Need, want and demand of Pegasus airline customers are always changing or diversifying. To increase profit Share Company has to work as per needs, wants and demand of their customers. The main assets of an airline company are there customers’ i.e. loyal customers and other customers (Anderson and Kerr, 2002). The basic need of an airline customer is good customer relationship management, affordable fare and etc (Anderson and Kerr, 2002). The list of need, wants and demand of airline customers are as –
The main focus of Pegasus airline is their customer and their needs and demand. Pegasus always focuses on their service as per customer’s requirement. Airline industry one of the major backbone are their customers so Pegasus always consider their customers feedback for making any change in their service policy or practices. For example their loyal customers demand was to install new technology which helps in SMS and emailing the details of e tickets to all the corresponding customers (Cunningham, 2002). So Company has taken is feedback in a positive way and started SMS and e mailing facility of e ticketing and in case of cancellation and delay of flights they also sent SMS and E mails to customers (Dalrymple and Parsons, 2000). Low fare of tickets is also one of the customer’s feedbacks which Pegasus considered.
Different aspects of Pegasus airline products are –
Marketing management concepts used by Pegasus Airlines are as –
The 5 marketing concept used by Pegasus are as –
Airline industry main focus is always on their customers’ needs, wants and demand. To increase their profit Share Company always has to consider their customers changing demand. To always be in connection with their customers Pegasus update their social networking sites, pages and blogs and their official websites. The main assets of airline industry are their customers whether there are regular customers or new customers (Gelder and Woodcock, 2003). To attract more customers company organize public events and give winners free tickets to any destination. Pegasus adapted different marketing and advertisement strategies for attracting more customers and increase their profit rate (Hill, 2013). Pegasus always focuses on their customer feedbacks and improving their service as per their feedback.
Pegasus try to maintain customer relation while journey and on airport. Customers’ feedbacks are always important for Pegasus. Backbone of any airline industry is their customer and their changing demand, needs (Kavadas, 2004). While making any change or improvement in their practices or services Pegasus main focus is their customers and their employees. On customer demand company started providing low fare tickets which was affordable by every passenger. There are many other services which were started taking into consideration customer’s feedback. Airline industry to increase their profit rate should focus on maintaining a proper customer relation with all the customers whether they are new customer or loyal customer.
Porsche is a worldwide known German automobile manufacturer so the buyer of Porsche will not go through the initial three steps of decision process as their need is clear to them and they cannot need to find any alternative (Kotler and Armstrong, 2012). Porsche buyers are clear whether they want to buy a high performance sports car or super cars or a hyper cars or any SUV or sedan model. Porsche buyer decision focuses on two factors i.e.
Purchase decision – Purchase decision emphasis on the intension of buyer or the reason by he/she decides to buy Porsche model. By knowing the intension of buying company will try to give customer model as per their requirements.
Post purchase Behavior – Post purchase behavior of a Porsche customer shows whether they are satisfied by the model or not (Memorystore.org.uk, 2015). After purchasing model the service provided by the company is helpful to the customer or not is also very important.
Figure1: Buyer decision process
The major difference in Porsche buyer decision and buyer decision of Cayenne or Panamera are as-
Cayenne car model are middle sized with five seats and doors. On the other hand, Panamera model are luxury full size model with five doors. The buyer of Cayenne or Panamera while making decision have to undergo all the steps of buyer decision process i.e. need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternative, purchase and post purchase (Peelen, 2005). But the buyer of Porsche will directly focus on their intension of buying and post purchase behavior. Porsche is worldwide famous automobile company in comparison of Cayenne and Panamera. Buyers of Cayenne or Panamera have to gather information about the different model so that they can decide which one to buy but on the other hand Porsche knows all his customers requirement and delivery them model as per that only (Moffitt and Campbell, 2011). Porsche manufactures expensive automobiles in comparison of Cayenne and Panamera so the customers are in limited range (prezi.com, 2015). Cayenne or Panamera customers focus on family car and speed of car but Porsche customer look for sound, vibrations and feel of the car.
In 1970s Porsche analyzed that they do not manufacture nay model which can be afforded by other class. So they launched a new model Porsche 914 which was different from other model are cheaper in price. Company found that the 914 model sales was more than in comparison of their model so they decided to change their strategy and used adoption model for increasing their sales (Pride and Ferrell, n.d.). They started manufacturing models of cheap rates and which are comfortable for other classes also. Porsche started making their customers aware of new models by which they can easily decide to buy (Arif and Sadiq, 2012). Porsche decided to manufacture model taking into consideration other class people also. In 1970s Porsche found that there product requires modernization which attracts customer’s other than their target customer, managers worry point was whether the modernization will increase profit or decrease their profit. The main reason for low selling in 1970s and 1980s of Porsche was company started focusing on individual customers rather than limited customers.
Porsche customer’s positive attitude and behavioral changes are –
Negative attitude of customer towards brand are –
Customers’ attitude can be changed by improving the performance as per customers and increasing their product image (Raab, 2010). Porsche should focus on their customers’ feedback and changing requirement of automobiles.
Porsche developed brand self concept by
John Lewis is a retail departmental store of Great Britain with many other branches. Different products are sold by John Lewis Departmental store like electrical and home appliances, products for women, men and child and etc (Smith, 2012). John Lewis always tried to delivery good quality product to their customer. They work on increasing profit rate without comprising quality of the product. John Lewis customers say that the product price is affordable by everyone and the quality of every product is good. John Lewis is a retail company so they sell products of different companies under one shelter so all the class customers are considered by them. Products are available in john Lewis for every class whether it is upper or middle (Thompson, 2010). John Lewis for improving their service always takes their customers feedback and work according to that (Dunkel and Kleemann, 2013). John Lewis outlets are available at airport which attracts customers who are new in the city or tourist.
John Lewis is a retail departmental store chain , the products available are of different companies as per market requirement and customers demand (Tracy, 2014). The product lists of John Lewis are as –
All these options are available on online shopping also (Usui, 2008). Online shopping helps John Lewis customers in saving their time, energy and etc.
According to the case study actual product of john Lewis means adding extra feature or elements to the product by which customers are attracted. For example the mobile device which a customer is using presently if John Lewis add new feature according to customers requirement then customers will be attracted towards the new innovated mobile device. The augmented product of John Lewis for example when company sells any mobile device they give additional three years of warranty which influence customer’s to purchase the product.
Loyal customer of John Lewis prefers shopping from this brand and suggests other to shop from same. John Lewis always tries to work according to their loyal customers as well other customers. As mentioned in case study Julia kuttner a loyal customer who is a journalist of east London always prefers John Lewis for shopping (Valls, 2013). John Lewis consider their customers feedback for service and product whether customer is loyal or new to company. To increase the number of loyal customers John Lewis focus on their quality of product delivered and customers service rather than increasing profit rate (Winer, 2000). Loyal customers’ sometime helps in increasing number of customers as they influence other people to do shopping from John Lewis.
Partnership is the biggest factor which has to be managed by John Lewis to run their business profitably and properly. John Lewis partners are Waitrose, Greenbee and etc (Gelder and Woodcock, 2003). The main purpose of partnership in John Lewis is to satisfy all its employees, customers and business profit.
Figure2: Process of managing partnership in John Lewis
To manage partnership John Lewis should take following step-
The service model which transfer John Lewis to public service sector for example when staff of John Lewis guided British Police officers about the process of dealing with the witness and suffers of any crime, it helped store to represent a new way of entrepreneurship in politics.
No hospital can be like John Lewis shop as the experts of both places are different in qualification and profession. For decision making process highly professionals are called upon. The first barrier is the people feels empowered while using their perception, information and judgments quality for working in a highly disciplined team or group of the company. And the other barrier is their highly professional which are called for decision making procedure.
Different strategies adopted by Tesco are marketing strategy, advertising strategy, promotional strategy and etc. All these strategies have their own working style and objective. Marketing strategy helps Tesco in establishing their new product in new market or old product in new market (Kavadas, 2004). Advertising strategies helps in advertising their products in different markets. Some of the advertisement strategies are hoarding advertising, television, internet advertisement and etc. Marketing by Tesco is done on the basis of demography, customer’s demand and need and etc. Tesco mostly adopt internet facility for advertising, promotion (Tracy, 2014). Promotional strategy is used by Tesco to promote or advertise their products and services. Promotional strategy used by Tesco is also one of the advertising methods of their products.
The pricing strategies adopted by Tesco in food market are competitor based pricing strategy, customer based pricing strategy and cost based pricing strategy. Competitor based pricing is done by taking into consideration the competitors of Tesco in food market. Pricing of food product is decided after analyzing the current price of same food product (Memorystore.org.uk, 2015). Customer based pricing is used by Tesco after analyzing the ability of customers for paying. Tesco has to decide its entire food product price after analyzing competitors price as well as customer ability for paying (Thompson, 2010). Segmentation is done to analyze Tesco customers under different factors which can change their demand of food product like age, gender, financial ability and etc.
Every customer depending on their age, gender, financial ability has their own choice for product for example teenager choice of product is different from a man of 60+ age. So Tesco has to work by taking all group customers together (Shonka and Kosch, 2002). The factors which affect their product buying ability is
Different pricing strategies adopted by Tesco are –
Tesco uses mainly competitor based pricing and customer based pricing. Both pricing method can be used in one market at a time without affecting their brand image
Customer pricing method – This pricing method is used by Tesco to make their product available for maximum customer i.e. the price of the product is decided after examining the capacity of customers, their financial status (Pride and Ferrell, n.d.). Suppose Tesco decide to launch packed food item in London market so before deciding the price of the packed food item Tesco will analyze the ability of regular customer of that particular market. The price will be decided so that maximum number of customers buys their packed food item.
Competitor pricing method – Tesco use this method of pricing to increase their profit in comparison of competitors in market. Suppose Tesco decide to launch their old product in new market then the first step of Tesco will be to examine the present competitors of Tesco regarding that particular product in new market (prezi.com, 2015). After analyzing their price for that same product Tesco will fix such prices which increase their profit rate and sales value.
The future promotional strategies which Tesco will adopt are as-
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Arif, A. and Sadiq, M. (2012). Effect of Television Advertisements on Buyer's Decision Process. SaarbruÌˆcken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Chou, Y. (2005). Critical factors of the buyer decision process model in business-to-customer (B2C) e-commerce in Taiwan.
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Dalrymple, D. and Parsons, L. (2000). Basic marketing management. New York: Wiley.
Dunkel, W. and Kleemann, F. (2013). Customers at work. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Engel, J. (2000). Promotional strategy. Cincinnati, Ohio: Pinnaflex Educational Resources.
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Xie, L. (2011). Examining structural relationships among cognitive destination image, destination personality and behavioural intentions. Hong Kong: School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
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