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Value Capture Mechanism

Discuss about the Business Environment for Government Trading Enterprise.

Public investment has the capability of generating a huge increase in the value of surrounding lands. There is the occurrence of the high windfalls which come about as a result of land zoning. Land zoning is the employment with an aim of capitalizing on higher growth opportunities which are generated by upcoming infrastructure. The purpose of public investments is to maximize the benefits of the community but the private landowners take back home immense profits whereas the other lot is disadvantaged. Value capture is a term used to refer to the financial funding meant to recover the public funding that is generated to the private investors. The mechanisms of value capture strife to rectify the latter by clawing back some of the increased land or business revenue (Bowman & Ambrosini, 2012). The funds clawed back are then allocated to the initial cost of the provision of infrastructure. Given that there is a change in planning, the uplift of land value can give people an assurance of affordable housing at a relatively lower price (this helps people who earn low income in most cases).

The local governments of Australia are capable of introducing extraordinary levies with an aim of funding particular items through the use of taxes or rates. For example, the light rail in Gold Coast was funded via the transport levy from the council. However, since the levies cut across all taxpayers instead of being confined to the areas that face the direct uplift, the latter then does not give a clear representation of value capture in the strict sense of the term (Lepak P., 2013). Value capture by the use of planning process is another tactic. The value capture majors on the benefits that are accrued from the public investment or the decisions of planning.

One method used to capture the value that is created through the public investment is levying the charge on the first property transaction (sale of land).Another tactic is to have an additional levy to the contributions that are paid by those  who are developing (Smith & Gihring, 2014). A good example is in the case whereby the government of NSW prefigured the special infrastructure subsidization for the development of new residential areas along the Parramatta Road which consumed an estimate of $200 per every meter of the gross floor area.

The latter amount of money estimates about $ 20,000 per every apartment. However, claims from industry Lobby group points out that the levy discourages growth and development. However, the latter appears to be cheeky given that the prices are set by the market and which in the case of the light rail is expected to rise by about 3% (Pitellis, 2014).value capture induces unfair burden to specific societal sectors and more precisely the landowners and the developers.

Tactics for Value Capture

The Government Trading Enterprise (GTE) capital expenditure like in the provision of electricity and water has doubled in the last decade in Sydney as shown in the above diagram. However, the latter seems confusing given that the growth in population has been a consisted 2% and that the expenditure is doubling (Chatain & Zemky, 2014). From an economic point of view, the latter makes a lot of sense. The utilities are the commercial monopolies that make the real profit and then pay the government dividends.

The increment in tax financing is a tactic used in the value capture mechanism in many countries across the globe. Other states around the globe are also using value capture with an aim of delivering good infrastructure. For instance, in Japan (Hong Kong) the Metropolitan Transit Railway Corporation progresses its infrastructure with the development of land, the latter being part of the rail program (Calabro & Della, 2013). In United Kingdom, the tactic of value capture raised 32% of the total cost of the cross rail plan and an additional 14% to the expansion of Dulles Metro rail in Washington DC. There was also a deployment of the user charges on the             High-Speed One (HS1) terminal which has a connection between St Pancras Station and the tunnel channel.in San Francisco, the Transbay Transit Centre is partially funded by the private developers who bought the right to develop the surrounding buildings at a higher height than the normal one. In Brazil, São Paulo has been raising funds from the urban infrastructure through the auctioning of the tradable development certificates which are the right for the development of the residential sites near the proposed site.

The Transbay transit Centre in San Francisco is a good example that shows the design and the scope of a project can have a crucial effect on the Availability and suitability of the new funding financing options and the vice versa. This plan was originally viewed as a transport scheme (Batt, 2013). However, with the addition of some important investment in the amenities and the creation of development opportunities, the value of revenues of value capture in the form of future property was revealed and made accessible to aid a loan that came from the United States of America.

The scheme led to the creation of new neighborhood that had homes, offices, and shops that surrounded the modern transit center. The scheme features a park which is 5.4 acres of park and there is also a tower which is adjacent. The newly elevated bus ramps open up some other parcels of land and the opportunities for development (Afuah & Tucci, 2014). The first phase which cost the project $ 1.6 billion was partly funded by the development which were created through the designing of the scheme. The sources of revenue were $ 429 million which came from the land sales and an additional $ 171 million loan coming from the US federal government agency under the Transport Infrastructure Finance and innovation Act program. The securement of the loan was made a success by the proper increment of the revenues got from the sale of land and also the development of the state owned parcels and the commitment that came from and a commitment that came from the charges from the passenger facilities.

Implications of Value Capture

The TIFIA repayment and servicing loan was gotten through the implementation of a TIF project. An approximate of $ 430 million from the financial year 2014/ 2015 in the net property tax increase is projected to come from the life of the redevelopment plan after the Transbay Joint powers Authority achieved its obligations which were to make payments to the impacted tax entities (Rybeck, 2014). An approximate of $ 178 million of the increment in the net tax is pledged to aid in paying the cost of rebuilding the transit Centre.

The Australian governments are confronted with constraints that pose a limitation to the various investments they fund through the sources of funding: funding from the government and also the charges from the user. Transport demand and infrastructure problems. The mechanisms of value capture give a potential for the generation of new streams of funding through the increase and the leverage of the values that are created for the beneficiaries (Ingram & Hong, 2014). The latter gives the government some allowance in the deliverance of infrastructure which could not otherwise be funded. Proposed projects are also delivered ahead of time and this helps in enjoying their benefits early.

Australia is in dire need of more developed infrastructure as seen from the national reviews of Australia`s public infrastructure advisor. The latter believes that value capture should be a factor of consideration in all investments in the entire country. The view has also been backed up by the independent advisor of the government infrastructure.


An example of the above is noted in the challenge of funding, which are generally faced by both the state and federal government in the struggle to deal with the pipeline belonging to the urban rail projects which ranges from Melbourne Metro, Cross river rail, the light rail in the West of Sydney and the strong railway connection to the future airport in the western Sydney (Little, 2014). The costs that will be incurred due to the rails are immense since statistics show that the expenditure will rise to about $30 billion although this will depend on the final route and design.

The rail projects do offer opportunities to value capture. There is an increase in the value of the land which is around the surrounding stations and to be precise if it is rezoned to permit multistory and some higher worth utilizations. Many individuals pass through huge stations in day to day life and hence lead to the generation of the foot traffic kiosks, an increase in the access to the employees and the creation of valuable development chances of the operations in shopping centers (Bowman & Ambrosini, 2012). The government of Australia and the territory government are interested in the pursuance of value capture chances relating to the rail projects.

Case Studies

The current market setting can prevent the projects from developing in various ways. Particularly, given that we think of a market responsible for the supply of transport services which gives benefit to the piece of land and all its occupiers (Rybeck, 2014). There has been no clear evidence showing the willingness of the landowners and other beneficiaries to offer payments for the infrastructure and other developments.


In most cases, the default way is for the governments to pay for the total cost of the transport and infrastructure through the budget expenditure and then this is financed by the general taxation. Contrary to this, the value capture   tactic aids in the zeal to raise some contribution towards the cost of transport and infrastructure from those who gain from the usage of the infrastructure (Bowman & Ambrosini, 2012). The capture would be meant for the government to make payments for the capital cost of a modern railway line but for a small amount of the total cost to be paid by the businesses that are located near the stations that are on the line from the station and have the capability of accessing a relatively larger labor pool.

Another example that can be given for the value capture explanation land approach is the right to put up a railway line which is meant for a given private company together with the grant property which is owned by the government the locations whose proximity is close to the railway line (Chatain & Zemky, 2014). The firm would then be given the responsibility of building the railway line: through financing the costs by the use of the profits which are earned from the developing property the same model has been used in the same way in Hong Kong.

Conclusion

Keeping politics a bay, several issues must be tabled if at all the issue of value capture is to be addressed to the fullest in Australia and the general universe. The calculation of the uplift would be complex but of great importance. The price of land goes up in anticipation of more investment and hence a robust framework for value capture is highly recommended before the occurrence of such kind of a speculation.

Value capture should bring down the morale of development or lead to an expensive method of land acquisition. The latter means that there should be close attention to the viability of the project in the process of setting the capture requirements. There should also be a robust mechanism that is meant for the collection of funds through either the planning procedure or for the land which is sold.

Although the ongoing conversation gives much focus on the transport sector, with time, there will emerge pressure from the other projects claiming that they should be funded. The most obvious ones are the housing sector and the schools, which go missing when the value of land increases. However, the current information concerning value capture may be the new interest of the commonwealth in cities and the urge to aid more affordable domiciles the public transport which can be recommended in many countries.

Afuah, A. & Tucci, 2014. Value Capture and Crowdsourcing:Academy of management review 39(6)pp.423-437. s.l.:s.n.

Batt, W. H., 2013. Value capture as a policy tool in Transportation Economics. s.l.:s.n.

Bowman, c. & Ambrosini, V., 2012. VValue creation versus Value capture:towards a coherent definition of value in strategy.British journal of management 11,No. 1 pp.67-78. s.l.:s.n.

Calabro, O. & Della, L., 2013. Public-Private partneship in building regenerations:an appraisal of the benefits of land value capture. s.l.:s.n.

Chatain, O. & Zemky, P., 2014. Value Creation and Value capture with Frictions. s.l.:s.n.

Ingram, G. K. & Hong, Y. H., 2014. Value Capture and Land Policies. British journal of Mnagement, Volume 45 (1), pp. 234-256.

Lepak P., 2013. Value Creation and Value Capture.A multi level perspective:Academy of management review. s.l.:s.n.

Little, T., 2014. Value Creation and Capture. New Yok: s.n.

Pitellis, C. N., 2014. Value capture,value creation and sustainable advantage. s.l.:s.n.

Rybeck, R., 2014. Using Value Capture to finance infrastructure and encourage compact development. s.l.:s.n.

Smith, J. J. & Gihring, T. A., 2014. Financing the transit systems through value capture:an American journal of economics and sociology 56(2) pp. 21-49. s.l.:s.n. 

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[Accessed 24 July 2024].

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My Assignment Help. Value Capture: Business Environment For Government Trading Enterprise [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 24 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/business-environment-government-trading-enterprise.

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