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This assessment is designed to help you review the current literature on your selected research topic and analyse how previous studies will influence the direction and methods in your research. Literature reviews are an essential tool for the early childhood professional. The capacity to seek out and critically interrogate appropriate literature to call upon for building a base of knowledge in the early childhood field is imperative in your professional role as an early childhood professional.

For this literature review you will need to:

  • Review a minimum of five (5) to seven (7) current research articles on your selected research topic and question/s.

  • Author a literature review that analyses and critiques the articles in relation to your selected research topic.

  • Identify recommendations and gaps in the literature that support your proposed research project questions.

Literature Reviews: An Essential Tool for Early Childhood Professionals

This research proposal intends to navigate through the impacts of the digital technology as well as the old way of education system for the early childhood care. The role of digital technology in the age of modern childhood center makes impact in both negative and positive way in the child's life cycle. The digital technology includes the use of computer programs and applications in order to teach or explain children for inducing the learning activities and social media makes interactive sessions more effective. The topic there will not be giving privilege to the digital technology for one's early childhood learning but the comparison between both teaching methods, knowing the positives and negative of the two, thus coming to a conclusion or influencing digital technology in the modern age.

Article 1: Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.

In the reference of the above article, the author has tried to talk about the evolution the digital technology for early childhood education. The symbolic way teaching language and literacy is to read a book for the child, the child here hear the words try to understand the language and its meaning, referenced by the parent who tries to explain the line to the child, this way is classic way in which child is learning from ages (Siemens, 2014). The involvement of digital technology , the learning of the language has been transformed into LCD screens in which text, audio, video, graphics taken place in the corresponding applications. The main sources of the digital technology are the mobile devices. These mobile devices have make a clear huge impact in the life of children in respect of learning and learning language, these mobile devices contains with the applications and computer programs displays with interactive graphics which children and adult loves. This evolution in digital technology for the early childhood learning is helpful, these children interact with these graphics more and more likely to get attracted to these and hence indulging learning (Siemens, 2014). From the above context it can be said that the digital technology in the early childhood learning creates huge impact in modern ages and has been evolved in the past couple of decades.

In the reference of the above article, the author has discussed about the impacts and effects of the digital technology in early childhood learning. The author discuss that the impact of the digital technology in the lives of the children have made a huge impact, the use of the CDs and DVDs in child learning is since 30 years now. One of the important topic, that the authors have told the technology bounds children in their premises may be schools or home, meaning the physical interaction between the teachers and students has been reduced since the introduction to the digital technology (Higgins, Xiao & Katsipataki, 2012). The students miss out on physical activities and physical interaction between human being. The web based learning system introduction in education system and talking books or e-books or mobile devices have replaced the traditional CD and DVD based educational system. The digital technology has been improving since the time of introducing it, but path has taken for the improvement of child learning than the earlier learning techniques. The digital technology makes students understanding a particular thing easier by the help of graphics, video and interactive audio ( also animation), students understand and learn faster but author also said a good thing also includes some bad points (Higgins, Xiao & Katsipataki, 2012).

The Role of Digital Technology in Early Childhood Education

In the above reference for the understanding the early childhood learning, the author more over talks about the positive aspects of the digital technology in the life of the children in early stages of learning. He discussed that the involvement of digital technology in the children life has many beneficial effects, the student gets to the class learning education system through the web based education system. The student gets to learn the proper way of learning in order to learn more easily and understand more quickly (Chaudron et al. 2015). The author also said that the “change is for good”, explaining the benefits of the digital technology. The interaction of the computer application and computer programmers lead students to play small games which are graphically attractive for children in order to learn spellings, poems, words, jumble words, rhyming words, counting etc. The web based educational system lead helps students to keep up-to-date from the schools and thus helping the children to their work properly. Now-a-days teachers uses digital technology to connect with children, like if a child don't want to study then teachers can use digital technology to make the child feel comfortable to being studying and hence child learns (Chaudron et al. 2015). The technology also helps children are mentally challenged in order to connect with outside world and most importantly learn.

In the above given article the author have discussed moreover ways in which digital technology can be implemented in future days of early childhood learning. The author discussed and said that the there are problems with the current digital technology that with should be improved in order to the improvement of educational system most likely web based educational system) for the upcoming generation (Blackwell et al. 2014). The author explain that the current web based educational system is till compromised, filled with bugs, problems here and there not adequate more child learning in early stages. This are needed to be sorted out and in time. There are many applications and computer programs in order to help learning child but not all of them are correct, these problems need to stop. From the time of digital technology introduction the children misses out on the physical activities as their learning work are all operated through digital technology and the students don’t do exercise and not providing their body enough time for outdoor activities. In future there can be improvement in web based educational systems and introducing outdoor activities in order to make future more bright fully (Blackwell et al. 2014).

In the above article the author moreover discuss out about the negative impacts which are been make to the children in their early learning stages. The authors said though it has been a wonderful experience of digital technology in the lives of children but the digital technology is also being harmful for children and their future. The author says that there cannot be a future without technologies, robots and artificial intelligence, but here the learning of the early stages of the children should not be hampered. In today’s world digital technology have made children lazy, they do not give their efforts in finding the information, everything is provided in their mobile devices and tablets. The kids watching violence through televisions and video games don't have any idea about what they are watching, but they enjoying that thing, the outdoors activities are completely missing. It can be stated that there many positive uses of digital technology in a early child education, but at the same time it also have negative impacts, if these negative impacts are not been controlled, then the negative impacts will have more influence than the good ones (McCoy, 2016).

Positive and Negative Impacts of Digital Technology on Early Childhood Learning

By going through the articles above, it can be understanding one thing clearly these digital technology cannot be excluded from a children early education treatment. It can be understand that digital technologies are not bad for a child’s education, although it is a very great aspect from what a kid can learn and understand properly (Collins & Halverson, 2018). However, it is also been said the negative impacts cannot be neglected by their respective parents (it is our responsibility also to take care of the problem, this is a problem of society), as because the negative impacts can be much greater than the positive impacts. The outdoor activities of the children should be increased, in order to make their bodies adaptive to the outer nature, they can understand other nature of kids, also their mind and body parts will be sharper and respond purposefully (Cabello-Hutt, Cabello & Claro, 2017). The kids nowadays are completely dependent on the digital technologies for education purposes in schools they have projectors or screens for understanding or explaining them and also the use of computers in early childhood stages for education have become a very common practice, the schools in which such digital technologies are not there they are considered to be backdated schools. The impact of digital technology are clearly be seen in above statements.

Gap of literature

Gap of literature is the part which is been missed in the above research in the early childhood literacy, the part can be size, type, location etc. In the above research there has been a lot talk about the evolution, positive impacts, negative impacts, future impact on the child’s education interfered by digital technology. However, there has been missing of the fact that digital technology in the adult’s education or the involvement of digital technology after the early stage of a child education, as because the role of digital technology in and after early stage is also very important (Livingstone, Mascheroni, Dreier, Chaudron & Lagae, 2015). It can be said that the involvement of parents in the child’s life in also an important aspect , with has not been discussed in the above research, as parents are one who decides what his/ child will do what they will learn, how they will learn and also their respective manners. The other part that the above research have been excluded is that the involvement government in order to take necessary steps towards impact of the digital technologies in early childhood stages,. They should start introducing camp awaking the positive and negative impacts of the digital technology, they should also consider the fact that the early childhood education is essential as they will one day become the future of the their respective countries (Dezuanni, Dooley, Gattenhof & Knight, 2015).

In the context of above research, it is recommended that the power of digital technologies should not be neglected as it can do great things creating a early childhood education and enhancing it through the help of graphics and videos (Chen, 2018). The fact should also not be neglected that the digital technology can also make a negative impact and the impact will be never the less than the good one. It is recommended that the good involvement of teachers and parents in the role of early childhood education should be present as their involvement in their children life will be more helpful than involvement of digital technology.

Conclusion

 In the reference of the above research, it can be concluded that the role of digital technologies in early childhood education is very delicate, it can be good if used or displayed to child in correct format. However, on the other hand if there is any misinterpretation of digital technologies in the education of the children than the results can be devastating; it can put greater impact than the good one. Web based education system provides the best materials for studies, students become used to mobile device or tablets to access the global information is a very good thing as they be updated to the whole world. Thus digital technologies have both impacts positive and negative, so should be used in a balanced format.

References

Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90. Retrieved from https://cmhd.northwestern.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Blackwell.Lauricella.Wartella.2014.Factors-influencing-digital-tech-use-in-early-education.pdf

Cabello-Hutt, T., Cabello, P., & Claro, M. (2017). Online opportunities and risks for children and adolescents: The role of digital skills, age, gender and parental mediation in Brazil. new media & society, 1461444817724168. Retrieved from https://sociology.unc.edu/files/2017/09/Cabello-Hutt-et-al-2017-NMS.pdf

Chaudron, S., Beutel, M. E., Donoso Navarrete, V., Dreier, M., Fletcher-Watson, B., Heikkilä, A. S., ... & Mascheroni, G. (2015). Young Children (0-8) and digital technology: A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries. Retrieved from https://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/18945050/Chaudron_et_al_2015_children_0_8_and_digital_technology_europe_report_libre.pdf

Chen, R. S. (2018). The Early Childhood Educators’ Attitudes Towards Innovative Instructional Applications about Digital Learning Activities for Young Children. In Contemporary Perspective on Child Psychology and Education. InTech. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/contemporary-perspective-on-child-psychology-and-education/the-early-childhood-educators-attitudes-towards-innovative-instructional-applications-about-digital-

Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2018). Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America. Teachers College Press. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard_Halverson/publication/264869053_Rethinking_education_in_the_age_of_technology_the_digital_revolution_and_the_schools/links/58343bb608aef19cb81f4ea7/Rethinking-education-in-the-age-of-technology-the-digital-revolution-and-the-schools.pdf

Dezuanni, M., Dooley, K., Gattenhof, S., & Knight, L. (2015). iPads in the early years: Developing literacy and creativity. Routledge.). Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MYQcBgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=impact+of+digital+technology+in+children+education&ots=IYMZoz5-Nc&sig=q98VnCZyy6u622qwNIAX0Rq2B2Q#v=onepage&q=impact%20of%20digital%20technology%20in%20children%20education&f=false

Higgins, S., Xiao, Z., & Katsipataki, M. (2012). The impact of digital technology on learning: A summary for the education endowment foundation. Durham, UK: Education Endowment Foundation and Durham University. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d26b/b59f2536107b57f242b8289b1eb6f51d8765.pdf

Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., Dreier, M., Chaudron, S., & Lagae, K. (2015). How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: The role of income, education and parental style. Reyrieved from https://eprints.lse.ac.uk/63378/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_EU%20Kids%20Online_EU_Kids_Online_How%20parents%20manage%20digital%20devices_2016.pdf

McCoy, B. R. (2016). Digital distractions in the classroom phase II: Student classroom use of digital devices for non-class related purposes. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1091&context=journalismfacpub

Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved from https://er.dut.ac.za/bitstream/handle/123456789/69/Siemens_2005_Connectivism_A_learning_theory_for_the_digital_age.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

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