manage and that might be negatively influence their competency to perform their job responsibilities. In addition, mental health issues are a key issue for employers who have unstable workforces taking penalizing action within an organization.
According to Moura Costa and Joaquim (2014), discrimination is a type of discrimination that may gain the chances of conflict in the workplace. Furthermore, the team focuses on reallocating job duties to head offices. It can break a team and one group can face discrimination by the discriminator. It may create conflict but it is not good for an organization. It might have impact on the job performance of different departments and teams.
On the other side, Kingston et al. (2015) evaluated that when conflict increases at the workplace then it may adversely impact on the workforces. It also saturates an organization, down to the smallest amount significant practices like receiving coffee at a different time for eliminating their conflicts. The overall morals of the team may decline as an individual start walking on eggshells for eliminating any intensification in the conflict. Moreover, poor morale has an adverse impact on the culture of the company and is directly experienced by consumers.
In the view of Moura Costa and Joaquim (2014), productivity could be declined by increasing conflict and failing morale. As a business leader, they should have an understanding that workforces who are comfortable and happy for their tasks are the best player. When an individual is trying to reduce unfavorable behavior like practicing gender unfairness then it could have a noteworthy affects the baseline of an organization.
On the other side, Kingston et al. (2015) stated that employers need to be concerned regarding the company’s productivity and morale while it comes to gender discrimination. There could be chances of creating certain legal concern. Discrimination of any types such as equality among gender may lead to unfavorable legal measures. When a corporation does not identify discrimination allegations and measures feasibly, then dissatisfied workforces can bring a grievance in against an organization for not defensive their human rights.
Kinzel (2014) discussed that discriminatory practices may affect the reputation of the company within the community it deals. Discrimination might affect directly to the client when a company offers inferior facilities to a specific set of the group as per the specific demographic criteria like race. However, customers can also be indirectly discriminated by the organization. For instance, when an entrance to the store is only reachable with steep steps, then an organization would involuntarily prevent disabled consumers from accessing the services. Along with this, the company does not underestimate the effect of unhappy workforces on reputation and recruitment success. In the view of Moura Costa and Joaquim (2014), dissatisfied employees will complain to their friends and family who wants to join the business. Moreover, know-how job seekers will investigate an organization before applying. An organization is facing different unfairness grievances and company with workforces who honestly influence their dissatisfaction, will have an unsettling impact on recruiting competencies and causes the top applicants in the industry to seem in a different place.
As per the opinion of Dalton (2015), discriminatory practices may influence the job satisfaction of all workforces not only those who are discriminated. In addition, bonuses, promotions along with benefits should be awarded as per the qualification of employees and performance of the tasks. When a workforce constantly sees that promotion is being provided as per the race, gender, and another discriminatory factor, then his constrain to advance within an organisation and performs to best of his competencies is adversely influenced.
In support of this, Kinzel (2014) evaluated that a workforce who perceives regular discrimination is more prospects to leave the workplace, and it would aid to gain the turnover level. Although, certain unintentional turnover is related to firing to poor performers but, it is beneficial for the business growth. When a voluntary turnover of the company is high then it can lose the skilled and competent employees. In addition, training and recruiting replacement is expensive for an organization and it can affect productivity. When a workforce believes that there is no scope for them at the workplace, they would make less investment in the profession. Furthermore, employees cannot be placed in another position as they are hired for temporary period. It intended that people are less dedicated and faithful towards the business as compared to an individual who wants long-term career within an organisation.
According to Davey (2014), the company can do something willingly to support people with protected features. It is known as a positive action. Moreover, taking favorable action is legal when people with protected characteristics such as have specific needs, is under-represented in an activity and type of work and are at the disadvantage.
H0: There is no significant relationship between discrimination and workplace
H1: There is a significant association between discrimination and workplace
From the above research model, it can be stated that there are two variables in this research study such as the independent variable and dependent variable. In this way, the independent variable is discrimination and the dependent variable is workplace performance. It indicates that discrimination with employees will have a direct impact on workplace performance (Dalton, 2015).
In this investigation, a mixed research method would be used as it would contain the features of both quantitative with qualitative investigation. In such case, qualitative research methodology would be used to collect the theoretical information regarding discrimination in the workplace. This data would be collected via a literature review. In addition, quantitative research methodology would be practiced for gathering the numeric data about the research issue. This data would be collected via a survey through a questionnaire. It would aid to increase the reliability and validity of the research outcome (Kinzel, 2014).
Bayl?Smith, P.H., and Griffin, B., 2014. Age discrimination in the workplace: Identifying as a late?career worker and its relationship with engagement and intended retirement age. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(9), pp.588-599.
Brouwers, E.P.M., Mathijssen, J., Van Bortel, T., Knifton, L., Wahlbeck, K., Van Audenhove, C., Kadri, N., Chang, C., Goud, B.R., Ballester, D. and Tófoli, L.F., 2016. Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with the major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study in 35 countries. BMJ Open, 6(2), p.e009961.
Choi, E., Ospina, J., Steger, M.F. and Orsi, R., 2018. Understanding work enjoyment among older workers: The significance of flexible work options and age discrimination in the workplace. Journal of gerontological social work, pp.1-20.
Dalton, L., 2015. Marital Status Discrimination in the Workplace: The Need for Title VII Protection and a Uniform Definition of the Term Marital Status. Penn St. L. Rev., 120, p.867.
Davey, J., 2014. Age discrimination in the workplace. Policy Quarterly, 10(3).
Gov.Uk. 2018. Discrimination: your rights. [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/discrimination-your-rights/what-you-can-do (Accessed: 09 November 2018).
Hagelskamp, C. and Hughes, D.L., 2014. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), p.550.
Independent. 2018. Majority of UK workers say age discrimination is common at work. [Online]. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/uk-workers-age-discrimination-common-workplace-office-young-majority-a8103511.html (Accessed: 09 November 2018).
Jemal, A., Gardiner, M., and Bloeser, K., 2018. Perceived Race as Variable: Moderating Relationship Between Perceived Discrimination in the Workplace and Mentally Unhealthy Days. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities, pp.1-8.
Jones, K.P., Arena, D.F., Nittrouer, C.L., Alonso, N.M., and Lindsey, A.P., 2017. Subtle discrimination in the workplace: A vicious cycle. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), pp.51-76.
Kingston, G., McGinnity, F., and O’Connell, P.J., 2015. Discrimination in the labor market: nationality, ethnicity, and recession. Work, employment and society, 29(2), pp.213-232.
Kinzel, L., 2014. New Study Finds That Weight Discrimination in the Workplace is Just as Horrible and Depressing as Ever. Retrieved February, 10, p.2015.
Macdonald, J.L. and Levy, S.R., 2016. Ageism in the workplace: The role of psychosocial factors in predicting job satisfaction, commitment, and engagement. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), pp.169-190.
Malos, S., 2015. Overt Stereotype Biases and Discrimination in the Workplace: Why Haven’t We Fixed This by Now?. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 27(4), pp.271-280.
Marcus, J. and Fritzsche, B.A., 2016. The cultural anchors of age discrimination in the workplace: A multilevel framework. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2(2), pp.217-229.
Moura, R., Costa, D., and Joaquim, N., 2014. HIV/AIDS and work: Pathways and Strategies for Combating Discrimination/Stigma in the workplace. international journal on working conditions, (8), pp.44-62.
Offermann, L.R., Basford, T.E., Graebner, R., Jaffer, S., De Graaf, S.B. and Kaminsky, S.E., 2014. See no evil: Colorblindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), p.499.
Ozeren, E., 2014. Sexual orientation discrimination in the workplace: A systematic review of the literature. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, pp.1203-1215.
Seiner, J., 2018. A Modern Approach to Pay Disparities in the Workplace. Jotwell: J. Things We Like, p.1.
Sipe, S.R., Larson, L., Mckay, B.A. and Moss, J., 2016. Taking off the blinders: A comparative study of university students’ changing perceptions of gender discrimination in the workplace from 2006 to 2013. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(2), pp.232-249.
Vanhove, A. and Gordon, R.A., 2014. Weight discrimination in the workplace: a meta?analytic examination of the relationship between weight and work?related outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(1), pp.12-22.
Verniers, C. and Vala, J., 2018. Correction: Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths. PloS one, 13(7), p.e0201150.
Verniers, C. and Vala, J., 2018. Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths. PloS one, 13(1), p.e0190657.
Vickers, L., 2016. Religious freedom, religious discrimination, and the workplace. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.
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