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1) Identify Career Counselling Theories and how these Theories might be useful in Explaining John’s Situation.

2) As the Attending Career Counsellor, Describe your Ethical and Professional Responsibilities to John throughout the Sessions.

3) Identify the Purpose of Objective Assessments and how that has Contributed to your Assessment of the Situation.



In the given situation John is facing major difficulties as he is not satisfied with the job he is doing moreover his son is undergoing physiatrist treatment which is causing a seemed of mental dissatisfaction. There is a lack of proper balance in the life Of John due to which he is facing various challenges. There is an adverse situation in his life where he is finding difficulty in balancing his work and life. It seems like that John is not satisfied with his job. Job satisfaction is important for having a balance in life. Imbalance in the personal and professional life can lead to various issues like mental illness, lack of social interaction etc. he has decided to undertake career counseling in order to develop effective results (Zikic and Saks,2009). The counseling session provides an individual with an opportunity to ascertain the self assessment. There are various theories that are introduced by authors at different time in order to provide an insight to create capabilities. The report is based on assessing John’s current situation through an objectivity test. The test helps in describing the situation of John and the problems he is undergoing according to the current circumstances. It describes the technique in which the current situation can be addressed in order to find out the individual objectives. Every individual exhibit different behavioral traits that varies depending upon the situation. It has become important to understand the position of an individual to create effective relationship with the given test (Spencer & Harris-Bowlsbey, 2013).

1.Career Counseling Theories

The theory of work adjustment is also known as person-environmental correspondence theory which observes career choice as a continuous process of accommodating and adjusting oneself. In this situation a person looks to work in an organization and environment according to their needs. In turn an organization looks for an individual who has the capability to meet the requirements. This is related with the degree of satisfaction one attains through other (Leong,2014).

As per the Holland’s theory of vocational Personalities in the work environment it defines that vocational interest is a part of one’s expression and personality. This theory is conceptualized in six typologies which are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, social, enterprising and Conventional. As per the theory people look for the environment that helps them to access their skills and abilities. The Holland theory is more focused upon utilizing the individual skills by focusing on skills and capabilities. One should undertake only those activities that help them to grow in a diversified environment. People who utilize their skills grow efficiently when compared to other people (Gunz & Peiperl, 2007).

According to Super, the concept related to the career choice depends upon the individual option. It is the product of complex interaction in between various factors. There is natural process acting behind the individual that leads to personal growth and development. Human is generally inclined towards those career option which help in multi-faceted growth. They only choose that career which helps them to achieve sustainable result. Growth is very important as per the theory. It is therefore necessary for an individual to develop theories that are important for attaining sustainable results (Kosine, Steger  & Duncan, 2008).


Application of two theories - (Theory of John L. Holland) and (Donald E. Super)

Theory of John L. Holland

According to Holland the personality of an individual develops due to career environment they fit in. the choice related to the individual depend upon the personality.  In the given situation John is working as a teacher and he is not satisfied. It is therefore derived that his personality is affected due to the career option. The teaching profession by the time has become monotonous for him and he is facing imbalance in life. It is therefore necessary to balance the current event happening in his life with the ongoing situation(Patton & McMahon,2014). The theory has divided the career choice into 6 categories. Teaching profession is a part of the social work. They are people who are more involved in undertaking those pursuits that help in building effective relationship with the society. Their motto is to help people by providing them with an opportunity to grow. John is a part of the teaching profession as per the theory. He is under the category of Helper as per the theory and focusing on building an effective environment by providing help to other.

Donald E. Super

This is perhaps the most important theory that is used by the career developer. This career development theory is largely used by the people throughout the life span to generate effective relationship. This theory is using career maturity as one of the variable part((Patton & McMahon, 2014). . Career maturity is related to the advancement in studies which depend upon the amount of time spend by the individual on the particular career option. Age, gender, certainty, work etc help in defining the career maturity knowledge. The knowledge related to the career maturity completely depends upon the amount of knowledge with the individual. This theory is consistent with the developmental assumptions of the career maturity (Hartung & Subich, 2011). 

In the given situation it is necessary for an individual to be provided with the career guidance at every level. This will help them to attain differential career pattern. It is necessary part in the post and pre vocational of the career life. Training and development help in developing individual in order to attain distinguished results((Sharf, 2016).


Application of assessment tools


This tool helps in understanding the overall procedure to analyze the behavior of an individual. This tool is being effectively used in order to generate effective result related to career counseling theory generated through analysis of John’s behavior. As per the test it was determined that John is undergoing significant behavioral changes. As per the DSIC test it can be seen that the patient is exhibiting reserved behavior at workplace.

His behavior is measured on the following parameters that include:


John exhibit serious behavioral changes that are accurate, cautious and contemplative in nature.

His approach of work is reserved and does not involve much of aggressiveness.


He is sincere, patient and modest towards his work. on the basis of his behavioral determination it can be seen that his approach towards work is based on modest behavior and understanding. He has been working from a very long time.

The test provides that he shows a reserved behavior in his work attitude.

Taylor Johnson temperament test

This personality test measures 18 dimension of an individual while analyzing his behavior . this test has been used for more than 40 years by many counseling professionals in order to meet issues in dealing with psychological issues.

The test focus on determining the individual behavior that requires to be addressed on the following parameters

  • Nervous ↔ Composed
  • Depressive ↔ Light-Hearted
  • Active-Social ↔ Quiet
  • Expressive-Responsive ↔ Inhibited
  • Sympathetic ↔ Indifferent
  • Subjective ↔ Objective
  • Dominant ↔ Submissive
  • Hostile ↔ Tolerant
  • Self-Disciplined ↔ Impulsive

During the test there were question being asked to John in order to understand his behavior. The behavior helps in analyzing his nature. It provides that John exhibit Nervous ↔ Composed behavior. It is seen under the study that John is undergoing significant. Behavior changes.. his personal life is already disturbed  that is causing a change in behavioral pattern.


2.Ethical and professional responsibilities of a career counselor

The counselor has to follow the quality and standards while managing relationship with their clients. He should thereby use only those approaches which are based on the universal applicable theory. They need to acknowledge the expertise of other profession and must work respectfully within the given parameter. They work on forming ethical relationship among the colleagues(Cheung, 2009).

The counselor needs to be focused with their approach by giving quality services to the clients. There is a necessity to implement inter-disciplinary teams in order to focus on the multiple services that are provided by them on a long run. They have certain amount of obligation towards their clients. When any ethical issue arises the councilor tries to resolve the dispute within the team (Zikic & Hall,2009). In case if the councilor is unable to meet the dispute he has to look for the different options that are available to him. He has an obligation to keep all the details related to the client with him. Moreover they need to develop effective relationship with the clients that will help in meeting the requirements. The counselor needs to alert the team members regarding the negative implication of the task. In any case they have a responsibility towards the clients and the organization while dealing (Swanson & Fouad, 2014; Sullivan & Baruch, 2009).

As per the given situation John is undergoing problem in meeting his career related aspirations. He is not feeling motivated while working. Moreover he has multiple concerns regarding his son’s mental health. He is currently feeling de-motivated as he is unable to balance his life with the work. There is a necessity to provide him with counseling sessions so that he is able to resolve the personal and professional conflicts. It is the role of the counselor to balance the requirements with the ongoing needs of John.

Test Instrument

Objectivity Test

The objectivity test is related to the objective of the situation. In the given situation it is essential to provide with the proper counseling sessions in order to motivate him to achieve objectives. The objectivity test is a psychological test that helps in measuring the individual characteristic by the examiner. This test is undertaken to understand the situation of the person.  These tests are often contrasted with the projective test. The objectivity test includes numerous questions undertaken in order to achieve sustainable objectives (Kidd,2006).

  • Firstly there is a necessity related to decision making in order to understand the current situation of John.
  • A question bank needs to be developed to undertake the test.
  • One needs to estimates the validity of the question through the statistical procedure
  • A format of valid questions needs to be framed including all the sub point and questions that reflects the situation of the client after understanding his condition.
  • A format of application including all the valid aspects needs to be implemented carefully. This help in understanding the current situation of John.
  • The questionnaire is applied at the last in order to understand the situation of the client.
  • The filled form can be used to make relevant conclusion as per the necessity. This is necessary to make conclusive result by comparing the standard and current situation. This will not only help in understanding the appropriate situation but create genuine relationship.

It is recommended that the counselor need to develop an essential environment to conduct the testing procedure. Situational question need to be precisely discussed with him. Moreover the information given by him should be kept confidential under the professional code of ethics at workplace. One should try to use the standardized procedure of testing as this will affect the future aspects related to the client.

Follow up session are important for the client in order to keep a check over the status. This is necessary that the client should undertake every set of information related to his desire to the counselor as this will help in motivating him to undertake futuristic avenues (Bosley, Arnold  & Cohen,2009).

3.John personality and stages of establishment

John is undergoing change in his life which has caused a significant change in his behavior. It is essential to have a right career at the right time in order to balance career option. On a long run it is recommended that John need to take career development process in order to achieve sustainable results. Holland’s theory describes John character as SOCIAL as his profession includes helping people in society by providing them education. Career related counseling session need to be undertaken with utmost care.



John is therefore satisfied with the career counseling sessions . he feels motivated due to pre and post efforts made by the counselors. The report measures the various career related theories that re importation for an individual to guarantee growth in life. It consists of 5 career theory given by various authors at different points of time. John is a teacher and is facing related to the career option at a later stage. He is unable to balance the current situation due to imbalance in life. It is therefore necessary to incorporate effective test in order to create relationship. In case if the councilor is unable to meet the dispute he has to look for the different options that are available to him. The report provides the personality test of the individual while managing the gap in between the goals. It is necessary to develop an effective test to understand the situation in order to create objectives with the team. The section describes the condition of John and the difficulty he is facing in the current situation and providing with an insight to deal with the situation.



Bosley, S. L., Arnold, J., & Cohen, L. (2009). How other people shape our careers: A typology drawn from career narratives. Human Relations, 62(10), 1487-1520.

Cheung, R. (2009). Internationalization of career counselling: Reflections on professional dynamism and advancement. Asian Journal of Counselling, 16(2), 227-248.

Gunz, H. P., & Peiperl, M. (2007). Handbook of career studies. SAGE publications.

Hartung, P. J., & Subich, L. M. (2011). Developing self in work and career: Concepts, cases, and contexts. American Psychological Association.

Kidd, J. M. (2006). Understanding career counselling: Theory, research and practice. Sage.

Kosine, N., Steger, M., & Duncan, S. (2008). Purpose-centered career development: A strengths-based approach to finding meaning and purpose in careers. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 133-136.

Leong, F. (2014). Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities. Routledge.

Leung, S. A. (2008). The big five career theories. In International handbook of career guidance (pp. 115-132). Springer Netherlands.

Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014). Career development and systems theory: Connecting theory and practice (Vol. 2). Springer.

Sharf, R. S. (2016). Applying career development theory to counseling. Cengage Learning.

Spencer G.. Niles, & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2013). Career development interventions in the 21st century. Pearson.

Sullivan, S. E., & Baruch, Y. (2009). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of management, 35(6), 1542-1571..

Swanson, J. L., & Fouad, N. A. (2014). Career theory and practice: Learning through case studies. Sage publications.

Zikic, J., & Hall, D. T. (2009). Toward a more complex view of career exploration. The Career Development Quarterly, 58(2), 181-191.

Zikic, J. and Saks, A.M. (2009). Job search and social cognitive theory: The role of career-relevant activities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(1)
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