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C100 : Biological Science

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  • Course Code: C100
  • University: University Of Bedfordshire
  • Country: United Kingdom

Question:

A. Definition/Comparison Questions

Instructions: In your own words, define the pairs of terms given below. Write in complete sentences, stating the differences and relationships between the two terms, and give specific examples where appropriate. A complete answer usually requires four to eight sentences.

1. gene / chromosome
2. chiasmata / non-disjunction
3. Barr body / sex chromosomes
4. topoisomerase / DNA polymerase
5. leading strand / Okazaki fragment
6. miRNA / RNA interference
7. inducible operon / repressor
8. gene therapy / DNA fingerprinting
9. transduction / conjugation
10. cytoplasmatic inheritance / genomic imprinting
 
2 Biology 204
B. Short Answer/Short Essay Questions

Instructions: Answer each of the questions given below in your own words. Write in complete sentences where appropriate. A complete answer usually requires one to two sentences per mark, so a three-mark question would be answered in three to six sentences. This section is worth a total of 40 marks.
1. Draw two cells, one showing the arrangement of chromosomes at metaphase of mitosis, and the other showing the chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis. Describe how the arrangements differ and how this relates to variation in the daughter cells.
2. Compare and contrast DNA synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
3. What are restriction enzymes? How are they used in cloning?
4. Gene regulation in eukaryotes occurs on several levels. Which level of gene regulation is most important? Describe one example of the the most important level of gene regulation.
5. The lac operon in E. coli is subject to both positive and negative regulation. Describe and explain both in detail.
6. What are the three main types of RNA, and what are their roles?
7. What is the proofreading mechanism of DNA, and which enzymes are involved?
8. Using the following DNA template strand sequence, answer the questions below: 3’–TACCGGCACGATTAG–5’ a. What is the mRNA sequence? b. List the anticodons for each tRNA involved in translation of the sequence. c. What is the final sequence of amino acids in the peptide produced?


Principles of Biology I 3
C. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Interrupted coding sequences include long sequences of bases that do NOT code for amino acids. These noncoding sequences, called ________, are found in ________ cells.
a. exons; prokaryotic
b. introns; prokaryotic
c. exons; eukaryotic
d. introns; eukaryotic
e. none of these are correct

2. Which of the following is TRUE about cytoplasmic inheritance?
a. It refers to chromosomal genes.
b. It is independent of the gender of the parent.
c. It follows Mendel’s law of segregation.
d. It originates from plasmids in the cytoplasm.
e. It is based on the widely different amount of cytoplasm that male and female parents provide when gametes are formed.

3. Aneuploidy describes
a. a phenomenon that only occurs in plants.
b. a condition in which an extra chromosome is present or one is absent.
c. a disomy in somatic cells.
d. an uncommon condition in humans.
e. a mutation with a beneficial effect.

4. If cultured normal human cells are treated with telomerase, the cells are most likely to
a. undergo more cell divisions than normal.
b. undergo fewer cell divisions than normal.
c. die almost immediately.
d. undergo more active gene expression.
e. enter meiosis.

4 Biology 204
5. Which of the following are produced by meiosis?
a. haploid cells
b. eggs
c. sperm
d. plant spores
e. all of these

6. A mutation that replaces one amino acid in a protein with another is called a ________ mutation.
a. frameshift
b. recombinant
c. nonsense
d. missense
e. neutral

7. In a repressible operon under negative control, the repressor protein functions to
a. stimulate transcription in the presence of a corepressor.
b. turn off transcription in the presence of an inducer.
c. stimulate transcription in the presence of a coactivator.
d. turn off transcription in the presence of a corepressor.
e. It doesn’t function in this situation.

8. Which of the following is TRUE about X-linked recessive genetic diseases?
a. They affect more males than females.
b. They affect more females than males.
c. The disease phenotype is not gender correlated.
d. Males may have the corresponding allele on the Y chromosome.
e. An individual with two copies of the gene may not be symptomatic for the given disease.

9. Bacterial gene regulation occurs mainly at the ________ level.
a. translational
b. transcriptional
c. posttranscriptional
d. feedback inhibition
e. posttranslational


Principles of Biology I 5
10. Mitosis results in two daughter cells. When comparing the genetic information
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