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Cardiac Performance And Morphology In Adults

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For the past few months, I have noticed that my body weight has sharply escalated to an extent that it is interfering with my daily activities. I have developed a tendency to gain weight. Drastic gain in body weight has altered my lifestyle in a significant manner. I am getting fatigued easily and is running out of breath on a slightly higher than usual physical exertion. I am also experiencing trouble sleeping since quite some time that I believe is linked to my gain in weight. My partner has also complained of my snoring at night that was not previously present which again may be attributed to the gain in weight. Throughout the day, I feel somewhat drowsy and lethargic and seem to have lost my vital strength and vigour. Moreover, I experience a terrific craving for sweets and other foodstuffs even after taking my meal and end up eating a lot infrequently. Under these circumstances, I wish to change this nagging health behaviour of unhealthy weight gain and instead indulge in a behaviour that will promote weight loss. I am keen to adopt weight loss strategy that will lead to a healthy lifestyle and ensure well being for myself.

In course of my journey to achieve, my ultimate objective of weight loss to account for a healthier mode of life I would like to set certain goals for both short term as well as long term. As part of my short-term goals I would like to focus on my eating habits and curb down my daily dietary intake through extended use of low calorie meal replacements. Foods containing excessive amount of calorie and fat must be replace by low fat, low glycemic index foodstuffs so that energy homeostasis is maintained properly thereby aiding in weight loss (Johansson, Neovius and Hemmingsson 2014). Further as long-term goals I would like to incorporate dual therapy of exercise and anti-obesity drugs to help in mitigation of weight. Daily regime of mild to vigorous intensity exercise for at least 30 mins will aid in improving the cardiorespiratory fitness of the body in conjunction with maintenance of body weight. Aerobic mode of exercise has been recognized as an effective intervention therapy to cut down the body weight and in maintaining the health and wellbeing through supporting weight loss mechanism (Hopkins et al. 2014). I hope lifestyle modification will help to achieve this change.

Costs/benefits analysis of changing your behaviour (incorporate literature into this section, explain the costs/benefits analysis tool. You can insert your own costs and benefits table into this section)


The weight loss health behaviour although found to be an essentially good practice, yet it is important to measure the advantages and drawbacks associated with this change in behaviour. In this connection, recent empirical findings have suggested the utilization of the mindfulness based interventions to improve the weight loss mechanism. It has been found to diminish the binge eating, decrease the emotional eating for individuals engaged in such behaviours (Alpert et al. 2014). Thus the benefits acquired from weight loss are multiple as it will add to enhance the quality of living by means of improving the vital parameters of health through regulation of the caloric intake of the body. However, apart from the benefits, certain limitations or ill effects as observed due to weight loss in certain cases result in rapid decrease in blood pressure, loss of lean body mass, decreased energy, nutritional deficiency and malnutrition in addition to generation of some other eating disorders that might culminate in other erratic results (Major et al. 2014). Therefore the cost and benefit analysis following the weight loss regime must be strictly monitored to avoid unprecedented results thereby increasing the effectiveness of the interventions administered. Ideally, both exercise and diet need to be balanced to procure optimum outcomes.

Impact of changing the behaviour on your lifestyle and health (explain how changing the behaviour will impact on your health and lifestyle, use literature to support your views)

The impact of changing the behaviour related to weight loss might harbor changes that account for both short-term as well as long-term benefits. As far as the lifestyle interventions for achieving the weight loss and attaining healthy weight gain is concerned, accurate implementation of daily eating in correct proportions and doing exercises regularly is likely to result in better health outcomes through maintaining the caloric intake. Lipid profiles, blood pressure and the glycosylated haemoglobin status of the individuals who have recently undergone weight loss are found to be indicative of harbouring beneficial outcomes (Franz et al. 2015). Assessment carried out on the impact of weight loss on the health related quality of life stated that there is a reduction in BMI at follow up after weight loss. The diet pattern and frequency of participation in physical activity is also likely to undergo drastic improvement. Improvements in health are also likely to result in improving the energy levels, physical mobility, overall mood and self-confidence in the concerned persons (Rothberg et al. 2014). Therefore, the weight loss regime will result in affecting the lifestyle and health in the concerned individuals through alteration in the vital parameters indicative of a better health and wellbeing.

Record your progress on a weekly basis (provide a brief weekly record of how you are progressing with your behaviour change, i.e. obstacles, benefits. You can insert your own table into this section and document your record under the date of your entry)

Record of progression with behaviour change related to weight loss for six weeks:

Week 1: Started following the diet pattern of small meals at regular intervals shunning the habit of taking large meals at a time. However could not give up completely on eating sweets and desserts.


Week 2: Started on participating in moderate to vigorous intensity exercises for 10 mins on a daily basis to combat weight gain and ensure weight loss. In the first week lost 1 pound of weight. The healthy diet habit comprising of low carbohydrate, low fat food was followed.

Week 3: During this time, the intensity and duration of performing the aerobic exercise was increased from 10 mins to 20 mins. For the first two days, it was really difficult to pursue the exercise regime for 20 mins. Green leafy vegetables, fibrous foods along with fruits were incorporated in the daily diet.

Week 4: Started feeling better, the feeling of fatigue was gone. Mood elevation occurred with decreased symptoms of feeling breathless and exhausted on exertion. Exercise and diet was continued as before.

Week 5: The exercise duration was increased to 30 mins. Weight was reduced by 2 pounds compared to the last week.

Week 6: The combination of diet and exercise suited my health and the body weight was drastically reduced. Sleeping patterns improved with no complaints of snoring. Physical mobility and concern about body image also enhanced.

Provide a reflection on your change journey (1,500 words) (incorporate literature into this reflection, as well as document how you could use your experiences when working with a person who has a substance-use disorder who wants to change their substance-related behaviours. You can also put in YouTube clips or other resources if you feel this would enhance your reflection)

The journey for the attainment of weight loss was not at all easy for me. I struggled in my initial days to shun my bad habits that lead to the increase in the weight gain. I resorted to taking various actions in an effort to manage my weight. I used to feel very reluctant to undergo any sort of weight Management regime and was a little elusive of the fact that the weight loss schedule will be a laborious and ruthless task to perform. Further, I apprehended that I would not be able to resume my normal life in a manner that I used to follow in my leaner days.  I was quite unsure of my progress and in curbing the behavioural responses that accounted for unhealthy weight gain. My life was dull and boring and I accepted that as my fate without having any urge to refrain from such behaviours that might adversely affect the health. I felt lazy and unmotivated constantly and was not on the lookout for improving my situation from the present condition. Day by day, my belly fat deposition kept on increasing with a concomitant surge in the waist as well as hip circumference. I literally appeared as a pumpkin. People used to mock at me because of my physical appearance. I was being repeatedly subjected to bullying at both indoor and outdoor environments that bogged down me from within completely. I avoided social interactions and tried to stay indoors as far as possible. I felt shattered and purposeless. However, the major turning point of my life came when my partner insisted that I take up my health issue seriously for myself and not for anyone else. I adopted certain key concepts related to weight loss to keep my weight gain issue at bay. I tried to establish a realistic goal to attain my purpose. In my partner, I found a steady support system, who helped me to achieve success through reaching my goal. I tried to be optimistic and emphasized in regulating my diet in a nutritionally acceptable manner. I also focused on my fitness and monitored my growth in the said timeframe seeking proper help from fitness professionals. I refrained from unnecessarily hurrying the process of weight loss.


As part of my weight loss mechanism strategy, I relied on investing much time in the physical activity program for the sake of mitigating my body weight. Empirical researches have shown that exercise and physical activity play vital roles in both weight loss and maintenance. The numerous health benefits acquired from participation in the physical activity programs have been highlighted in studies that revealed health benefits from participating in such activities. Consistent with the public health recommendations that support for promoting modest weight loss, aerobic exercise training programs are found to be beneficial (Swift et al. 2014). Therefore, I chose moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercises to support for my health and in achieving my goal of weight loss. I did not skip my daily exercise regime and tried to adhere to the set guidelines and exercise prescriptions for resulting in the generation of best possible outcomes. Optimization of the exercise regime was done under the strict supervision of the fitness professional who chalked out a proper plan for me to follow. The weight loss mechanisms were particularly targeted to improve the physical, behavioural, psychological and emotional indices. Health and wellbeing are constantly related to the weight and weight loss in case of the weight-normative approach to combat the ill effects of unhealthy weight gain (Tylka et al. 2014). Further researches have shown that the health related quality of life did not show significant improvement in terms of mental health but notable changes occurred with respect to physical health (Warkentin et al. 2014). However, upon undergoing the weight loss strategy I personally felt satisfied and I felt enhancement in moods as well. The acquisition of diet low in carbohydrate and fat in addition to higher content in fibre further accelerated my weight loss process. I averted junk food completely so that my body was habituated to the regime of weight loss. My cravings for sweets were cut down significantly following participation to physical activity programs. Due to my overweight, I used to encounter several adjunct issues that exerted a significant influence on my sleeping patterns, as I felt insomniac and severely depressed at times due to disturbed sleeping. Insufficient sleep has been attributed to increase the risk for development of overweight and obesity. Sleep has been found to impact significantly in the performance of energy metabolism (Markwald et al. 2013). Thus, the process I went through to achieve my behavioural outcome of weight loss was an integrated one comprising of certain discrete elements that aided in achieving the set goal.

Moreover, I feel that I may share my journey to achieve the desired health behavioural outcome of weight loss process that will further make way for motivating and encouraging people like those who suffer from substance use disorder to change their substance related behaviours. The usage of psychoactive drugs may lead to serious health adversities and are responsible for producing clinically significant impairments and distress. Rampant and unrestricted use of these drugs often lead to addiction that significantly alter the brain functioning. Thus in case of a person afflicted by substance use disorder,  I will share my experience to account for changes that might be effective in addressing their issues and prevent relapse of the addiction through mitigation of the addictive symptoms. In this regard, apart from the treatment as usual consisting of the conventional modes of interventions, the relapse prevention as well as the mindfulness based relapse prevention approaches is found to harbor better outcomes (Bowen et al. 2014).  Maintenance of abstinence in case of substance related disorder has been found to result from impulsive decision making thereby accounting for improved treatment retention ability. Thus, the vulnerability for poor addiction treatment prognosis is not attributed to behavioural responses and impulsivity is an important determinant in this context (Steven et al. 2014). I can relate this to my own case where the triggering moment to undergo weight loss regime changed my outlook towards following my health behaviour in a positive way. Personal will, self-motivation and stringent adherence to the set goals for oneself meant to personal enhancement all acted in my favour thereby prompting generation of holistic outcomes. Detoxification apart from the behavioural counselling are tried and tested methods to account for deftly tackling the substance use disorder among the vulnerable patients. Dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism is another reason that underpins various disorders related to compulsion thereby leading to repetitive behaviours like that of substance use disorder (Voon et al. 2015). The stigma and unawareness involved with the substance use disorder are responsible for increasing the propensity to develop repeated craving for a particular substance without having proper knowledge about the potential ill effects that might happen out of such behaviours. Drugs, psychological interventions, treatments involving social resources can prevent and treat the substance use disorders (Patel et al. 2016). The application of the most suitable interventions in treating the disorders is recommended to deal with the individuals vulnerable to acquire the ill effects. Gaining from my own experience, I feel interventions are the most crucial part in intervening with a health related disorder.


Additionally, I feel that the intervention to tackle the issue of substance use disorder must be prioritized and adequate measures must be taken in accordance with the established protocols and guidelines. Both prevention and treatment approaches must be undertaken to deal with the situation (Whiteford et al. 2013). Medication assisted therapy, alongside behavioural counselling and other interventions are suggested for improving the condition of the substance use disorder affected individuals. The goals and standards set in the treatment of substance use disorder need to be abided by to attain the desired level of treatment outcomes (Nathan and Gorman 2015). The disease burden of substance use disorder has been increasing globally and proportionately implementing the cost effective interventions. The co-morbidities that follow the substance use disorder can then only be mitigated satisfactorily (Whiteford et al. 2015).  Hence, I feel measures from all ends encompassing the government, social and healthcare services must work in coalition to curb this menace of substance use disorder. Addition of withdrawal symptoms for several disorders, compliance to the nicotine criteria along with those meant for other substances in conjunction with addition of biomarkers, along with inclusion of non-substance and behavioural addictions are some of the recommended interventions to tackle the substance use disorder issue (Hasin et al. 2013). Therefore, I feel unlike any other behavioural related health disorder Management, added attention and care must be taken in case of the substance use disorder affected individuals. Careful supervision and support from authorized personnel, health and social care worker will accentuate the process. Psychological therapies must be given enough importance in this regard to tackle the situation (Roberts et al. 2016). Thus, the benefits and experience I gathered through following my regime in course of the weight loss process may be translated to the individual having substance use disorder symptom who wish to change his behaviour for attaining positive outcomes.



Alpert, M.A., Omran, J., Mehra, A. and Ardhanari, S., 2014. Impact of obesity and weight loss on cardiac performance and morphology in adults. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 56(4), pp.391-400.

Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Clifasefi, S.L., Grow, J., Chawla, N., Hsu, S.H., Carroll, H.A., Harrop, E., Collins, S.E., Lustyk, M.K. and Larimer, M.E., 2014. Relative efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention, standard relapse prevention, and treatment as usual for substance use disorders: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA psychiatry, 71(5), pp.547-556.

Franz, M.J., Boucher, J.L., Rutten-Ramos, S. and VanWormer, J.J., 2015. Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(9), pp.1447-1463.

Hasin, D.S., O’Brien, C.P., Auriacombe, M., Borges, G., Bucholz, K., Budney, A., Compton, W.M., Crowley, T., Ling, W., Petry, N.M. and Schuckit, M., 2013. DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(8), pp.834-851.

Hopkins, M., Gibbons, C., Caudwell, P., Hellström, P.M., Näslund, E., King, N.A., Finlayson, G. and Blundell, J.E., 2014. The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake. European journal of clinical nutrition, 68(5), pp.581-586.

Johansson, K., Neovius, M. and Hemmingsson, E., 2014. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(1), pp.14-23.

Major, B., Hunger, J.M., Bunyan, D.P. and Miller, C.T., 2014. The ironic effects of weight stigma. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, pp.74-80.

Markwald, R.R., Melanson, E.L., Smith, M.R., Higgins, J., Perreault, L., Eckel, R.H. and Wright, K.P., 2013. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(14), pp.5695-5700.

Nathan, P.E. and Gorman, J.M. eds., 2015. A guide to treatments that work. Oxford University Press.

Patel, V., Chisholm, D., Parikh, R., Charlson, F.J., Degenhardt, L., Dua, T., Ferrari, A.J., Hyman, S., Laxminarayan, R., Levin, C. and Lund, C., 2016. Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities. The Lancet, 387(10028), pp.1672-1685.

Roberts, N.P., Roberts, P.A., Jones, N. and Bisson, J.I., 2016. Psychological therapies for post?traumatic stress disorder and comorbid substance use disorder. The Cochrane Library.

Rothberg, A.E., McEwen, L.N., Kraftson, A.T., Neshewat, G.M., Fowler, C.E., Burant, C.F. and Herman, W.H., 2014. The impact of weight loss on health-related quality-of-life: implications for cost-effectiveness analyses. Quality of life research, 23(4), pp.1371-1376.

Stevens, L., Verdejo-García, A., Goudriaan, A.E., Roeyers, H., Dom, G. and Vanderplasschen, W., 2014. Impulsivity as a vulnerability factor for poor addiction treatment outcomes: a review of neurocognitive findings among individuals with substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 47(1), pp.58-72.

Swift, D.L., Johannsen, N.M., Lavie, C.J., Earnest, C.P. and Church, T.S., 2014. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 56(4), pp.441-447.

Tylka, T.L., Annunziato, R.A., Burgard, D., Daníelsdóttir, S., Shuman, E., Davis, C. and Calogero, R.M., 2014. The weight-inclusive versus weight-normative approach to health: Evaluating the evidence for prioritizing well-being over weight loss. Journal of Obesity, 2014.

Voon, V., Derbyshire, K., Rück, C., Irvine, M.A., Worbe, Y., Enander, J., Schreiber, L.R., Gillan, C., Fineberg, N.A., Sahakian, B.J. and Robbins, T.W., 2015. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits. Molecular psychiatry, 20(3), pp.345-352.

Warkentin, L.M., Das, D., Majumdar, S.R., Johnson, J.A. and Padwal, R.S., 2014. The effect of weight loss on health?related quality of life: systematic review and meta?analysis of randomized trials. Obesity Reviews, 15(3), pp.169-182.

Whiteford, H.A., Degenhardt, L., Rehm, J., Baxter, A.J., Ferrari, A.J., Erskine, H.E., Charlson, F.J., Norman, R.E., Flaxman, A.D., Johns, N. and Burstein, R., 2013. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 382(9904), pp.1575-1586.

Whiteford, H.A., Ferrari, A.J., Degenhardt, L., Feigin, V. and Vos, T., 2015. The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. PloS one, 10(2), p.e0116820.


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