Discuss about the Aim of assessing the adequate amount of security can be provided by synchronization of networks in the banking sector and banking networks?
The aim of the current research work is to asses to what extent can a synchronized networked data centre provide the security needs in a banking environment.
The main objectives of the current study are
Investigation of network security issues in banks.
Proposing a security model to overcome security threats in synchronized networks.
Detailed presentation of the model (Pinning Synchronization of Networks of Networks).
In the daily activity there has been an increase in the data communication networks which serves wide range of organizations such as banks, insurance companies, building societies, government departments etc.(Waleed, et al. 2014). In many of these networks the security of data handled is clearly of great importance. It is an estimated figure that approximately 2,500 banks were having websites and the current public focus is on internet. But the greatest issue with this internet usage is the security breakdown(Kjell J. 2006).
The infrastructure of a network involves various components such as geographically distributed data sources, storage systems, computational resources and databases. This acts as a unified integrated resource. Due to this complexity of the infrastructure security problems become a complex and urgent undertaking for the network applications. In today’s environment 512 bit RSA has become vulnerable to attacks and no more secure. The 512 bit RSA used predominantly in banking sectors. But according to studies, the usefulness of this particular (Karuta et al. 2011). But after 2010, RSA-768 was as factored in 2010, the application of RSA-512 is still used for the signing purposes in banking security systems (Theophilos, et al. 2013). In order to secure vital data, information and financial transaction in virtual networks a broad study is required to assess the effects and draw a proper security plan (Karuta et al. 2011).
Need for security
As the network security has become and urgent security issue, the first thing to be kept in mind is that security protocols will protect the data which is encrypted and the devices which are used to access those data. The second thing which should be kept in mind is that the data is actually protected from any kind of security breach through proper security measure. The goal of any networks or systems security is to provide legitimate users an easy access and to prevent users with no proper privileges. Below are the various levels of security
Failure of authentication or authorization of users may lead to user threats mostcommon among this is hackers.
These threats normally occur due to insecure service level communication. When the user and service or resource provider communicate there is chance of mediator threat.
Service Provider Attack:
When the particular job is submitted by the respective user, the service provider, then accept the job and precess it. The service provider after completing the job process, send back the result to that particular user with a sound quality of service (Mirchev, 2013). These services threats are a kind of threats composed of malicious input like malicious code or malware (Kjell, 2006).
Networks' basic security requirements
As the use of internet is increasing in our daily life the security of the data is of utmost importance. Various methods of encryption and decryption were used to transfer data over network. Encryption is mainly done for highly secured data such as in bank transactions, military etc. These encryption methods are mainly of two types that are symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric key encryption also called private key encryption whereas asymmetric key is a combination of both public and private keys. The public key is announced to the public and private key is kept by the receiver(Kevin, et al.2014).
Confidentiality, integrity and authentication are main terms associated with security in a network. It is a known fact that authentication of any data helps to identify the entire entity in a system. It is very much important to maintain the confidentiality, as vital secret information is associated with the encryption. Proper protection should be taken for the authorization and modification of the important data is done through the process called integrity (Banks, Bowman and Casely, 2010)
At the entry point of the network system there should be an authentication mechanism. Authentication is verifying the identity of an entity in a network. An entity can be a user, resource provider or service provider.
Access or Authorization of the user:
The user of the system or facility should be able to transmit data. After transmission of certain data. It is important that the user also receives data against to the transmitted data. This whole process is done through a network resource (Baral, 2010).
Security Risk Categories
Broadly speaking the risks in the banking systems were divided into four types. They are
Unauthorized system or data access by banks business users.
Unauthorized system or data access by customers.
Unauthorized system or data access by system or application support personnel.
Unauthorized system or data access by public.
(Patrick andJohn, 1998)
So based on these the security requirements vary for each type of user such as for support personnel,
Access or Authorization of the user:
The user of the system or facility should be able to transmit data. After transmission of certain data. It is important that the user also receives data against to the transmitted data. This whole process is done through a network resource.
Confidentiality of the identity:
This aspect of the security system helps to make a certain information in a network kept as a private and secret substance. This authentication of information can be achieved by encryption.
Authentication of the user:
Authenticating and verifying of a particular identity or entity in a network should be done. An entity generally is the user. Sometimes the entity can also be the resource provider or the service provider.
Integrity of the system:
The process of sending information and receiving particular data in the transit process should not be modified (Kuzlu and Pipattanasompom, 2013).
Generator of the message cannot deny the message sent. This is useful for both legal and commercial reasons(Fasee, et al. 2011).
Nowadays networks exist everywhere and each network is typically composed of nodes and edges representing individuals in a network and connections among them respectively. Watts and Strogatzproposed the scale free and small world complex network models.Nowadays tens of thousands of nodes were included in complex huge networks. This complex huge network usually forms many clusters which are regarded as sub network of networks.
In the nature synchronization is one of the most typical collective behaviour, it has gained importance since the great work of Pecora and Carroll and their potential use in secure communications. The recent real world complex networks consist of large number of nodes compared to simple coupled networks. So the research on synchronization has gained phase and a detailed study is carried out in use of synchronization in various large scale complex networks with network topology. A master stability function method was used to investigate local synchronization, based on this the results were obtained for global synchronization of complex networks(Kjell J. 2006).
The work by Rajesh depicts that mainly there are two types of synchronization methods which are the clustered and the pinning synchronization respectively. Synchronization of nodes In a cluster manner is called cluster synchronization, In this process the nodes are categorized according to different properties in clusters (Al Lawati and Ali, 2015). In other hand, Synchronization pinning control is the method which focuses on pinning in each sub network small fraction. In this method each set of sub networks is pinned according to their own vital properties (Kiran et al. 2010).
The research work by Rinat and Ahmedgives the detailed functionality of pinning synchronization on networks of networks and its advantages. These afvantages are highlighted below,
In pinning synchronization there will not be any centralized leader from which in the whole network a fraction of nodes can receive the same information.
Pinning synchronization on network of networks new framework is very robust to deliberate attacks. Suppose in the sub-networks if some nodes and leaders are attacked, still the whole network is able to synchronize(Rinat and Ahmed 2000).
We know that if the network is not synchronized by itself it is quite difficult to apply controllers on all nodes. In complex networks pinning controls were investigated to save control costs. Pinning control is nothing but applying controllers on small fraction of nodes for the network to synchronize(Rajesh, et al. 2013).
Pinning Control Disadvantages:
It is difficult to control some nodes using the same information from the centralized leader as pinning controls are applied on a small fraction of nodes.
When it is compared to the actual leader, virtual leader is very much abstract and different in terms of master salve settings or the leader follower. The total information about the concerning fact, there is a gray area between the actual and virtual leader. So if there is any problem, it is not possible to differentiate between the actual and virtual leader. Another aspect is that the tracking of the virtual and actual leader is not possible with this method (Kraus, 2010).
Pinning control is very much prone to deliberate attacks. If a single node affected, the attack spreads through the other nodes as well. As a result the virus attack or network attack keeps spreading regardless of any diagnosis process. It is very much difficult to Diagnose each node in order to remove the threats.
suppose if even one node is affected there is a mess of whole network.
(Anudeep, et al.2013)
The recent studies mainly focus on network of networks such as phase synchronization of small world networks and cluster synchronization of networks. So the current research proposal focuses on pinning synchronization of networks of networks and its controller limitations.
In the current study pinning synchronization on network of networks is used as an experimental method. It can be seen from Figure 1 that in the global leader’s network some leaders are coupled together based on their neighbouring nodes and communicate through a local distributed protocol. There can be several sub-networks which are inter connected and can receive information from leaders network while in the followers network the leaders won’t receive information from the sub-networks. With respect to the modern concepts of network, each node with respect to each network can be established of its own and the edges from each connection between these networks (Watters et al. 2012)
For example if there is a network containing m sub-networks with N nodes in each sub-network with M leaders the nodes that receive information are represented as k= 1,2,.......,m.
Pinning Synchronization is derived using the expression, supposeM identical leaders with linearly diffusive coupling in a complex network is described as
(Wyn L. 1988)
As per the literature with a linearly diffusive coupling the complex dynamic network consists of N identical nodes and is represented by the formula
Where ξi(t) = (ξi1(t), ξi2(t), . . . , ξin(t))T ∈Rnis the stat vector of the ith node,
f:Rn −→ Rn is a continuously differentiable vector function,
Cis the coupling strength,
Ifγj>0 then two nodes can communicate through the jth state, and γj= 0 represents they cannot communicate.
Through the use of The Laplacian matrix we can determine and assess matrix representations. Through this particular equation, spectral Bi-Partitioning Algorithm can be constituted. As discussed earlier that to build a stout security system, composing proper algorithms are very much important. In order to produce such logarithms The Laplacian matrix is therefore used.
We all know that at times it is seen, that synchronization may not reach networks by the desired time. To assess this problem, some selective controllers were applied to a small function. These functions were constituted through the help of The Laplacian matrix. The pinning controller can be described through the derivatives of equations mentioned below,
(Wyn L. 1988)
(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)
Figure 1: A Structural model of networks of networks
Many real systems often have a community structure, like banking sectors. In this figure, a community network is shown where networks of networks with pinning control are demonstrated. In this case, multilayer networks are included where networks of networks are comprised of a set of leaders and followers. The leaders and followers are all dependent on each other.
Discussion and Conclusion:
The network infrastructure consists of a number of entities that have to be authenticated such as resources, services and users. In any network, authorization and access control are of vital importance. The goal of network security is to make its infrastructure seamless and protect it from security attacks both known and unknown. The issue of managing security of users and resources is most challenging for the network where the storage, computational and resources are dynamic, heterogeneous and multi-organizational in nature. So a comprehensive analysis of networks security and countermeasures is required for this collective study. So using this current framework, we can design a networking system which is more secure. Authentication and privacy prospect of this model will help to maintain the security level for each set of the network setup (Wang and Liu 2011). The framework which is designed can be implemented in order to user restriction and network privacy. The networks of networks pinning control model will help to restrict and overcome deliberate threats which are not possible in current used technologies. This system will also allow to fight back the threat and restrict in a small locus by not letting it to spread in corresponding and related networks (Wang and Liu 2011).
Attack and robustness of pinning synchronization
The original pinning synchronization scheme has a serious big drawback for deliberate attacks, in which some nodes or edges are removed from the network. In the older framework, if one node or virtual leader is attacked the whole network is insecure. By using the newer framework that is pinning synchronization on complex network of networks, this problem can be fully solved. Based on the three kinds of nodes that is leaders, pinning controlled nodes and uncontrolled nodes the attacks can be done as follows:
1) Attack on Leader
This is the most important criteria in the current framework. If the network is not satisfied under the attack the whole network may not synchronize.
2) Attack on controlled and uncontrolled nodes
Synchronization may not be reached in several sub-networks if there is an attack on controlled and uncontrolled nodes. The other networks which are not attacked can achieve synchronization and which does not result in cascading failure of the whole network.
Some of the examples from the previous studies where shown for verifying the theoretical analysis. Considering the two different cases with total five leaders with two leaders network
whereT- is an identity matrix.
Figure 2: Showing fully connected and the other is tree style networks.
Synchronization can be achieved even after attack on one of the leaders of the fully connected network because rest of the four leaders are fully connected and can be synchronizable. The figure 3 shows the error states on deliberate attack.
(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)
Figure 3: Showing the fully connected network with error states.
(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)Figure 4: Showing the network with tree style leaders and their error states.
However in the tree style network if one attacks the first leader making it’s disconnected, synchronization cannot be achieved between sub-networks and the leader’s networks causing removal of first leader from the network which can be seen from the figure(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)
(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)
Figure5: Showing state of errors between nodes after removing one leader in a fully connected network.
(LU, Renquan, et al. 2014)
Figure 6:Showing state of errors in a tree network after removing one leader
Through the current research method, the primary aim of assessing the adequate amount of security can be provided by synchronization of networks in the banking sector and banking networks. In this study, the model of pinning of a multilayer network s of networks mechanism is proposed method to be applied for achieving the mentioned aims (Wang and Liu 2011).From different sources of literature review, it is found that the mentioned newer framework of pinning synchronization of different networks is very much secure and robust during threats and deliberate attacks. This model will also provide all the mentioned five important services of the desired security plan which is confidential, Authentication, Authorization, Integrity and Nonredudiation. This study will provide a various types of security mechanisms which can applied in case of banking networking systems (Wang and Liu 2011).
The most important ethical considerations for this research proposal are
Network control is one of the most important ethical issues with respect to data and computation. Loss of control leads to sever problems and the main is security.The risks associated are unauthorized access, data corruption, infrastructure failure or unavailability.
Problem of many hands:
This occurs when there are many people involved in the system which is undesirable. . In the large network environments responsibilities are divided between large numbers of people and there is a greater chanceof failure. So the responsibilities should be assigned properly.
Self determination implements the fact that the right or ability of a particular person to control and use of these services. The entire power of this system can be bestowed to one particular person. Which will be very much dangerous and harmful if that particular person becomes corrupted.
It entails the users the things to be done. As a result the system or network protocols shows the users what should be done. As a result, the sphere of user freedom is somewhat restricted. Which is very much unethical as the concepts of each user is not reserved in this process.
The ownership of the service is also a considerable issue in order to access the system and the quality aspects of the system.
The data collected for one purpose is used for other purpose.
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