The primary purpose of this research is to address the relationship between employee motivation and job performance. Inspiration could be imperative for boosting morale among workforces with respect to accomplish their goals. Inspired employees support the company to make their unique image in the marketplace since inspired workforces are consistently observing to enhance their work performance (Goleman, 2017). It is also evaluated that inspired workforce could develop a higher level of productivity as employees enjoying their work. In addition, it is also analyzed the satisfied workforces could support to decline the turnover rate from the organization.
This study could be imperative for the researcher to increase the understanding meaning and concept of employee’s motivation. It could also support to discover the relationship between employee motivation and job performance. Through this, the researcher will also be capable to gain their understanding towards job performance, measurement techniques of job performance. For the current business scenario, it is mandatory for the company to comprehend the relationship between the employee satisfaction and job performance (Cascio, 2018). Consequently, the organization would be capable to sustain their position in the marketplace and obtain a reliable result.
This research includes many sections. Through this, researcher defines theoretical structure conceptual structure by considering many authors about business failure reasons. In addition, research design determines quantitative and qualitative research techniques to investigate the employee motivation role in the job performance. In the last, this report demonstrates the conclusion part that shows the summarization of research result.
Project aim and objectives
The key purpose of this investigation is to analyse the relationship between employee’s motivation and job performance. Following objectives will be used to meet aim of this research:
- To discover the conceptual information with respect to the employee’s motivation and job performance
- To explore the methods to examine the relationship between employee’s motivation and job performance
- To discover the relationshipbetween employee’s motivation and job performance
Following questions will be used to complete the research in a systematic way:
- What are theoretical understanding regarding employee’s motivation and job performance?
- How employee’s motivation and job performance could be measured?
- What are the relationship between employee’s motivation and job performance?
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1. Employee motivation
According to Jayaweera (2015) employee motivation is the extent of commitment, creativity and energy that employee of company brings to their jobs. Company faces difficulty to address the ways in order to encourage the employees but there is no matter economy is growing or shrinking. There are certain theories regarding the employee motivation. Employee motivation can be problematic for companies due to obtaining high expenses. The business owner should spend time to build corporation and deal with the employees. In this way, it can delegate the meaningful accountabilities to others.
2.1.1. The concept of motivation
Shields et al. (2015) argued that entrepreneur should be attentive regarding drawbacks at the workplace. The lower employee motivation could negative impact performance of employee. It can create different problems at the working place such as disinterest, widespread discouragement and complacency. Motivation is a psychological procedure that offers direction and purpose to modify the behavior of individual. It is a tendency to behave in a purposive way and also aids to satisfy the particular unfulfilled requirements of employees. Motivation is driving force that controls the extent of efforts and direction of implementing and persistence of work.
In support of this, Aryee, Walumbwa, and Mondejar (2015) stated that motivation is three-dimensional procedures wherein an individual drive and lead to make actions. There are choices as individual make and modify in their behavior to persist until the targeted and desired goals are reached and the needs are fulfilled. Motivation is an active participation and commitment with regards to the attainment of particular goals and expected outcomes. The concept of motivation is a contingent approach as there is no specific strategy in all the situations.
In contrast to this, Van De and Voorde, Beijer (2015) examined that there are two factors that could motivate the employees towards their job. Extrinsic motivation could enable the organization to externally influence employees to attain the organizational goal. They are usually rewards and punishment. A punishment motivates workforces to perform better in order to avoid the punishment whereas rewards encourage workforces to perform in order to receive the rewards. Extrinsic motivation comes from external forces that are easy to recognize.
Kiruja and Mukuru (2018) evaluated that intrinsic motivation comes from within workforces. Employees are intrinsically motivated towards work when the work itself motivates him. Employees address the work satisfaction and fulfillment of goal and objectives. The work itself facilitates the motivation. Intrinsic motivation is more significant as compared to extrinsic motivation as it comes from within workforces rather than imposing the workforces for their jobs. The intrinsic motivation could support to internally satisfy the consumers by offering flexible atmospheres, and working hours.
2.1.2. Maslow model for motivation
Mone and London, (2018) argued that Abraham Maslow has proposed the hierarchy of needs that shows how an employee attain higher satisfaction. This hierarchy can be practiced in the setting of organization to describe the motivation level of employees. This theory depicted the needs of employees that could be satisfied in a specific manner along with higher level of needs could only be fulfill once the lower requirement of employees are met. From the use of Maslow model, organization would be capable determine the different kinds of employees needs like physiological needs, safety and security, esteem and status, needs for self-actualization and giving full potential.
In support to this, Mostafa, Gould?Williams, and Bottomley, (2015) stated that Maslow model could enable the organization to inspire the employees for attainment of organizational goal. This model could assist the organization to understand different needs of employees as it would be beneficial to inspire them and retain them for long-term. In case of attaining all requirements, workers can stay inspired to perform their best effort. In addition, it is also analysed that this model could aid organization to lead their employees by positive rewards and making reliable relationship.
2.2. Employee performance
Khuong and Hoang (2015) explained that employee performance is associated with skills, competencies of workforce to attain specified aim and objectives of organization.
Company assess performance of workforce as per the annual and quarterly basis, which support organization to determine whether needs to make improvement.
2.2.1. Job performance
In the view of Mikkelson, York, and Arritola (2015), job performance assesses performance of employees within an organization. Performance is a significant way for obtaining organizational success. It is also found that the job performance could be determined as individual level activities for accomplishing any specified task. The job performance could be different concept as compared to the organizational performance and national performance.
2.2.2. Measuring job performance
Massingham and Tam, (2015) argued that Vroom expectancy motivation theory could enable the organization to evaluate the performance and outcome of employees separately. Thus, it could be used by the organization to make relationship between employee motivation and employee performance. In addition, it is also analysed that this theory depicted that performance and outcome of the workforces could be relied on the internal motivation. There are two expectancy of job performance like initial expectancy and alternative expectancy. In this, one factor demonstrates the efforts while other demonstrates the outcome. Thus, organization would be capable to determine the level of motivation and employee performance.
In support of this, Eldor and Harpaz (2016) examined that initial expectancy is a kind of job performance that is used to evaluate possibility of accomplishing expected performance by providing more efforts. Apart from this, alternative expectation is possibility of conducting specific performance as it would lead to accomplish the specified result. Moreover, it is also analysed that the expectancy theory concentrates on instigators to determine causes of executing specified behaviour within company.
In contrast to this (2016) stated that expectancy theory of motivation could also encourage the employees to deal with the different situation. Through this theory, employees would be capable to get an opportunity for getting an expected performance by putting higher efforts. The efforts of the employee are relied on the employee motivation while the outcome could be associated with level of efforts. Hence, it is also stated that organization could use the expectancy theory of motivation and examine the relationship between the employee motivation and employee performance.
Wallace, Butts, Johnson, Stevens, and Smith, (2016) examined that expectation theory could aids to examine efforts of employees with respect to the attainment of the organizational goal. This theory determines that employees will be motivated to perform better due to getting higher compensation. This method enables the organization to motivate the employees who perform better in the working place as it would support to inspire other employees to perform better in the working place. Hence, it is addressed that though this theory, company would be capable to acess the relationship between employee motivation and employee perfromence.
In support of this, (Bin, 2015) evaluated that the reward system could support to enhance the interest of employees in their work. Consequently, the organization will be capable to enhance their productivity in the least time and cost.
Job performance model
(Source: Irawanto, 2015)
Irawanto, (2015) argued that Campbell’s determinates of job performance could assist the organization to determine performance, productivity, and effectiveness of the employees. Through this model, the organization would be capable to identify mainly three factors such as declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and motivation level of employees. Consequently, it could be imperative for evaluating the job performance and motivation of employees in the least time and cost.
In support to this, Buch, (2015) Campbell’s Model could be imperative for identifying three essential activities of employees like core task proficiency, Demonstrated effort, and Maintenance of personal discipline. The job performance model could also enable the organization to analyzing many activities like performance assessment, training, recruiting, selection, criterion development, selection, promotion, compensation, and workforce development. Through this, organization could lead the employees in right direction as it would be effective to attain the aim and objectives of study. By practicing this model, organization would be facilitated to determine the relation of employee performance and employee motivation.
Link between motivation and performance model of employees
There is positive relationship between motivation and performance. It is analyzed that nothing can be inspired more than success. If an an organization motivate their employees by using rewards then they will perform better in the workplace. As a result, it will increase the productivity of both employees as well as organization. Both model (Maslow model and Campbell’s model) are related to each other in terms of increasing the efficiency of employees.
2.3. Employee motivation and performance
According to Buch, (2015) an employee deals in the organization with the intention of performing hard and does a better performance. Therefore, the manager should perform to reduce the demotivation between workforces within an organization. The company should facilitate clear resources, direction, and personal respect to workforces. It is evaluated that corporation should involve detection of official motivation plan, financial compensation, and plan for preventing demotivation as it would aid to retain the workforces within an organization. Thus, it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between employee’s motivation and their performance (Lee and Steers, 2017).
On the other hand, Irawanto (2015) stated that motivated employees can complete their need by managing the day to day practices. Consequently, employees would be free to think strategically about the direction of the company and make a higher level decision.
Workforces who are less motivated can damage the business by not providing the quality facilities to customers. They will also not produce a quality product as per the expectation of customers. But, at the same time, a workforce can be trusted to keep the business at a high level.
Norton, Parker, Zacher, and Ashkanasy (2015) illustrated that encouraged workforce performs in a way that provides the highest value to workforces. Disinterest in everyday projects and emotion of separateness from the company’s objective can lead to decline in the quality of work (Spradley, 2003). The workforces will want to deal with the task in order to remain employed rather than performing a better job. As a result, it is exhibited that a corporation should improve the competencies of workforces as it will directly impact on the job performance.
In opposed to this, Bal (2016) stated that imagination and employee creativity can lead to making innovation within an organization. The company should evolve to increase the competitive benefits by encouraging the workforces. Since, if workforces will not be encouraged then they will cease to share a new opinion about keeping the market share and gaining the potential customers. Less encouraged workforces demonstrate their less time and energy with regards to the job. Thus, it can be stated that there is a favorable relationship between employee’s motivation and job performance.
Chapter 3: Research Methods
The primary purpose of this study is to discover the relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction. There are certain types of methodologies that could be used in the investigation of research concern. These are mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative method (Quratulain and Khan, 2015).The qualitative method enables the researcher to obtain conceptual information about research matter (Patton, 2002). Apart from this, the quantitative method supports to obtain statistical information towards research matter (Bal, 2016). It is practiced to identify the relationship between two and more factors. For this investigation, mixed data collection method is practiced by research scholar as it could be a combination of quantitative and qualitative research method. Through this method, the researcher will be capable to imply these research techniques supports to obtain benefits of research matter. By using qualitative research method, the researcher will be capable to get theoretical information about the relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction. Apart from this, the quantitative method facilitates the researcher to get statistical information about current research concern (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Through mixed data collection method, an investigator will examine the opinions and views of the investigators to obtain a valid and reliable result. In addition, it is also analyzed that the mixed data collection method could facilitate the researcher to determine the relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction. Through this method, researcher will be capable to gain quality of research outcome.
For this research, interpretivism research philosophy will be used due to subjective nature of research concern. This philosophy will be beneficial to gather the real phenomenon regarding research concern (Quratulain and Khan, 2015). Along with this, inductive approach will be used in this research due to its relevancy with the interpretivism research philosophy. Inductive approach will also be used to pool the theoretical understanding regarding employee’s motivation and job performance.
3.2. Sampling Method
Sampling method could enable the researcher to select appropriate sample size and get valid and reliable outcome. In the research study, probability and non- probability sampling method could be used to select appropriate sample size and obtain reliable outcome (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). For this research, researcher will use probability sampling method to choose research participants and conducting research methods. In this, research scholar selected 50 employees to collect their opinion and views towards the relationship between employee motivation and job performance (Malik, Butt, and Choi, 2015). The probability sampling method enables researcher to select research candidates on randomly basis. This method could use the survey through questionnaire to conduct research concern. The non-probability sampling method enables the researcher to choose the participants on the basis of sex, gender, age, and experience. In this study, researcher will not considered the non-probability sampling method caused of subjective research nature. This technique could also develop the biases in the research outcome. In addition, it is also evaluated that probability sampling technique could be appropriate for researcher to obtain reliable result with respect to the current research matter. It could also support to attain aim and objectives of research matter. The probability sampling method eliminates the possibilities of biases from the investigation with respect to relationship between employee motivation and employee performance (Lee, Back, and Chan, 2015).
3.3. Data Collection Method
The data collection method could be imperative for obtaining the feasible information about research concern. The appropriate information gathering process enables to develop data about current research dilemma. It could be imperative for obtaining feasible conclusion about research matter. There are different tools that could be involved in the research methods like primary and secondary data collection methods. These methods could support to obtain feasible information (Malik, Butt, and Choi, 2015). In this, the primary data collection method is practised for investigating fresh information towards the research concern. It enables researcher to get feasible outcome towards research matter. The secondary data collection method facilitates the researcher to obtain theoretical data by involving existing data. There are many sources, which could be involved in the secondary data collection method like company websites, online and offline sources, and academic journal. It could be imperative for the attaining the objectives and goal of research concern. Moreover, it is also examined that the primary data collection method could consume much more time than the secondary data collection method. Apart from this, the secondary data collection method could be costly that could influence the decision of researcher for selecting appropriate data (Lee, Back, and Chan, 2015).
3.4 Data Analysis Method
The data analysis tool could be effective to evaluate the collected data and get feasible information with respect to current research concern. For this study, research scholar used many techniques such as statistical analysis, content analysis, and literature review method to conduct the research concern and attain research aim and objectives. Researcher used many graphs, charts, and bar diagram to evaluate the collected information and present the information in reliable manner (Sekaran and Bougie, 2013) The data analysis could be imperative for examining the responses of research participants and accomplishment of research goal concern (Quratulain and Khan, 2015). In this, research scholar used MS-excel software to evaluate the gathered data and obtain valid and reliable study.
With respect to the above discussion, it can be concluded that employee motivation could directly influence the job performance of employees. The employee motivation is a component that encourages workforces to accomplish a specified task to obtain the positive outcome. It can also be illustrated that an organization could use two different methods of motivation like intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. An organization could use the extrinsic motivation to externally influence the employees to accomplish their specified task. Through this, the organization could reward and punish the employees as it could motivate workforces to perform better in the workplace and attain the specified task. In addition, it can also be summarized that organization could also use the intrinsic motivation factor to internally inspire workforces wherein they could provide praise, holiday, effective atmosphere, and flexible working schedule. It can also be concluded that organization could use Maslow model to examine the factors that could directly influence the workforce for performing better at the working place. Moreover, it can also be summarized that employee performance could be effective to obtain the goal of the organization. It can also be concluded that the organization could use the expectancy theory to measure the performance of employees and motivated them to attain the goal of the organization. In addition, it is also found the expectancy theory could encourage employees to perform better in the working place. In addition, it can also be summarized that research methodology could enable to select appropriate techniques for collecting feasible information with respect to the research matter.
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