Process of somatic cell nuclear transfer
Somatic cell nuclear transfer is the process in which the nucleus that has the DNA of the organism of the somatic cell is removed and the other organelles discarded. The nucleus of the egg cell is subsequently removed then replaced by the nucleus from the somatic cell (Wurm & Wurm, 2017). The inserted nucleus is then reprogrammed by the host cell and after several mitotic divisions, a blastocyst that is similar DNA to the original organism is produced.
Advantages of cloning
Cloning has enabled infertile couples to bear children. Cloning has made it possible for infertile parents to bear children where the somatic cells of the male are taken from sperms then transferred to the female ovaries for fertilization. The embryo is then transferred to the surrogate mother who carries the baby for 9 months up to delivery.
Genetic cloning makes it possible to replace different organs. Genetic cloning has made it possible to replace different organs such as kidneys, organs or even limbs .This is because the somatic cells are obtained from the original organs and used to generate the new organ or tissue. Organ replacement has made it possible to treat or manage certain medical conditions.
Cloning can be used to create desired characteristics. Genetic Cloning has made it possible to produce desired characteristics for example prominent people where the somatic cells are obtained from the original people and used to propagate another prominent individual.
Disadvantages of cloning
Despite the numerous advantages of cloning, the technique is also associated with different problems or disadvantages. One of the disadvantages of genetic cloning is that it leads to a decrease in gene diversity. According to different studies, it has been established that the ability of humans to live for long depends on the diversity of genes that come from both the parents. Cloning is known to produce identical genes which scientists have established that they weaken the human adaptations as well as power and this makes the cloned human beings susceptible to different diseases.
In breeding is another negative consequence of cloning .Cloning is known to produce individuals who have the same genotypes. The similar genotypes end up reproducing amongst themselves. Eventually, reproduction within the same genotypes leads to extinction of certain species.
Organ rejection is another disadvantage of using cloning. Cloning technique has been associated with cell mutation in different organisms. This has happened despite the cases where same cells of the recipient have been used. This has eventually led to differences in the cell make up between the original and the newly cloned organ.
Currently, there is a heated debate as to whether cloning should be used in science or not due to the unethical aspects associated with the technique .Despite the heated debate and the unethical reasons, I still believe genetic cloning is the way to go due to the several advances such as cure for different diseases (Häyry, 2018) .Scientists should therefore carry out further research to make the whole technique better and effective.
Häyry, M. (2018). Ethics and cloning. British Medical Bulletin. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldy031
Wurm, F., & Wurm, M. (2017). Cloning of CHO Cells, Productivity and Genetic Stability—A Discussion. Processes, 5(4), 20. doi:10.3390/pr5020020