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Health behavior and change have become one of the most relevant healthcare issues in Latin America over the last few decades. The changing course of lifestyle is considered a significant reason for the change in health behavior. Presently, type2 diabetes has become one of the main causes that are controlling the morbidity and mortality rate among the Latinas in terms of health behavioral change. The rate of type2 diabetes has increased among the Latinas by 24% in past ten years. Thus, there is an impactful requirement of effective intervention process to mitigate the behavioral issues in the type2 diabetes prevention from the Latina communities. The Precede and Proceed model can be considered as a most effective model that can control the behavioral change in the type2 diabetes prevention process among the Latinas. The Precede and Proceed model is a universally acknowledged health assessment structure that can locate the behavioral change. Moreover, this model is impactful in assessing, designing, implementing and evaluating the health promotions for the public health betterment. This study will unfold the effectiveness of the Precede and Proceed model to evaluate the healthcare behavioral change in the prevention techniques of type2 diabetes care in the Latin population. The concluding part will summarize the whole study and will refer an overall recommendation on the utilization of Precede and Proceed model to mitigate the risks if type2 diabetes from the Latinas.
Type2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases among the Latin population of USA. The inappropriate proportion of the distribution of healthcare insurance and the lack of type2 diabetes awareness are the key reasons for the growth of type2 diabetes (Yeoh, Choudhary, Nwokolo, Ayis & Amiel, 2015). The prevention of type2 diabetes symptoms lies in the effective implementation of the Precede and Proceed framework. This framework is capable to assess the key diabetic factors and issues and can implement effective strategies to mitigate the diabetic symptoms form the Latinas (Yeoh, Choudhary, Nwokolo, Ayis & Amiel, 2015). It is notable that 5.35% of the people ageing from 18-44, 61.3% of the people ageing from 45-64 and 71.0% of the population ageing from 65-74 have the diabetic awareness (American Diabetes Association, 2015). The behavioral analysis of precede and proceed model can enhance the capability of the intervention process.
Figure: Age-wise availability of type2 diabetes care plan
Source: https://care.type2 type2 diabetesjournals.org/content/37/8/2233
It is identified that the Latina population is one of the most deprived population in the USA in terms of getting the health insurance plan for type2 diabetes. Only 19% of the Latina population gets health insurance (American Diabetes Association, 2015). It can be considered as a vulnerable aspect for the type2 diabetes prevention plan (Raymond-Flesch, Siemons, Pourat, Jacobs & Brindis, 2014). An effective type2 diabetes prevention plan is capable to mitigate the issue. Moreover, the type2 diabetes intervention plan can be executed and implemented on the target population with the proper execution of the Precede and Proceed model (Raymond-Flesch, Siemons, Pourat, Jacobs & Brindis, 2014).
Figure: health insurance for type2 diabetes by Latinas
The diabetes prevention program can be developed to support the people of Latina to mitigate the symptoms of type2 diabetes. The program includes lifestyle intervention, metformin intake and losing weight (Tovote et al., 2015).
It can be measured by practicing a regular checkup of the blood sugar level which is normally 63.3mg/dL for the Latinas
It can be attained by checking the lifestyle. For example- quitting smoking, drinking and sweet foods and regular exercise (Ezzati & Riboli, 2013).
It is realistic because practicing a healthy lifestyle reduces obesity level which is one of the prime reasons for type2 diabetes
It should be done within 15 days
It can be measured by identifying the HbA1c level. The 0.8% level of the HbA1c level is considered (Raymond-Flesch, Siemons, Pourat, Jacobs & Brindis, 2014).
It is attainable because metformin is the most conventional treatment for type2 diabetes
It is realistic because the metformin intake is capable to control the level of aA1c from 0.8% to 3.1% (Tovote et al., 2015).
The metformin intake must be provided within 20 days of identifying the type2 diabetes symptoms
This can be measured by analyzing the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the Latinas (Raymond-Flesch, Siemons, Pourat, Jacobs & Brindis, 2014).
It is attainable as a maintained diet and regular exercise can reduce the level of obesity
It is realistic because it has been found that losing 7% of the obesity level can reduce the symptoms of type2 diabetes by up to 15% (Tovote et al., 2015).
It must be started within seven days after identifying the symptoms of type2 diabetes
Table: SMART plan for type2 diabetes intervention for the Latinas
Source: Created by the researcher
The intervention plans can be properly implemented with the effective utilization of Proceed and precede model. The Precede assessment is capable to analyze the adaptation and authenticity of the proposed intervention plan for the type2 diabetes care for the Latina (Viana, Gross & Azevedo, 2014). On the contrary, the Proceed part is capable to evaluate the after effects of the plan, implementation of the plan and the accessibility of the type2 diabetes intervention plan to the target population (Viana, Gross & Azevedo, 2014).
The intervention plan for the type2 diabetes care for the Latinas can be properly executed with the effective implementation of the Precede and Proceed model. The Precede and Proceed model is a comprehensive structure to evaluate the healthcare prevention form the target population. 18.75% of the Latinas over 16 and 14.84% of the ageing 6 to 10 suffer from an acute level of type2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Thus, the implementation of Precede and Proceed model can be capable to mitigate the rate of type2 diabetes affected people from the Latin population (DePue et al., 2013).
Figure: Type2 type2 diabetes prevalence of Latinas according to age
The Precede assessment includes the predisposing, reinforcing, diagnosis and evaluation of the healthcare situation. This is helpful to mitigate the complexities regarding type2 diabetes among the Latinas (DePue et al., 2013). Moreover, this part is developed to locate, monitor, execute and implement the type2 diabetes intervention plan for the Latinas. The execution process can be segregated into different factors (Viana, Gross & Azevedo, 2014). The factors that promote the Precede assessment are social factors, epidemiological factors, ecological factors and administrative and policy factors (Litwak et al., 2018).
Implementation: The implementation stage defines the strategic outcome of type2 diabetes intervention management. The type2 diabetes intervention plan is practically implemented on the target population under this plan. The utilization of the available resources, possibilities and requirement of the implementation program to assess the intervention progress (Koivisalo et al., 2016). The process includes measurement of blood sugar level, advice for medication, advice for sugar intake and requirement of insulin dosage (Tanaka et al., 2013). The normal level of glucose level among the Latina people is 63.3mg/dL (Patrick et al., 2013). Any further increase in the glucose level is considered to be a high level of type2 diabetes from where the implementation process would start.
Figure: Proceed and Precede framework
The study has unfolded the effectiveness of the Precede and Proceed model to implement the type2 diabetes intervention plan focusing on the behavioral aspect. Type2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases for the Latinas. Type2 diabetes and prediabetic syndromes affect around 30% of the Latinas. The behavioral and lifestyle change can also be identified as a significant part of the reasons of diabetic syndromes. Apart from that, high obesity, lack of physical exercise and poor health insurance system are also the reasons for type2 diabetes among the Latinas. Thus, the prevention from the diabetic symptoms has been identified in the study. The preventive techniques are implemented practically with the effective implementation of the Precede and Proceed model. Thus, the proper implementation of the anti-diabetic plan can be mitigated by effective type2 diabetes intervention plans with the help of the Precede and Proceed model.
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