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Causes And Consequences Of Microbial Communit

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Question:

Discuss about the Causes and Consequences of Microbial Communit.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction:

A microorganism is a microscopic organism which may be unicellular or multicellular. The scientific study of microorganism stated with their observation under a microscope by van Leeuwenhoek in 1670s and also Louis pasture found that microorganisms were capable of causing food spoilage by performing the spontaneous generation theory in 1850s. Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the disease like cholera, anthrax, and tuberculosis in the 1880s. Microorganisms, comprise the unicellular organisms and are very diverse including bacteria, and archeae that are the domain of life of microorganisms.

Microorganisms are grouped as eukaryotes like fungi and algae and prokaryotes like protozoans and protests. Microbes are very important in the culture and health of human, serving to produce enzymes, production of fuels, bioactive compounds, treatment of sewage and fermenting food. They are an essential tool as a model organism in biology and have been used in bioterrorism and biological warfare. Microbes are the component of the soil fertility and inhuman they make up human microbiota and also are pathogens for infectious disease (Acton, 2015).

In this report, it is explained how microorganism is able to impact in the civil engineering projects. In the recent years, the understanding of the biodeterorations and befouling processes in the civil engineering has increased. These processes involving the bacteria activity and microorganisms are of very important to every civil engineer in the range of the natural environment and artificial systems they engineer. Examples of where the processes of microorganism have significant effects include: corrosion, deterioration of the materials of construction and the concrete materials, damage to the abstraction systems of groundwater flow in bumps and pipes in pressure, clogging of the drainage and irrigation system, rock or soil alteration and also production of harmful gases (Brar, 2015).

 

Microorganisms in infrastructure

Microbial induced corrosion is caused by the microorganisms that attack nonmetallic and metallic materials. For the major infrastructure like motorway bridges, pipelines of gas and liquid transmission, ships and railways and present threat that lead to high cost of repair. microscopic organisms are damaging the gas and oil industries’ that are types of infrastructure,  bacteria that cause corrosion damage billions of dollars of gas and oil infrastructure every year .corrosion caused by bacteria leads failure of the materials which is very costly, delay in the productions business interruption and accidental release into environment (Clement, 2010).

Pipelines and other gas and oil equipment are exposed to the soil, seawater, and freshwater and are very vulnerable because of corrosion caused by the bacteria. Unchecked bacteria can grow quickly and rapidly and as they grow the corrosion rate also accelerates. There are many species known for corrosion in aluminum and copper alloys, stainless steel, and carbon steel. Examples are:

  • Bacteria that reduce sulphate: their bacteria are found in sea water and in most cases cause the corrosion damage to the infrastructure of pipelines, oil rigs and other structures. They are species that can thrive in anaerobic areas. Their damage is as a result of the production of the hydrogen sulphide in their metabolic processes as a byproduct and causes chemical reactions with iron that degrades the metal. Some also attach metals directly through electron withdrawal from the iron through the corrosion influenced by electrical microbial (Crisp, 2012).
  • Bacteria that are related to iron: these are associated with attacking the stainless steel in the pipelines and other equipment of infrastructure. They use manganese or ferrous iron in their process of metabolism in the weakening metal.
  • Bacteria that produce acid: these produce acids like acetic acid, carbonic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid that corrodes metals used in building infrastructure(D, 2013)

The corrosion of the metals has serious economic impacts on the modern society. There is the cost that is directly related to the designs, manufacture, inspections and construction of the corrosion protection.

Solution and prevention techniques of microorganisms attack

Giving the bacterial that corrodes the new method of medicine, by applying antifouling microorganisms to tackle the bacteria responsible for the corrosion will result to a greener economy and will be a friendly way of fighting corrosion and maintaining infrastructure. Also through using the anti-fouling microorganisms through substituting chemical compounds greenhouse gases will not be released to the environment.  microorganism influenced corrosion can also be prevented by regular cleaning of the mechanics if possible, they can also be treated by chemical but not in excess to prevent the environment from the damages too from chemicals. Complete dry storage and drainage can also apply Silica gel and buffers can adjust the relative humidity. The buffer will absorb and release moisture to the atmosphere. Dehumidifiers can be used to reduce the content of the moisture on air. (Crisp, 2012).

The growth and impacts of these bacterial also depend on their environmental condition which can be divided into three groups, they include Physical environment: the most common dominant factors of the physical environment is temperature, water potential and redox. Bacteria that reduce sulphate are found in the aerobic environment and also they survive and do better in high-temperature environments that are found in unconventional and conventional locations of drilling inside the pipeline infrastructure of oil and gas. Bacteria that are related to iron are found in the environment with the zone of transition where the water without oxygen from the anaerobic environment flows into the aerobic environment. Bacteria that produce acids are found in the acid environment (D, 2013).

 

Microorganism in geomechanics

In many years, the improving the soil properties has been established and is based on the use of the microorganisms. Microorganisms are very important in the clay minerals and a fine particle that is grained. The monolayer bacteria can form a surface of minerals within seconds. The microfossils presence in the fine-grained soil as the particles of soil can have the effect on the soil mass behavior, and deviate from some correlations like a high limit of liquid, porosity and compressibility.

There is evidence that activities of the microorganisms play a role of calcite precipitation and crystallization. Example of the microorganism that precipitates calcium calcite is the Bacillus species. The bacteria’s of alkalophyles produce ammonia by using urea as their source of energy and increases environments pH causing calcium ion and carbonates to precipitate the optimum temperature for the precipitation is 25 degrees Celsius (Engineers, 2012). There are many numbers of the studies on the effects of bioremediation on the stiffness and strength of ground and soil. Microbial processes were concluded to be the cause of mineralization, soil weathering, soil grain and fabric surface properties and soil formation. Restriction of the pore size inherent in relation to microorganisms’ size limits the sedimentation post bioengineering of clay soil (Engineers, 2013).

The interaction between minerals and microorganisms can facilitate biogeochemical process and reaction which is the research that is important in the exogenic geochemistry.  The way in which microorganisms affect the process of the rock formation is the most important in the geology department. Bacteria activate sedimentation and crystallization of many sediments and minerals that are formed through weathering. In every case, the composition of chemical of microfossils is same to that of the matrix of rock. Comprising main oxides that form rocks such as silicon, potassium, magnesium and aluminum. This provides confirmation that complex of microbiology is coeval with the host rock.  The microorganisms in the rock functions as catalysts. The decay of minerals and their transfer to the material that looks like clay happened through the bacterial precipitation (Engineers, 2013).

Bacteria also produce substances that are sticky in the polysaccharide form that helps in binding soil particles together into aggregates that are small and leading to the structural stability of the soil. Hence microorganisms are very useful as they improve the soil stability aggregates infiltration of water, and the capacity to hold water.  Microorganisms participate in the early stages of the formation of soil. The surface of their rock may be colonized by organisms that are microscopic, that is microorganisms, lichen which is a microorganism are normally the first to colonize the rock surface that is exposed (Gopi, 2013).

These microorganisms release the acid which helps on rock dissolution and enables the organic debris accumulation. Over time some organisms may colonies the same place facilitated by the brought changes by lichen. Afterward, the rock surface is crumbed, etched, eroded and cracked. Rain and wind erosion combined by the action of the microorganisms continue to break pieces of smaller rocks. Also, microorganisms stabilize soil in places that are dry without the vegetation cover. In the places that land is good, microorganisms such as lichens form the crusts on the soil which is thin to provide the resistance to wind erosion that is mild and raindrops to help in stabilizing soil particles disturbed by animals (Gunnison, 2014).

Microorganisms facilitated the soil aggregation. Some bacteria and fungi produce gum of polysaccharides that cause the particles of soil to attach to each other. These gums are flexible and the chain has carbon molecules and makes any contact across the soil particles surface. Some of the microorganisms also attract the particles of the soil because they charge that is electrostatic or another surface that can be polarized. This attracts the bacteria to the soil particle because of the opposite charge, these forces contribute to the soil aggregated that help in the stability of the ground because it prevents the soil and ground from becoming loose (Horikawa, 2013).

 

Environmental conditions that favour the activities of the microorganisms

Most of the microorganism that is helping in the process of soli stability, land, and ground or the geomechanics are in the soil, so they occupy soil environment.  Like the species of Bacillus work better in the alkaline environment.

Modern activities can have the impact that is important on the materials of the building and their durability. It is hence good to understand the activities in order to select strategies that are proper for the treatment, monuments and the restoration of the building. In the today’s buildings, microorganisms present a challenge since they are sources of pollution. The growth of these, microorganisms like fungi and bacteria act as indoor bio pollutant (Howsam, 2013).

Both the modern and historic buildings are subject to the derivative and deteriorative action of microorganisms. The growth of higher plants and mosses are recognized. The structure of the root penetrates and affect the structure of the building. The growth of the plants happens after the protozoa have been established by the growth of the activities of derivative microorganisms.  The activities of microorganisms are the potential threats to the maintenance of the buildings that are modern, cultural and historic properties (Jones, 2015).

The microbial biofilms and microbial association cannot be visible but sometimes can be visible.  All the surface can be coloured and the discolouration and soiling of the building are shown in the biofilms but also the invisible biofilms are the threat because they produce substances such as acids cause the surface of the material minerals degradation and cause flaking coatings. The colonization rate is affected by biological, environmental factors. The intensity of light, temperature, humidity, and the chemical and physical nature plays an important role. Normally the stones of low permeability are resistant to the attacks of degradations of microorganisms. But every rock is vulnerable to the formation of biofilms (Kai, 2014).

Pigmented microorganisms such as algae, fungi, bacteria, because the surface decolonization to the historic and cultural building also they cause the degradation of the materials through the metabolic activities (Torgal, 2014). Biodegradation and biodeterorations cannot be prevented by the creating the surface on the building stones because these coatings are the subjects to the growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, the surfaces that are smooth, hard and less porous like varnished stone and the basalt are more resistant to the colonization of the microorganisms. The biofilms that resulted should be regularly removed using the same methods that are friendly to the environment and nonabrasive materials to reduce the activities of microorganisms (Nemergut, 2013).

Painting may be exploited by the microbial species. Many of the painting components are materials that can degrade easily. The easel painting has molecules that microorganisms may use a food for growth like sugar, protein, and gum (Silva, 2011). Given the wide range of inorganic and organic molecules that are available in both paintings, many microorganisms can colonize these places as long as the environmental conditions are favourable like pH, temperature, and humidity and light.  Microorganism growth on the paintings may cause aesthetic damage that must consider stains, discolouration, and the biofilms formation on the surface that is painted (Nemergut, 2013).

Structural damage might also occur like the disintegration and crack of the paint layer, the formation of paint blisters,   and degradation of the polymers that are supporting resulting to detachment of the layers of paint from the support (Pfafflin, 2012).

 

The effects of microorganisms on the building of historic

The effects that were observed

Material

Activity of microorganisms

Major microorganisms

Water retention

All

Physical presence

All

Discoloration

All

Physical presence

Fungi, cyanobacteria and algae

Material disaggregation

Stone, stone wood, and concrete

Growth of firmament form

Lichens, algae, fungi and cyanobacteria

Degradation and corrosion

Mortar, concrete and stone

Production of acid

Bacteria, fungi and lichen

Structure weakening and dissolution

Chelating and mobilizing iron

Bricks, stone. concrete and motor

All

Stimulation of the growth of higher organisms on the building

Physical presence

Surface that is clean

Photosynthetic bacteria and fungi

Material breakdown

Painted surface and wood

Enzymes that are hydrolytic

Bacteria and fungi

Patinas formation

Stones

Oxidation of the acids cation production

Manganese and iron-oxidizing bacteria, fungi, lichens, and cyanobacteria

Dissolution of the alkaline

Stone

Hydrogen ion uptake by the cells

Cyanobacteria and algae

Silicates layers disruption

Soapstone and mica

Polyols liberations

All

Environmental Condition Favoring the Growth of Microorganisms

The microorganisms are able to survive the rehydration and drying that is continuous on the building surfaces that is exposed. Some also produce cells for survival some also are able to survive a high period of desiccation and this is why they can colonize the walls exposed to the external environment (Russell, 2010). Many of the microorganisms are capable of producing pigments for the UV light protection and can result in the staining that is normally present to on the surface of the building. Some microorganisms like cyanobacteria and algae are always coloured, that is when active and change to black grey colour when dead. In the buildings, the pollutant layers that are organics may serve as nutrients for the growth of microorganisms. Thus affection the deterioration of both physical and chemical (Publications, 2010).

The best way to prevent the growth of microorganisms on the buildings is to regulate and deny the spore by regulating relative humidity. When the relative humidity is high, dehumidifiers can be used to reduce the content of the moisture on air. Adequate air circulation should also be maintained to aim a good temperature that don’t favour the growth of microorganisms. Problems that can lead to the conditions of the environment should be regulated like repairing the leaking pipes, cracked windows and a cracked wall. Silica gel and buffers can adjust the relative humidity. The buffer will absorb and release moisture to the atmosphere,

Conclusion

This report is about the impacts of microorganism on various levels such as building, infrastructure and geomechanics, microorganism have both positive and negative impacts on these levels, it is well written in every part the environmental conditions that favour the activities of microorganism and also how the effects can be prevented. A microorganism is a microscopic organism which may be unicellular or multicellular. The scientific study of microorganism stated with their observation under a microscope by van Leeuwenhoek in 1670s and also Louis pasture found that microorganisms were capable of causing food spoilage by performing the spontaneous generation theory in 1850s. Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the disease like cholera, anthrax, and tuberculosis in the 1880s.                 

Microorganisms, comprise the unicellular organisms and are very diverse including bacteria, and archeae that are the domain of life of microorganisms. Microbes are very important in the culture and health of human, serving to produce enzymes, production of fuels, bioactive compounds, treatment of sewage and fermenting food. They are an essential tool as the model organism in biology and have been used in bioterrorism and biological warfare. Microbes are the component of the soil fertility and inhuman they make up human microbiota and also are pathogens for infectious disease.

 

Bibliography

Acton, Q. A., 2015. Issues in Environmental Economics, Engineering, and Technology. Paris: ScholarlyEditions.

Brar, S. K., 2015. Nanomaterials in the Environment. Colorado: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Clement, J., 2010. Influence of Distribution System Infrastructure on Bacterial Regrowth. Paris: IWA Publishing.

Crisp, T., 2012. civil engineering. Michigan: John Wiley & Sons.

D, R., 2013. International Conference on Frontiers of Energy. Colorado: DEStech Publications.

Engineers, A. S. o. C., 2012. American Society of Civil Engineers Research Project on Impact of Civil Engineering Projects. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Engineers, A. S. o. C., 2013. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Gopi, S., 2013. Basic Civil Engineering. New Delhi: Pearson Education India.

Gunnison, D., 2014. Microbial Processes in Reservoirs. Paris: Springer Science & Business Media.

Horikawa, K., 2013. Civil Engineering - Volume I. New York: EOLSS Publications.

Howsam, P., 2013. Microbiology in Civil Engineering. Michigan: CRC Press.

Jones, J., 2015. Advances in Microbial Ecology. Colerado: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kai, L., 2014. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering. Moscow: World Scientific.

Nemergut, D. R., 2013. The causes and consequences of microbial community structure. Michigan: Frontiers E-books.

Pfafflin, J. R., 2012. Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering. Paris: CRC Press.

Publications, R., 2010. Advances in Civil Engineering Materials. Michigan: RILEM Publications.

Russell, J. S., 2010. Perspectives in Civil Engineering: Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Michigan: ASCE Publications.

Silva, M. R., 2011. International RILEM Conference on Microbial Impact on Building Materials. Paris: RILEM Publications.

Singh, D. N., 2017. Contemporary Issues in Geoenvironmental Engineering. Colorado: Springer International Publishing.

Torgal, F. P., 2014. Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering. Michigan: Springer.

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