$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience

tag 0 Download5 Pages / 1,004 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT


Discuss about the Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience.



The fact sheet is about the role of action potential and its use in the field of physiology. The fact sheet gives insight into the process of action potential and its function in cell to cell communication. The characteristics related to its function well-defines its importance in contraction of muscle cells and movement. The fact sheet also gives detail on the recovery period after an action potential and the consequences of manipulation in action potential.

Action potential is a an event occurring in the membrane of the nerve cell or muscle cell which leads to the reversal of electric polarization  of the membrane of the nerve cell. In the neuron, an action potential travels down the axon to change the polarity across the membrane. It results in the opening of the Na+ and K + gated ion channel. This gate closes once the threshold potential is reached. The initiation of the action potential is associated with depolarization (due to the transport of Na+ ions into the axon). Repolarization occurs when the K+ channel opens and moves out of the axon. Due to the change in polarity, the impulse travels down from the axon to other neurons (1).

The main function of action potential is to engage in cell to cell communication by means of transmission of signals from axon to axon terminals and then into other neurons. It is also involved in activating intracellular processes in muscle cells. For example, action potential leads to contraction of muscle cells. During the action potential, positively charged ions move inside the neural membrane and the negatively charged ions moves out. The increase in the positive charge results in the generation of electric impulse, which passes down the nerve. In the muscle cells, it helps to produce the necessary contraction required for movement (2).

As reflected from the explanation of the function role of action potential, potassium and sodium ion channel are mainly involved during this process. Both the channel plays role in all the stages of action potential such as the depolarization, repolarization and the refractory stage (3). The detail regarding the process in each stage and the involvement of both the channels is explained below.

During the action potential, neourotransmitters or sensory receptors stimulate the cell in the membrane. As the sodium on diffuse into this part of the cell, the membrane slowly shift towards negative polarization stage. Finally, the potential reaches a threshold potential resulting in the opening of the calcium ions. This is followed by depolarization so that the impulse moves and takes place in other parts of the membrane.


Characteristics related to its function

The main characteristics of action potential are related to the depolarization of the cell due to transmit signals. Its function also reflect communication characteristics as generation of electric impulse during action potential act as a form of communication between the sensory receptors, muscles, brain and spinal cord. There is no strong or weak signal in action potential. It reaches either threshold value or the resting potential (4).  There are three stages of action potential. They are:

  • Depolarization stage- First the neuron is in resting potential due to high concentration of positive ions outside the cell and negative ions inside the cell. Depolarization occurs when positive sodium ions rushes inside the cell and reverses the polarity of the membrane.
  • Repolarization stage- Once the electric gradient has reached the threshold value, the Na+ and K+ gate opens and positive charged potassium ions comes out from the neuron. In this way, the negative membrane potential is restored.
  • Refractory phase- This occurs during the action potential when the sodium gate can open only when the membrane is repolarized to its resting potential. Hence, another action potential cannot occur in this stage (5).

Recover after an action potential

The period after the action potential has taken place in a neuron is called the refractory period in which another action potential cannot take place. Refractory period can be called a recovery time in which similar action cannot be repeated by cell. It is also defined as the time required for a second stimulus to occur once an excitable membrane returns to its resting stage. In this period, the potassium channel opens again and the sodium channel closes (6). Hence, the neuron returns back to its resting potential. After this recovery, another action potential is possible in the cell.

The action potential is often manipulated to obtain a predetermined motor action from specific muscle. In some case the extra-cellular concentration of sodium and potassium ion is manipulated due to get a desired result. Manipulation is also done for cardiac potential to stimulate cardiac Calcium channel to open early. This results in increased contraction force. The advancement in molecular technology also lead to cloning of genes for different channels. By this experimental manipulation of the channels, genes were expressed. Researchers could easily identify the specific function properties of different parts of the channel such as the voltage sensitivity and kinetics of cellular interaction (7).



Sherwood L. Human physiology: from cells to systems. Cengage learning; 2015.

Levitan IB, Kaczmarek LK. The neuron: cell and molecular biology. Oxford University Press, USA; 2015.

Wolff M, Schnöbel-Ehehalt R, Mühling J, Weigand MA, Olschewski A. Mechanisms of Lidocaine’s Action on Subtypes of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Subject to the Diverse Roles of Na+ and K+ Channels in Action Potential Generation. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2014 Aug 1;119(2):463-70.

Byrne JH, Heidelberger R, Waxham MN, editors. From molecules to networks: an introduction to cellular and molecular neuroscience. Academic Press; 2014 May 23.

Myerburg RJ, Stewart JW, Ross SM, Hoffman BF. On-line measurement of duration of cardiac action potentials and refractory periods. Journal of applied physiology. 2016 Mar 24;28(1):92-3.

Stengel R. Introduction to Neural Networks!.

Lewis JE, Gilmour KM, Moorhead MJ, Perry SF, Markham MR. Action potential energetics at the organismal level reveal a trade-off in efficiency at high firing rates. Journal of Neuroscience. 2014 Jan 1;34(1):197-201.

Lawson R, Graham J, Baker K. History of Psychology. Routledge; 2015 Oct 6.

Download Sample

Get 100% money back after download, simply upload your unique content* of similar no. of pages or more. We verify your content and once successfully verified 100% value credited to your wallet within 7 days.

Upload Unique Document

Document Under Evaluation

Get Credits into Your Wallet

*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as unique.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience. Retrieved from

"Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 14 July 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 14 July 2020.

My Assignment Help. Cellular And Molecular Neuroscience [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 14 July 2020]. Available from: has appointed best assignment experts who are wizards of words. Our writers know every trick of crafting high quality write-ups within a short period. With years of experiences, we have become one of the most prolific assignment help services in the USA. We deliver custom-made help to students with writing different types of assignments. We guarantee total need-based and timely service, and this is why increasing numbers of students prefer to buy assignment online.

Latest Physics Samples

PVB302-Quantum Mechanical Model Of Hydrogen Atom

Download : 1 | Pages : 14
  • Course Code: PVB302
  • University: Queensland University Of Technology
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction After  the  failure  of  the  Rutherford  model  of  an  atom  proposed  in  1911  which  was  not  able  to  explain  the  stability  of  the  atom; Niels  Bohr, a  Danish Physicist,   suggested  in  1913  that   the  electrons  could  only &nb...

Read More arrow

Job Design In Context To Dunkin

Download : 1 | Pages : 7

Answer:   Introduction Dunkin’ Donuts is set for expansions in five different locations in the next two years. The learner which is recently being crowned as the district manager for the company has been provided with responsibilities to take care of the related processes. Structuring and staffing are the essential parts of an expansion which the learner will be responsible for. Hence, the study gives a full coverage to recruitmen...

Read More arrow

The Concept Of Beta Decay Unites

Download : 1 | Pages : 14

Question: You are required to formulate a piece of investigative report specializing in the field of nuclear physics (Specifically on the concept of shielding from radioactive decay, magnetic deflection of Beta decay products, energy and velocity calculation of Beta decay products.)     Answer Introduction The concept of beta decay unites kinds of nuclear transformations: electron (β‾) decay, positron (β?) decay ...

Read More arrow

Category Management And Comments

Download : 0 | Pages : 4

Question: Discuss about the Category Management And comments.     Answer: Category Changes and comments Analgesics The given product has a high GP Margin of 49.55%, ST of 7.5 and a LM OF 17%. As the climate is hot, the given product is popular.   Baby The pharmacy should ensure that they stock the given product in high stock. The GP% is at a low of 22.82%. Hence, there could be sepa...

Read More arrow

Role Of Science And Inclusion In Primary Education

Downloads : 2 | Pages : 11

Question: Discuss about the Role of Science and Inclusion in Primary Education.   Answer: Introduction Science and its importance in today’s world In everyday life, people apply technologies and use products produced scientifically. According to the study by University of Texas Arlington (2017, September 8) public policy for solving life issues are passed on the basis of scientific evidence. Additionally, Lederman & Abell (...

Read More arrow

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Ken Campbell

MSc in Electrical Engineering

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

453 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Howard Asuncion

LLM in Criminal Law

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

752 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Hugh Cleave

Masters in Human Resource Management (MMgt, HRM)

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

93 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Jackson Mitchell

MiM (Masters in Management) in Supply Chain Management

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

great work. WOW. nicely done. good reference. great approach. one of the best assignment


User Id: 424798 - 13 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

I am very pleased with the turnout of my assignment! My stress level dropped dramatically with MAH\'s assistance!


User Id: 383727 - 13 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

At first, I started to lose faith in MYASSIGNMENThelp, then I was assigned a tutor that was able to take the suggested changes and went over and above the call of duty to complete my assignment. I am so thankful for this tutor. Can I work with you ag...


User Id: 450083 - 13 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

I have long awaited to give a 5-star rating and this EXPERT/tutor was able to review the track changes I requested and made those changes and even went over and above the call of duty to make sure my work was completed and done correctly. Thanks


User Id: 450083 - 13 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?