Cells need glucose for the formation of ATP. ATP is an active molecule in all body cells. The role of ATP is to initiate conformational changes in the cell. The conformational change allows cells to serve many functions like the movement of proteins, enzyme activation, making of proteins, and cell replication just to mention a few. In this case, cells need glucose in order to produce energy. Other than glucose, cells can produce energy from other sources like sugar, fats, proteins, and alcohol (Burmeister, Ayala, Smouse, Rocha & Ayala, 2017).
Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment based on the changes in the external environment. The maintenance is imperative in order to maintain metabolism. In this case, it is essential for the body to maintain the glucose in the blood by the use of the hormonal system. After there is an elevation of blood glucose, the level of glucose begins to rise because of the carbohydrates, which are digested and absorbed. The rise in glucose level is detected by the beta cells that will produce additional insulin (Stechemesser, Eder, Feldman, Strasser & Zandanell, 2017). The insulin produced connects with the proteins in the liver, this leads to more protein channels opening to allow entry of more glucose to enter the blood cells. In addition, the insulin facilitates the enzyme to change glucose into glycogen for storage. The level of glucose in the blood is calculated in terms of milligrams per deciliter. Generally, if there is an imbalance in the level of glucose in the blood, the pancreas will produce the required amount of insulin in order to bring the glucose to the required range (Soares, Pannu, Calton, Reid & Hills, 2017). For a homeostasis, there is always some insulin being produced by the pancreas to meet the fluctuating glucose level in the blood. With an elevated glucose level, glucose will be too high in the body to be absorbed, the amount of insulin will spike in response to the increasing amount of glucose. The spike in insulin levels is to create a balance for glucose in the blood. In most cases, the spike happens too fast, which is almost simultaneous and falls when the amount of glucose falls. Therefore, when there is an elevation of glucose in the blood, the pancreas releases insulin, which brings a balance for intake into the cells (Mulvihill, Varin, Gladana, Baggio & Bang, 2017).
Getting sufficient vitamin D and calcium is vital for strong and dense bones. Other than building bones, calcium is responsible for a blood clot, muscle contract, and nerve functions. On the other hand, vitamin D is essential for the protection of bones and the absorption of calcium. Calcium can be found foods like dairy products, non- fat milk, cheese, greens, cereals, and bread. Similarly, vitamin D can be received from sunlight, foods, and supplements. Vitamin D can be found in foods like fatty fish, salmon, soy milk, and tuna. Both vitamin D and calcium are necessary for a healthy body (Wang, Wende, Campbell, Nie & Balcom, 2017).
The body needs sufficient Vitamin D for the absorption of calcium. Both calcium and vitamin D are vital for strong bones. A deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the body can lead to health complications like rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. If these conditions are left untreated, they can lead to brittle bones, soft bones, muscle and bone pain, and general body weakness. In addition, deficiency of vitamin D and calcium can lead to osteoporosis, which is associated with a reduction in the bone density which will lead to a risk of bone fractures and falls (Dawson, Harris, Krall & Dallal, 2017)
Burmeister, M. A., Ayala, J. E., Smouse, H., Landivar-Rocha, A., D. J., ... & Ayala, J. E. (2017). The Hypothalamic Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Is Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Regulation of Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis in Mice. Diabetes, 66(2), 372-384.
Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S. S., Krall, E. A., & Dallal, G. E. (2017). Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. New England Journal of Medicine, 337(10), 670-676.
Mulvihill, E. E., Varin, E. M., Gladanac, B., J. R., Baggio, L. L., ... & Bang, K. A. (2017). Cellular Sites and Mechanisms Linking Reduction of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity to Control of Incretin Hormone Action and Glucose Homeostasis. Cell Metabolism, 25(1), 152-165.
Soares, M. J., Pannu, P. K., Calton, E. K., Reid, C. M., & Hills, A. P. (2017). Vitamin D status and calcium intake in systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome: An update on current evidence. Trends in Food Science & Technology.
Stechemesser, L., Eder, Feldman, A., Strasser, M., ... & Zandanell, S. (2017). Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism. Molecular Metabolism, 6(1), 38-47.
Wang, Y., Wactawski-Wende, J., Sucheston-Campbell K. M., Nie, J., ... & Ochs-Balcom, H. M. (2017). The influence of genetic susceptibility and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105(4), 970-979.
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