In the present world many students taking engineer are taught Engineering Design processes during the coursework. EDP may be applied in designing of new, redesigning old products to a desirable product in the future market. In real sense when an EDP is incorporated with System Engineering exertion the needs are supplied by SE at a given time and point. The design process in its simplest terms can be seen as a 3-step loo
From the above 3-step loop design one generates an idea as the first thing, then implements it and after that testing and evaluation of the implemented product is done then the process continues to follow the cycle hence making it repetitive and making it termed as an iterative process (Anderson, 2009.). EDP comprises of four phases named and explained as follows.
Major tasks are identifying objectives, forming team to conduct feasibility study, the price or the cost that estimates the budget for the objectives, planning reviews and deliverables.
Its goal is understanding problems and institute requirements of the customer and the specifications of the engineer.
This is the third phase and the one that we are discussing in our report and its concerned with concepts generation, do compare and evaluate the concepts and choosing the best concept that to use
The conceptual phase ends with selecting the best concept but this design phase make the chosen best concept in to a product by design and hence implementing in to real product.
Everything in engineering systems is initiated by identifying the wants that are desired within a given specific area. This is done by understanding the deficiencies that are as a result of the output given. A good scenario is when a firm realises that it is not able to achieve its goals with relations to the set objectives, hence there arise need to define the problem and by identifying what the problem need for it to be handled therefore defining the capability of the system that will solve the problem need.
After the need is identified and defined to help in meeting the organisation goals, a performance of need analysis is done. Considering our case study the installation of surveillance technology in roads and highways to monitor traffic incidences in both rural and urban roadways and highways , hence we have to question ourselves to what the need analysis should consist of? Surveillance technology will function in a manner that the big idea is to capture each and every incident happening in the highways and in roadways. It will also act as another way to minimise cases of traffic cases. It will also be used to boost security in roads as each and every activity will be monitored
Experts monitoring the surveillance technology have a responsibility to be cautious and proof footage of any incident in case they are asked for. What need to be accomplishes is the problem defined are eliminated by ensuring that surveillance technology has been put in to place hence reducing cases of traffic incidences. Other needs that may arise as result of defining the first need is to secure the places the surveillance technology is to implemented and provide lightings which are enough for easy surveillance in the highways actually modern and advanced road lights will be the best
Technology of the current society is evident enough that engineering has succumbed all places ranging from vehicles to electronic gadgets. Most of the engineer work need to find a solution to existing problems that are already identified in the first phase. CSD is always seen like an extension lead of the logical design which is independent technological wise and this makes CSD to considering today’s technology that is with relevancy in accomplishment with functional requirements of a system and the focus in this report will be CSD in field and operations levels. The aim of this report is to give an understanding of the exact type of surveillance gadget is required in meeting the system functional requirements (Kunz, 2007). The exhibition CSD of Technovy Surveillance system is categorized in to five categories and discussed below in details.
Incidents in traffic highly contributes to a lot of congestion along Thika super highway. Sometimes its caused by breakdown of vehicles and this make it for a need of a surveillance system that will provide information about incidents and accidents by effectively offering its support to traffic management system for incidences along the highway.
As most freeway system are almost full of congestion, there arise possible use arterial streets which are parallel to take care of a portion of traffic in case a demand arose in the freeway Thika. In real sense the arterial streets are not capable of providing this service due to their physical design features. Alternatively, if they happen to be used then more advanced system controls for traffic will have to be used and enough information given.
The other consideration is applying location of vehicles and tracking devices. Information gathered will be importance as it will act added part of information to the surveillance. Conceptual design will focus on info exchange phase as far as the system is concerned.
Thika highway networks covers all rural and urban locations respectively and hence we must consider the existing features in these environments in our conceptual system design. AASHTO Criteria was applied to provide the route for the classifications of both rural and urban highways.
Freeway is clearly termed as divided way on the road with a minimum of not less than two lanes in either of the direction to or from (Woodbury, 2006). Access on the freeway i.e. to and from is managed requirements of surveillance only permitted at specific interchanges. Also ramps and overpasses frequencies are observed and always some miles apart from each other when controlling them. The frequency of overpasses and ramps is controlled, and they are generally several miles apart.
It occurs that both above geographical locations have arterials that are parallel and sometimes may act as collectors in the highway and hence they may be used as alternate routes of the way which is free(freeway).
Some of the technologies selected for conceptual system design were surveillance such us detectors for vehicles, surveillance for CCTV, Human and Aerial, and sensors for the environment (McCuen, (2007). Each and every category of specified selected product it may be applied depending on the needs and restrictions of each geographical jurisdiction. Great influence by additions of surveillance technologies due to its fast growth has been experienced in the conceptual system design.
The aim or job of the proposed surveillance concept in the freeways of Thika is for acquisition of traffic incidences. The main melody of conceptual system design is to gather and join the surveillance information for traffic and from many sources and hence maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness. For effective gathering of information in identifying incidences in traffic systems that detect such incidents should be put in place to cover gaps in surveillance in existence (Krishnamurti, 2006).
Figure 1 Conceptual System Design for Urban Areas
Emergence of stand-alone systems like WDs will need to be put in place that are potentially high in terms of incidences in traffic. Incidents can be detected and verified quickly by use of multiple sensors surveillance. For verifying remote incidences this will be performed by CCTV as seen in the figure 1 above as tracking devices that are kept by the fleet recorders such as patrol service, vehicles of police and those in transit.
The lack and cost being high of installing the infrastructure of surveillance communication in areas referred to as rural, it relies heavily on surveillance that are aerial, human capable for detecting incidents . The
figure below describes the dissimilarities in urban and rural conceptual designs
Figure 2 conceptual design for rural areas.
The Sensors applications in rural areas are applied to the same way like that of urban freeways. Assumptions made are that the interchange ramps that are major are enclosed by detectors such as radar. Due to availability of land being high unlike in urban this makes volumes of traffic not to be high (Haymaker, 2007). There are sensors located in the two pavements along the rural roads near the two interchange ramps and in line with station for weather which help in reduction of cost of communication. Lastly is placement and installation of WIM near the two major interchange ramps
This concept aims on links that join the devices used for surveillance with native TMC. Communication among these joints i.e. locally, regional TMC and amongst them is managed by Network Exchange project body. In our case the design internal local TMC and external one.
Figure 3 Surveillance Communication network for TMC externally.
There is a distributed controllers and detectors networks that is connected to TMC locally via a land based mark.
Figure 4. Surveillance Communication Network for Urban Area Conceptual desig
The figure 4 is appropriate in urban areas unlike in rural areas where there is high availability of land or in cases where the distances between TMC applied locally and the nodes they communicate with are far apart.
Wireless combination such as radio or phone which are cellular are applied to link the communication along the nodes and TMC locally implemented (Hartmann, 2008).
Currently in existence system detectors in use their compatibility with surveillance conceptual system and hence local systems integration should avoid creating problems in detecting a point of view.
Integration of control systems and surveillance systems that are installed on the freeways with TMC with less effort as existence of systems in place should easily converse amongst themselves.
Evaluation of Central and local levels of systems in existence should done in a separate platform. Use of optics like fibre, and telephone systems for compatibility with the points at the destination.
Other improvements related to communications are:
In argument mode we can term conceptual design to be the most and key necessity compared to other phase when it comes to designing in engineering processes. Its importance will be for the reason that most of what is formulated here will be applied later for the rest part in developing the entire process. Bad selection of a concept may lead to overruns of budget, delaying and may end up cancelling the project (Wertz, 2008). As seen above concept design is the most vital but on the other hand very confusing as if not done as it is supposing from the beginning it may bring some problems in implementing it in the future in the other phases.
Anderson, D., 2009.. Making Engineering Design Decisions,. Louisiana Tech University, Volume 5, pp. 24-58.
Hartmann, T. F. M. H. J., 2008. viewpoint. [Online]
Available at: https://www.aecbytes.com/viewpoint/2007/issue_33.html.
[Accessed july 2017].
Haymaker, J. C. J., 2007. Coordinating goals, preferences, options, and analyses for the Stanford Living Laboratory feasibility study. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4200/2006.
Krishnamurti, R., 2006. Explicit design space?. Krishnamurti, R. (2006), 20, 95-103, Explicit design space? Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing., Volume 20, pp. 95-103,.
Kunz, J. G. B., 2007. stanford. [Online]
Available at: https://cife.stanford.edu/VDCSurvey.pdf.
[Accessed 29 july 2017].
Ma, Y. C. G. T. G., 2008. Paradigm Shift: Unified and Associative Feature-based Concurrent Engineering and Collaborative Engineering. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Volume 10, pp. 008-128.
McCuen, T. S. P., (2007. aecbytes. [Online]
Available at: https://www.aecbytes.com/viewpoint/2007/issue_33.html.
[Accessed 30 July 2017].
Wertz, J. R. a. L. W. J., 2008. Space Mission Analysis and Design. Volume 03.
Woodbury, R. B. A., 2006. Whither Design Space? Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing. Volume 20, 63-82.
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