Describe about the Business Research for Marketing History.
Review of Literature
Introduction to the concept of social marketing
Social market is also known as social marketing which seeks for developing and integrating the marketing ideas with other methods to impact behaviours that benefit the societies as well as individuals for the good of the society (Lagarde, 2013). It also pursues to incorporate best practices and research, audience, partnership insight and theory for informing the distribution of segmented social change along with the ssensitive competitive programs that are efficient, maintainable, well-organized as well as reasonable. Social marketing gives a tool to handle the issues by driving individuals to embrace more advantageous ways of life. Marketing has been active in influencing people to purchase items and utilise services. Similarly, marketing can equally urge individuals to receive practices that will upgrade their own and life of other people (French et al. 2011). Sometimes social marketing is occasionally seen only as normal commercial practices of marketing for achieving non-commercial objectives. The fundamental purpose of social marketing is a social good, but the primary purpose of business marketing is a financial asset. It does not mean that the profitmaking marketers do not give to the social marketing to achieve social good. Progressively, social marketing is being depicted as having two guardians and a social guardian. It consists of social science as well as social policy methodologies and a marketing guardian which includes public sector marketing and business strategies (Wood, 2016). Late years have furthermore seen a more extensive centre in social marketing past the impacts on and changing individual conduct, to socio-social and fundamental results on social issues. Therefore, social marketing scholars are starting to support for a more general meaning of social marketing, past behavioural change, which is similarly worried about the impacts like productivity and adequacy and the procedure such as value, decency and supportability of social marketing programs.
History and application of social marketing
The word social marketing was first developed by Gerald Zaltman and Philip Kotler during the year 1971. They realised the similar principles of marketing that were being utilised for retailing products to customers could be used for retailing attitudes, behaviours as well as ideas (French, 2015). Both the person explained the difference in the objective of social marketer pursues influencing the social responses not to take advantage from the marketer but to benefit from the target customers and the society. Besides, the first acknowledged evidence of careful utilisation of marketing for addressing a social matter comes from 1963 reproductive health programs controlled by K. T. Chandy. The issue came at the Indian Institute of Management or IIM in Calcutta, India. The colleagues of Chandy planned and executed a national family planning program with high quality, government based branded condoms and these are dispersed and sold throughout the country at low cost ("A little bit of marketing history repeating A little bit of marketing history repeatingThe effect of word of mouth marketing in social networks", 2015). The event also contains an assimilated consumer marketing campaign operate with the dynamic point of sale campaign, sellers trained to retail the products and a innovative company created with the duty of executing the program. During the 1980s, campaigns of the health promotion began applying social marketing in practice. The community heart disease prevention studies and the National High Blood Pressure Education Program in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and at the Stanford University proven the efficiency of the approach for addressing the population-based risk factor behaviour change. These progresses took place in Australia. It contains the Victoria Cancer Council which deals with the development of anti-tobacco campaign named as SunSmart and Quit (Dann & Dann, 2016).
Numerous health and related social issues have behavioural causes. Social marketing is a methodology went for varying or keeping up individuals' conduct for the benefit of people and culture all in all (Gordon, 2011). This procedure has been utilised widely as a part of universal health programs, principally for therapy of oral rehydration, contraceptives, drug abuse, and donation of organs as well as prevention of heart disease. Since the 1980s, the field has quickly extended the world over to incorporate dynamic living groups, disaster response and preparedness, biological system and species protection, issues regarding ecology, advancement of volunteer or indigenous workforces as well as financial education (Hair, 2008). Also, it decreased variations and interest of sanitation and health. Practical utilisation, transportation request management, water treatment frameworks and gambling issues of youth, among other social needs, are additionally a piece of social marketing applications. The field has equally demonstrated its use in everyday dangers of anti-infection resistance, government defilement, enhancing the nature of social insurance, prevention of injuries, education of landowner, marine protection and sea manageability, health care service of patients (Singh et al. 2015).
Reviews in social marketing and its communication
The concept of social marketing is influenced by positivist methods (Lagarde, 2012). Like Hastings in 2007, and Kotler, Lee and Roberto in 2002 social marketing have grabbed the consumer-centric approaches. According to Hughes and Tapp in 2008, social marketing deals with the everyday reality of marketing. In 2002, Andreasen asked for changing the sustainable living patterns which are becoming the primary issue in the society. Aside that, when the people as individual in the organisational level are asked for changing their behaviour, they are asked to alter their identity ("Social marketing: influencing behaviors for good", 2008). So, it is clear that it is a big ask when people request a change in behaviour. People are rational, but they are not logical. People prefer to act within the comfort of their value system. Each and every society is a complex adaptive system. Consequently, the practice of social marketing should be focused on suggesting solutions, and it needs to take care of the identity of the target people. According to Page and Resnicow, people make changes for the future development and that changes work for them. It's because of this, the approach of a social system is useful at starting point ("Social marketing in the 21st century", 2006). The social system is complex in nature, and the results are dependent on numerous factors. Therefore, a planned behaviour change may be accomplished by continuing step by step in sequential order. On the other hand, during 2007, Rose and Dade stated that in environmental movements the impact of values towards the driving of behaviour, as well as increasing awareness, are satisfied which consider local conditions. The success of programs is designed which recognises the local conditions are more in comparison with the international solutions ("ROI of social media: how to improve the return on your social marketing investment", 2011).
In 2002, Zimmerman and Glouberman stated that their social marketing programs must be targeted. According to them, the management of a complex adaptive socio-economic system is like developing a child. Preparing a child is in their hand, but not its guaranteed success in life. Each and every child in this world is unique. Similarly, the community is also unique. Therefore, whether a community or a child some interferences are predictable regarding failure as a matter of course. There are uncertainties in the outcomes. So, it is significant for every individual in the community to identify their social needs and problems and suggest a solution by utilising the approach of social marketing. In 2006, Conroy and Lee expressed with a case to portray about how a campaign failed in a country town close to a significant city in New Zealand. In the statement, it described that the people of the village were high educated upper working class. The serene presence of the individuals was undermined by the proposed presentation of supersized over the ground power lines. The powerline organisation offered monetary motivating forces to get the assent of people. The emphasis was just on financial pay. The push to change the feeling of the villagers disappeared because the organisation neglected to resound with the character of the villagers. The organisation overlooked the social status of the villagers and neighbourhood environment of the town. Grier and Bryant indicated that in public health, the social marketing incorporate projects like increment in physical action, the increment in foods grown from the utilisation of the ground, smoking discontinuance, along with sexually transmitted sickness avoidance and so on. A few business promoting techniques might be connected to accomplish the social marketing. These might be social exchange theory, segmentation of the customer, the four Ps such as promotion, place, product and price, evaluation of marketing campaign and consumer orientation.
According to Andreasen, effective communication campaign should be built to change the behaviour, fathoms the perceptions and needs of specific target customers (Dahl et al. 2015). A successful effort must be put to understand the beliefs of the people along with their expectation from communication procedure. In 2003, Covello suggested that techniques such as interviews, information exchanges, group discussion, surveys and toll-free numbers understand what people know, want and think to know about an issue (Podnar, 2008). Perception and knowledge of public on the level and issue of motivation towards it must be determined to make an effective communication. He also stated that a message should contain clear non-technical languages appropriate to the target audience. The utilization of pictorial and other graphical materials also help in understanding the message. Visual signal may be used to avoid the words to transport the meaning of the message. During 2003, McDermott et al. suggested safeguarding the message with the target audience for revising by the outcome so obtained (Holland, 2015).
The research approach can be classified into three types such as abductive, inductive and deductive research approach. Here, the research approach is deductive since it is based on the validity of assumptions or theories and hypothesis. It is different from other two approaches because the inductive approach is concerned with the emergence of new generalization and methods and abductive approach is concerned with the puzzles and surprising facts. The conclusion of deductive approach is correct. Here, social marketing exists and is running all over the world, and it is true. The deductive process is based on a sequential order of some factors such as theory, hypothesis, test and rejection or confirmation.
Taking into account the clarifications of Hardle et al. (2008), the positivist worldview contributes in the viable examination of the distinguished exploration issues according to the review subject depending on the gathered confirmations and investigative truths. Since positivism takes after a rationale based assessment of the collected information, along these lines it is famously known for being most experimental in nature. Authenticity, which emerges as another sort of exploration rationality essentially focuses on the investigation of episodes according to their events.
The research design is concerned with the plan of a research study. It determines whether the research proposal is descriptive or correlational, experimental or semi-experimental, review-based or meta-analytic. Obviously, this particular research proposal about social marketing is not case study based, but it is a descriptive and review-based proposal. The research design is the system that has been created for seeking answers to research questions. The research proposal is descriptive because the points which are described above is devoid of pictures. The resources are taken from various journals and books. There is a literature review part which surely confirms that the proposal is review based.
Data Collection Method
The information and data about social marketing can be collected employing data collection method. It has two types such as qualitative data collection and quantitative data collection methods. Here, data is collected using quantitative methods because the collection process consists of experiments, observations and surveys (Axinn & Pearce, 2006). Data are collected in a descriptive form but not in mathematical form. The calculations are done in qualitative data collection methods. The qualitative method consists of in-depth interviews, document review and observation methods.
A research strategy is more concerned with the case studies, surveys, experiments and interviews. Researchers need to perform these strategies before jotting down the research proposal. Here, surveys and experiments are performed as research strategies. Surveys make a contribution by receiving a huge amount of data from a wide population using cost saving method. The particular strategy can be performed by offline or online methods. But here, online surveys are performed to collected quantitative data. A research strategy is significant for a researcher because it outlines the process and step-by-step method for completing a research proposal.
Management of data and ethical responsibilities
The social marketing automation is heavily dependent upon the completeness, accuracy as well as the validity of the data. On this data, technology will operate. Inaccurate and out-of-date data can lead to failure of accomplishing the social marketing objectives. As a result, it will delay the ability to create timely, relevant and engaging communication (Woodcock, Broomfield, Downer, & Starkey, 2011). Data can be managed by maintaining the quality of data. A marketing automation platform will help the user to manage their lead procedure along with the building of better-qualified marketing leads. In reality, the first quantity relies on the quality as well as the context of data. The quality of the existing data must be assessed with its consistency and degree of reliability. The improvement in data management can be achieved by the utilisation of integrated data management or IDM. IDM contains modular and integrated environment for managing enterprise application data. It also includes optimised data-driven presentations over its lifetime. The purpose of IDM is to provide enterprise-ready application faster. The goal also includes improvement of data access and speed iterative testing. It consistently achieves service level targets. Besides, it empowers teamwork between the database administrators, architects and the developers. IDM provides contextual intelligence across the solution stack. The data can also be managed using Oracle marketing cloud. It provides the most inclusive social tools for listening to social conversations as well as engaging with the customers, analyse the social data to drive revenue and align social message with other programs in marketing.
Here, in the case of social marketing, ethical responsibilities means social responsibilities. Organisations and persons challenge a few limitations on what should ethically be probable to profit or to pursue after diverse objectives (Brenkert, 2008). There are additional performances that, irrespective of the circumstance that they are not completely unlawful in a particular locale. It cannot be incorporated with a decent morality. Falsification as well as misleading are virtuously wrong as well as restrain the creative working of the economy. There are countless regions where an individual must consider his or her conscience to choose if an endeavour is adequate. Viable loan fees (financing costs in addition to different charges included) may surpass twenty percent every month depending upon state laws. Some "paycheck advance" increase administrators charge high financing costs on little advances made in the reckoning of a purchaser's next paycheck. At times, insolvents set up their automobiles for security purpose, with numerous trailing their exclusive source of conveyance through default. Besides the organisation are high and these costs when spread over a little sum will add up to a significant rate ("Moral, Ethical, and Social Responsibilities", 2009). Moreover, because the client bunches being referred to have a tendency to have poor ratings in credit with high expected rates of default, rates must be sufficiently high to cover this. Though some reflect this practice unacceptable whereas others declare that such improvements might be the main way that a family can get money to fill an emergency requirements. Therefore, social responsibility plays a significant role in social marketing.
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