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1. Information Systems is a discipline that started life as Operational Research and therefore was seen as positivist and a science. Such hard sciences are often perceived to be characterised by objectivity, concrete facts and certainty.
Using a modern philosophical framework, critically assess why this objectivity and certainty may no longer be taken for granted in Information Systems as a modern academic discipline and the commissioning, design and development of Information Systems as technical artefacts in organisations. Marks are allocated for:

i) Argument & Understanding
ii) Criticality and Analysis
iii) Use of Sources and Evidence

The marks allocated to these sections include the quality and range of the sources you have used to support your arguments. Please ensure your arguments and your reasoning are clearly articulated and supported by academic sources. Do not assume that your reasoning is clear to the reader unless you have properly justified and supported it.

Tip: Do not try to cover too much material. This is a vast area and you would be better to choose a limited number of issues on which to concentrate and do justice to them, rather than to try and cover everything and only provide minimal depth.

2. Written brief: structure, presentation and written English. Please use the resources the university makes available for checking English grammar, spelling, etc. You have no excuse for handing in work that is difficult for me to understand. 

3. Formatting of references and citations. These should be formatted in the Harvard notation.


The use of the information system aspects have different level of interactions based on different perceptions of people. The information system is perceived differently even by different people of different groups. As people associated with technical systems, the use of the information systems corresponds to applied implementations in computer technologies and telecommunications. Similarly, for addressing the social system needs, an organization references the information system according to their need for informational connectivity. Lastly, the use of the information system is also adopted as a conceptual system, which helps abstraction of the various processes. This report discusses about the concept of information system to be used for academic purposes along with the technological references.

Although there are various interpretations of the information system concepts, there are various other dialects of this technology. The use of this technology is differently perceived as seen by different people. The definitions of this technology are also considered different as different people tend to explain them (Laudon and Laudon 2013). This is mainly due to the ability of different perceptions of the technology based on their different needs. Individuals involved in the use of technology have to interpret in different way that helps in maintaining a proper analysis of information system in the organizational context. The use of the information system have helped in maintaining a proper reach towards goals. Thus, the main definition of the term ‘information’ can be explained as a data or information that implies the use of the technology in a specific way for explaining various terminology of operation. 

Thus, it can be said that a single definition of the information domain is not possible (Romney and Steinbart 2012). It is thus advisable to consider the possibility of various sub-domains of the information system, which are integrated in the common and everyday lives. These sub-domains have different meanings, which are integrated in the local activities with different meanings (Chiang, Goes and Stohr 2012). In addition, use of the technological frameworks is also not adopted for this reason.

Ideally, the terminology for any selected domain of the information system will be placed on an excellent foundation of consultation, which is not built easily (Peppard and Ward 2016). In various domains, where there are appearance of a sufficient degree of consensus, there are made attempts for isolating and clarifying varying sets of fundamental concepts. The main choice of terminology is not a proposed standard. Moreover, the concepts have been isolated must stand the test of critical discussion by the community before any terminology is standardized. The major user groups are associated to creating their very own terminology of the information systems. The first principle to adopt is recognition of the sensitivities by acknowledgement of the apparent and superficial differences of terminology and concepts, which should not be suppressed as they may indicate important distinctions (Bonham-Carter 2014). The changes caused in the terminology can have destructive effects in the psychological minds of the people.

The information system was first introduced in the real world as a research program. The main concepts of this included the computer science aspects, which was far more important than the information system. It was first developed within the main context of the academic science and mathematics. The researchers and the scholars used the computer science technology for using in their coding requirements. In the year 1940, many university research groups were engaged in building computers for testing various designs and ideas (Venkatesh, Brown and Bala 2013). In the year 1951, UNIVAC I was made available as the first computer for commercial use, whereas the LEO computer, made by Lyons Tea Company and Cambridge University, became functional in the market. The several organizations from various countries utilized this way for making their own information systems (Chiang, Goes and Stohr 2012). After several years, there were many computational organizations which were responsible for organizing IFIP as an international federation in computing societies which took place in the year 1960.

Historical definitions of information system

The use of the information system was mainly adopted after many years which followed after the computer system innovation (Stair and Reynolds 2013). Various types of universities in all over the world that are providing various types of education and knowledge on several topics. Knowledge regarding information system have helped in making them technically sound in the market. The use of the information system has been increased in the market that helps in making various processor for fast processing of information. The first professor relative to information system was in 1965, another prospect is the first formal program in the year 1968, and the last event was in the year 1976 that made IFIP organize TC8, by analyzing information systems as a separate entity among the computing environment (Bonham-Carter 2014).

Due to such technical foundations, the delay in information system recognition across the globe is mainly due to three major factors, which made it separate from the computer academic structures (Hall 2012). These are the presence of time lag between the onset of computers and the identification of an information system for organization function and other research issues, the diversity in backgrounds of academic researchers with interests in information systems and professional societies and lastly, the conferences and the journals that accepted the information system research results.

The main drawback present in the evolution of the information system is that the definition of it is used to define both the agenda and the practices for it. In case of any presence of practices, the researchers and the employees look for a solution in the information system. However, the use of the information system is not able to provide solutions to the problems mentioned and hence the need to identify the boundaries of the system is needed.

The time lag between the onset of the computation system and the development of an information system is diversified. The early use of the computers was focused on simple accounting and transactional systems, which was the main cause for lack of interest (Pearlson, Saunders and Galletta 2016). Many organizations have implemented computer-based data and information that helps in proper processing of information used in the academic and organizational purposes. The academic researchers have to obtain knowledge from various information and develop methodologies to analyze its design and successful evaluation. The early academic researchers in the information system background came from a certain source of subject-based backgrounds like the management, computer science, accounting, and management science.

There was no need for urgent establishment of a new academic discipline as the doctoral students whose interests lies in information systems, took higher studies in these existing subjects for the year 1960 (Galliers and Leidner 2014). There were several organizations, which formed special interest groups to keep track of the issues in information systems. In addition, they also tracked the sponsored conferences among their regular ones.

There are various opportunities, which resulted in the development of the information system for academic purposes. This report discusses about seven such events that made it possible for adopting information system in academic researches (Jones 2014). These are the development of computational devices, English language as the common language for computational workings, formation of an International Federation for Information Processing and locating the IFIP TC8 working conferences.

Issues in information systems

Development of devices:

The invention of information technology is mainly due to the innovation of the computer science technology without which the introduction of it would not have been possible. In addition, it also requires the need for analyzing various information related to the hardware and software technologies is also recorded in the information systems (Reichert and Weber 2012). After the World War II, there were various interests in universities across the world for designing and developing machinery that would successfully analyze and use the information systems in an effective way. Due to such applications, the vision of making the information system was shared across all the personnel of the globe. Thus, it can say that use of the information system technology was considered an international effort (Hashem et al. 2015). This resulted in various personnel across the globe to share and objectify their vision of making an information system, which led to the creation of the first system.

Due to such innovations, various countries made their own organization to address the computer system accordingly (Bezdek, Dubois and Prade 2012). These were also important in making scientific support responsible for supporting the tools and methodologies, which are useful in information system.

Efforts from international scholars:

There are several researchers and scholars, which contributed in the aspects of information systems for academic purposes. They associated in international conferences and acquainted in international organizations, which made them successful in their vision for an organizational perspective (Goes 2014). They were the founders of the international societies that make up the information system framework today.

The future of the information system to be used in academic research and science is targeted towards an organizational perspective. There are various reasons for the innovation in the information technology in the market. The use of information technology have helped in maintaining a critical difference between use of information on academic purpose and organizational overview. The reason for innovation have helped in solving various problems for information service (Panetto and Cecil 2013).   

An information system is termed as a major portion of a company, which requires a heavy investment for analysis and research. In addition, if the system made is combined with other systems from different organizations or companies, it can serve as an effective tool for addressing business solutions (Dwivedi et al. 2015). In case of failures encountered by the system, threats and risks can be evident which may lead to failure of operations. There are possibilities of outsourcing the information system of an organization or company, but the main requirements for addressing such functions is the need to maintain an information function in the system. There are many arguments that depict that information systems cannot give competitive advantage as technologies can be easily hacked or stolen in the form of breaches or hacks (Chen, Lo and Yeh 2012). This concept cannot succeed as the advantage in this concept is not in technology itself but in the main internal systems which is enabled within technology when integrated in the systems.

Institutional characteristics of the information system field

The main implementation of the computer science technologies and information system differs according to the statistics of various countries. North America is experiencing a decrease of employment rate in the field of computer science, which shows an emergence of the problem. This causes the presence of issues in the system, which needs to be addressed (Chiang, Goes and Stohr 2012). This may also lead to the diminishing of the academic field, which in turn can lead to problems for a country as well. They make four arguments, which are the recent reduction of computer science student admission, resistance for information system from students, resistance to academic field information system, which is based on diversity in research, and the resistance in universities to information system making an academic discipline (Romney and Steinbart 2012).

There are various drop on the employment services for the academic purposes. This has degraded the quality of the academic purposes in the organizational context. As argued by Xu, Li and Liao (2012), the quality of the information in academic is better than the organizational point of view. However, the academic purposes focuses on the theoretical part of the information. On the other hand, organizational perspectives focuses on practical implementation of the theoretical part of information. This will make a need for academic purposes to make changes in the information aspects, which will lead to changes in the computer science role. This can be accepted by countries of the alternative course can provide a greater perspective in terms of knowledge (Rainer et al. 2013). The need for a better course can be addressed oi the pressure to reduce the courses can be increased or decreased with another course containing high value. The aspect of diversity in research can be a weakness but in the same time can be a strategic point too (Reichert and Weber 2012). Innovation comes from those schools, which are not comfortable and strategically secure in their current position.


The main conclusion that can be drawn from this report is that a new information discipline is needed to successfully apply in their processes. This report discusses about the main disciplines to be followed for addressing the informational systems in academic sources. This report also presents an idea about the main considerations about the information system which have justified the use of information system to be diminishing in comparison to the increasing view of the organizational effectiveness. The report also discusses about the history of the information system which have depicted that the main concepts of computer science aspects was far more important than the information system. It was first developed within the main context of the academic science and mathematics. Moreover, the various issues of the information system as compared to the computer science academic source have also been depicted in this report. The main issues that have been discussed is the decreasing concentration of the employment programs in the countries which have ultimately lead to an impact in the organizations or companies as well.

As the use of the information system is a very effective tool for addressing in organizational approaches, this research paper recommends various considerations.

  • The first recommendation is the need for identifying the domains of the information process effectively. This will also help in articulating the importance of every elements of the information system. In addition, this will also help the people studying the computer science technologies in their academic courses to successfully get knowledge from this.
  • Another recommendation is the need to address the research capabilities that will mitigate all the issues considered. This will also help the organization to address the need for shared research and thus the success of the organizational will increase. It can be considered that information systems in an organization present new opportunities for researching and analyzing.


Bezdek, J., Dubois, D. and Prade, H. eds., 2012. Fuzzy sets in approximate reasoning and information systems (Vol. 5). Springer Science & Business Media.

Bonham-Carter, G.F., 2014. Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modelling with GIS (Vol. 13). Elsevier.

Chen, H.M., Lo, J.W. and Yeh, C.K., 2012. An efficient and secure dynamic id-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems. Journal of medical systems, 36(6), pp.3907-3915.

Chiang, R.H., Goes, P. and Stohr, E.A., 2012. Business intelligence and analytics education, and program development: A unique opportunity for the information systems discipline. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS), 3(3), p.12.

Dwivedi, Y.K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S., Henriksen, H.Z., Myers, M.D., Bunker, D., Elbanna, A., Ravishankar, M.N. and Srivastava, S.C., 2015. Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions. Information Systems Frontiers, 17(1), pp.143-157.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E. eds., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Goes, P.B., 2014. Design science research in top information systems journals. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 38(1), pp.iii-viii.

Hall, J.A., 2012. Accounting information systems. Cengage Learning.

Hashem, I.A.T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N.B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A. and Khan, S.U., 2015. The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information Systems, 47, pp.98-115.

Information systems : what sort of science is it?. (2017). [ebook] LSE Research Online. Available at: https://1882485_1474051328_ISwhatsortofscience.pdf [Accessed 30 Nov. 2017].

Jones, C.B., 2014. Geographical information systems and computer cartography. Routledge.

Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P., 2013. Management Information Systems 13e.

Panetto, H. and Cecil, J., 2013. Information systems for enterprise integration, interoperability and networking: theory and applications.

Pearlson, K.E., Saunders, C.S. and Galletta, D.F., 2016. Managing and Using Information Systems, Binder Ready Version: A Strategic Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Peppard, J. and Ward, J., 2016. The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Rainer, R.K., Cegielski, C.G., Splettstoesser-Hogeterp, I. and Sanchez-Rodriguez, C., 2013. Introduction to information systems. John Wiley & Sons.

Reichert, M. and Weber, B., 2012. Enabling flexibility in process-aware information systems: challenges, methods, technologies. Springer Science & Business Media.

Romney, M.B. and Steinbart, P.J., 2012. Accounting information systems. Boston: Pearson.

Stair, R. and Reynolds, G., 2013. Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A. and Bala, H., 2013. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS quarterly, 37(1).

Xu, W., Li, Y. and Liao, X., 2012. Approaches to attribute reductions based on rough set and matrix computation in inconsistent ordered information systems. Knowledge-Based Systems, 27, pp.78-91.

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