Discussed below are the various phases of case management process:
Screening- The first stage of case management is to identify the client. It is a process of picking the right person who needs a service.
Assessment- The next phase of case management is assessing the current ability, social and physical need of the person (Wager et al., 2017). This assessment varies from person to person and also in different situations.
Planning- It is one of the most important phases of case management. It integrates the personal factors with health and social needs. In order to integrate the individual needs and the services provided, the planning process includes human factors like standard of living, employment and also access to the physical and social needs of the human being (Wager et al., 2017).
Implementation- It actually cares coordination phase which is provided by the case manager, care giver and various professionals and services. It is the duty of case manager to oversee and coordinate the care, at the same time they take the responsibility that the customer fully understands the detail of the service, like time and date of appointment (Kovach et al., 2017).
Medication management- The individual health condition can influence case management who are under medication. This medication management is one of the important parts of the implementation of case management.
Self-care support- In this phase the care or service provider teaches the service user how to live independently.
Advocacy and negotiation- The case manager himself can advocate and negotiate with the service user about the usefulness of certain services and ensure that they have easy access.
Psychological review- The case managers should spend more time with the patients and elderly persons as this relationship will improve the confidence and well being of the service user (Wager et al., 2017).
Monitoring and Review- It is also one of the important stages of case management where the case team monitor and review the whole process and also the progress of the service user.
Case closer- It is the phase where the client gets discharged from the services he was using.
What statutory requirements do you need to consider when developing and utilising case management procedures?
Privacy Act 1988, personal information like information or opinion could be recorded in a material form about an identified person or an individual who is identifiable reasonably (Wager et al., 2017). If I am a case manager, I will confront to obey the federal, state and local laws as well as policies of employers and governing all aspects of the practices of case management. The case management aspects include confidential rights of the client and the privacy of the client. I will also focus on managing these aspects.
Some case managers are public figures who follow their own ethics and mode of conduct, where as some private case managers do not obey the principle of the professional body. Thus, they maintain their own high-level professional of care. However in every sphere, the client consent is very important (Levett et al., 2017). It is the prior duty of the case manager to have an appropriate consent from the service user before the service is implemented.
There is a relationship between individual ethics and obligation. This ethics can vary person to person. In general, every case manager is ethnically bounded to take care of the service user (Levett et al., 2017). Ethics are introduced to a person by birth from the help his family, culture and society. Thus when dealing with a case, the manager can act differently.
Why must particular care be taken not to label a child or adolescent as mentally unstable?
A child or adolescent needs proper care as a normal human being, not as mentally unstable which may put different meaning by them. Such labelling might cause discourage to their mental health. Any such stigmatising will further deepen the negative self-image of these people resulting in further limiting the scope for any possible future development for them (Roberts et al., 2017). The organization Diversitat handles many cases related to this. They deal very sensitively with this type and many more cases.
Describe three possible responses to the issue of a lack of mental health care opportunities for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people.
Through increased job benefit, it is possible to prevent high turnover of health care providers within the communities of Aboriginal and /Torres Islander. It will result in developing cultural and linguistic competence. Exposure to new workers will be minimised by the community.
From “Ways forward report”, every region can constitute at least two Aboriginal mental health worker with one male and the female member (Orlowski et al., 2017). They are aware of the prevailing knowledge of the client’s situation and family, the local community. This will also be used to connect people to fulfil their needs.
Traditionally indigenous healing practices could be incorporated with regular therapies for prevention of a culturally appropriate relapse. As per research trend stress and trauma mostly manifest suicidal or self -harm among the community. Hence it is utmost important that the case management services develop a partnership with life promotion programme within the community of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island (Orlowski et al., 2017).
How can you make the process of making complaints easier for clients?
Under normal process of Case, Management service user is not required to make the complaint about their treatment provided. Still, in case of any dissatisfaction the following initiative undertaken will make the complaint procedure easier:
I will take approaches that are promoted as client centric. That means service users will be at top priority always at every stage of the case management process.
I will convince the service user about user-friendly complaints policy. They can be convinced that their feedback will be considered and service delivery will be adopted as far as possible. It is very important to identify the problem regarding client’s safety. Thus, it is better to maintain a standard, how client’s complaints are interpreted and analysed.
I will also ensure the service user about the exact timeline for availability of the case manager to talk and take feedback.
What are the three crucial factors that are needed for a case manager to build a rapport with the client to facilitate information sharing?
The three crucial factors are:
Confidence- Clients always have faith in the case manager's ability and honesty. The manager can prove himself through qualification, expertise and research willingness (Van Mierlo et al., 2014). This will grow confidence among the clients. Once the confidence grows among the clients, it will create a long term relationship with the organisation and the case manager himself.
Respect- In every situation the case manager must show respect to their client. Though, it is very important to have this respect both ways. In the case management process, a good understanding between client and case manager may broaden the way to facilitate the sharing of information. Having respect towards the client, enable the manager to build the good relationship (Slaughter et al., 2017).
Empathy- The case manager can always understand the situation or the feeling of the client. It is only possible when the manager place himself in the client situation.
In pairs, discuss some of the consequences that a lack of boundaries can have on the case management process. How can these be avoided?
If the case managers loss professional focus, then they may seem unsustainable. This situation is called compassion fatigue. This leads to a constant deviation from the client goal. The client may feel unsatisfied due to poor services. There will be a sharp fall of the reputation of the case manager or case manager's agency. The probability of success may decline. The client may fall in danger due to the case manager or carer (Stergiopoulos et al., 2017).
If the role of the case manager is defined clearly in the implementation of the case plan, then we can avoid this type of situation. In setting boundaries, the actions that the case manager or the case team will unable to perform due to any regulation or shortage of resources can be mentioned clearly. The case manager can be open-minded and honest to their client. The service can meet the expectation of the service users when case management process will be transparent.
Family plays an important role in the case management of an adolescent substance abuser, like drug addiction. Only family members can give proper moral and emotional support to the person and also act as the support system in practical features of treatment of the person (Wongpakaran et al., 2017). Without the support and supervision of family members, it is very difficult for the case manager to monitor the adolescent behavioural progress throughout the treatment period. Finally, the communication and conflict can be improved with the help of only family members in case management.
Why might case managers acquire the help of ‘peer case managers’ when the client is homeless?
Peer case managers are persons who were homeless or are recovering themselves from a shelter. Clients feel more satisfied with the support of peer case managers in comparison with professional case managers because the peer case managers can easily put themselves in the situation of the client and feel the requirement of the client (McPherson et al., 2017).
In a group discuss the requirements for a case manager when formulating a case management plan
Consider the client as the first person, so that the case management plan should be client oriented. The plan should include the following, like client’s goal, their strength and weaknesses and future plans. The case plan should take into account the potential risk factors and provide the strategies to prevent the risk. Client’s financial status, culture, life style should take into consideration while producing the plan. It is very important to include the time and place of next review. Here the stakeholder should also be involved (Stergiopoulos et al., 2017).
How can case managers ensure the case plan reflects the initial assessment needs?
The case plan is a very important tool in case management process. It is very necessary that the case manager produce a plan can meet the initial assessment needs. Thus the manager takes some time to evaluate the entire situation to generate a plan before meeting the client. The case manager place himself in the client situation in order to understand the initial needs. Before creating a plan the case manager concentrate on the strength and draw backs, primary resources and final goal of his organisation.
Then, he takes into account the client's financial condition and goal. At the same time, he considers the most effective way that enables the client to reach their goal (Pisarski, 2017). Most commonly the manager writes down all the discussed issues in the previous meeting. Depending on these factors the case manager draws an initial format of the case plan. In this primary stage of investigation and by forming the blue print of case plan the case managers ensure that all initial assessment of needs should meet in the case plan.
How the case plan will be monitored needs to be agreed upon between case manager and client. Provide examples of specific aspects of monitoring that should be agreed
The case plan monitoring which involves reviewing the status of the clients, their needs and related services to address the needs to be agreed at the planning stage of case management. This has to be agreed between the case manager and the respective client and varies case by case basis depending on the client. Discussed below are such points which need to be agreed upon:
- Aspects of monitoring
- Place or area of monitoring to be specified
- Requirement of using the help of telehealth device for havingaccess to specific data of client health (example- blood pressure or sugar or other health testing device)
Monitoring should be the responsibility of the case manager as well as the client. Proper monitoring allows constant review and modification of care plan to make it effective (Hatton et al., 2017).
Example- If care plan uses technological device for the client, the GP or case manager should monitor the required data with the help of some professional expert.
Why might the relatives and/or carers of a client provide a risk to case managers?
In certain instances, there is client disagreement with the support being rendered to them. The case management process is the mutual effort of every person related to the case like the case manager, career, relatives of a client, and the client himself. Thus, as a team, all members could agree to a common point.
There are several instances where the case manager fails to adequately serve the client as per the expectation of the client. In this case, the case manager can understand the client need as required to avoid this kind of situation (Robinson et al., 2007).
Some cases the client relatives and /or carers disagree with the goals of the individual receiving case management process. The case manager can study such causes of disagreement to avoid any risk in case management process.
The client requirement as put forward by case managers is sometimes not fulfilled due to the refusal of service by the respective case manager. In this case, the case manager can take due care in ensuring that such omission does not result under case management process. This can be done through a proper checklist maintained by the case managers.
Provide three examples of strategies for managing risk in CM:
Discussed below are the three examples of strategies adopted:
Ensuring that the case manager is performing all the actions as required in case the case plans to avoid any conflict and provide professional care.
- CM policies in place to provide protection to the casemanagers
- While dealing with clients with mental health or substanceabuse issues proper meetings should be arranged based on the circumstances (Armstrong, 2017)
- Ensuring that meeting at client’s house are held in the presence of supervisor or carer
- Meeting is held under the supervision of professionals in a controlled setting place
- Why is experience important when allocating a case manager to the client?
Importance of experience of case manager –
Case managers act as the support system to the client. The case manager should have enough experience to handle different type of clients. It is not possible that a case manager has expertise in all respective cases, but having experience in different services provided by them can boost the confidence level of the respective case manager. An experienced case manager can easily detect the sign whether the client getting frustrated or they are glad about the services. At the same time company of an experienced case manager can lead to better recovery and mental stamina of the service user (Dudgeon et al, 2017).
If the client were to move houses during the CM and was outside the usual working grounds of their usual case manager, what alternatives could be considered before handing over to a new case manager?
The client and the respective case manager can plan to meet at a middle location or a location near by the client house if the client could able to drive or get a transport.
The process of case management can take place over the telephone or video conference with the availability of required equipment.
The meeting can be held less frequently in client house in order to minimise the journey time of the case manager
Two case managers can be appointed, where the second one is the new case manager. They meet together in the client house to discuss the whole case management process. At the same time, the client should be assured to receive the required support from the new case manager.
In pairs, discuss the various responsibilities of clients in the CM process. Why are these responsibilities important?
Responsibility of client in case management process-
The clients should always give respect to the case managers and other professionals. If the clients have any doubt about the case plan they should discuss it with the case manager. The clients should co-operate with the case managers in executing the case plan, like attending an appointment, carefully follow the given instruction about medication, perform rehabilitation sessions etc. The clients should inform early to the case manager if they fail to attend any appointment. The clients should not harass or threaten the case manager or any professional person, mentally or physically.
Actually, the success of case management process is the joint effort of both client and the case manager and other concern professional persons providing services. Thus, any of these persons deviate from their activities will affect the goal directly. The responsibility of the client is very important in this respect.
If the case manager fails to meet the client goal because of the client's silly mistake it will adversely affect the client himself.
The case manager is able to ascertain how far client is receiving the expected care from services as planned in the case plan. It also ensures that services are provided to the desired level.
Regular monitoring enables case manager to detect and address the problem in a timely manner to avoid any crisis.
Why might a client be failing to progress under their case plan?
The client may sometimes fail to progress under their case plans because of the followings:
- Failing to take adequate actions as required under case plan.
- Ineffective or lack of proper treatment by external services to the client (Swayne et al., 2012).
Example- Unable to provide the required appointment to the patient in spite of having backlog of the same
- Setting unrealistic goals at the planning stage.
- Lack of correlation between the actions and the goals set.
- Treatment might not be able to control the escalating health problems
- What strategies could be developed to respond to crisis situations in CM?
To respond to crisis management situations in CM the following strategies should be developed:
- Try to foresee events which have a destabilised effect through regular contact with the client.In case of any crisis preparation for additional support should be made (Coombs, 2014).
- Immediate efforts should be made for providing extra support to alter the case plan to counter events which are unpredictable.
- Make immediate contact with the client where their own conditions are escalating to bring things under control.
- Making an attempt by the case managers to bring back client under control and within the scope of predetermined goals.
- What must a case manager consider if referring their client to another service as part of a reviewing the case plan?
- Prior consent must be taken from the client or their guardian while referring to another service regarding any personal information.
- Provide the details and extent of the personal data shared.
- Proposed changes that will influence each of the stakeholders (Mullahy, 2013).
- What actions should the case manager take when closing a case?
While closing a case the case manager should take the following actions:
Arrange for meeting with client, and potentially their carer to discuss on the below aspects
- Efforts made to attain their goals
- Ability to lead an independent life
- Coping strategies to face the challenges of leading independently
Continued network support
- Confirm the recording as well as safe storage of all relevant information.
- For closing, the case obtain verbal agreement from CM agency(Turner et al., 2017)
Armstrong, T.., 2017. The Myth of the ADHD Child, Revised Edition: 101 Ways to Improve Your Child's Behavior and Attention Span Without Drugs, Labels, Or Coercion. London: Penguin.
Coombs, W.T.., 2014. Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. London: Sage Publications.
Hatton, V. et al., 2017. Secondary Teachers' Perceptions of their Role in Suicide Prevention and Intervention. School Mental Health, 9(1), pp.97-116.
Kovach, J.V. et al., 2017. Enhancing Information Sharing in Family Drug Courts: A Lean Six Sigma Case Study. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 68(3), pp.27-41.
Levett, J.M. et al., 2017. Enterprise Risk Management in Healthcare. In Surgical Patient Care., 2017. Springer International Publishing.
McPherson, C., Boyne, H. & Willis, R., 2017. The Role of Family in Residential Treatment Patient Retention. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(4), pp.933-41.
Mullahy, C.M.., 2013. The case manager's handbook. London: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Orlowski, S. et al., 2017. People, processes, and systems: An observational study of the role of technology in rural youth mental health services. International journal of mental health nursing, 26(3), pp.259-72.
Pisarski, P.., 2017. Telemedically Supported Case Management of Living?Donor Renal Transplant Recipients to Optimize Routine Evidence?Based Aftercare: A Single?Center Randomized Controlled Trial.. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(6), pp.1594-605.
Roberts, H.M. et al., 2017. Moving on: Multiple Transitions of Unaccompanied Child Migrants Leaving Care in England and Sweden. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 5(9), pp.25-34.
Robinson, L. et al., 2007. Balancing rights and risks: Conflicting perspectives in the management of wandering in dementia. Health, Risk & Society, 9(4), pp.389-406.
Slaughter, S.E. et al., 2017. A Novel Implementation Strategy in Residential Care Settings to Promote EBP: Direct Care Provider Perceptions and Development of a Conceptual Framework.. Worldviews on Evidence Based Nursing, 2(1), pp.222-54.
Stergiopoulos, V. et al., 2017. Integrating hospital and community care for homeless people with unmet mental health needs: Program rationale, study protocol and sample description of a brief multidisciplinary case management intervention. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(2), pp.362-78.
Swayne, L.E., Duncan, W.J. & Ginter, P.M.., 2012. Strategic management of health care organizations. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Turner, W. et al., 2017. Interventions to improve the response of professionals to children exposed to domestic violence and abuse: a systematic review.. Child abuse review, 26(1), pp.19-39.
Van Mierlo, L.D., Meiland, F.J., Van Hout, H.P. & Dröes, R.M.., 2014. Towards personalized integrated dementia care: a qualitative study into the implementation of different models of case management.. Bmc geriatrics, 14(1), pp.84-94.
Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W. & Glaser, J.P.., 2017. Health care information systems: a practical approach for health care management.. NYC: John Wiley & Sons.
Wongpakaran, R. et al., 2017. Impact of providing psychiatry specialty pharmacist intervention on reducing drug?related problems among children with autism spectrum disorder related to disruptive behavioural symptoms: A prospective randomized open?label study. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 42(3), pp.329-36.