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CHCECE003 Provide Care For Children

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  • Course Code: CHCECE003
  • University: Victoria University
  • Country: Australia

Question:

Select 3 standards from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child, and discuss how they relate to your work experience.

Discuss the importance of having a National Quality Framework for childcare and early learning centres, and some of the benefits of having a uniform standard across Australia

Discuss the importance of having a National Quality Framework for childcare and early learning centres, and some of the benefits of having a uniform standard across Australia

Select one of the Quality Standards, and relate it to the organizational policies, procedures or standards from your work experience workplace. Discuss how the procedure reflects that quality standard.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

With the invention of technologies there has been an introduction of new types of battery operated electric car. The car has been running in the market successfully as people find it attractive and easy to drive. The car needs to charge the battery from time to time to run the car smoothly. However, recently the car has been receiving problems in its charging point and thus, it require some changes. The aim of this proposal is to propose the Federal Government of America to bring some change in the infrastructure to include battery charging sockets for electric cars.

Current situation

A battery operated electric car has initiated a new revolution in the car industry. Therefore, the big challengers in the industry have invested in this idea to be implemented. There are many benefits of using an electric car in the road. This car is cheaper to operate for the customers. The tax breaks of using this car are really attractive (Hendrickson et al., 2015). This requires less maintenance and electric vehicles are safer. The reduction in the fuel cost and battery usages are also an additional advantage. The main criteria of the company are to change the infrastructure of the country which helps them in using the company. The main problems of that are highlighted are

  • The huge set up cost of the infrastructure
  • Maintenance cost of installations
  • Avoiding problems of software, which can be hazardous for the cars that will make the system of the car ineffective

Project plan

In this project’s cost benefit analysis contains two different cost

  • Development cost
  • Operating and maintenance cost

The cost of operating an electric vehicle is one of the most important factor of comparison. The main criteria of electric charger of the vehicle is that it cannot cover a long distance after charging (Kurani et al., 2015). Electric vehicle service equipment is a solution can be rated in speed level. Three level of charger can be installed in the gas stations. The level 1 charging is 120 volts and level 2 with 240 volts and third level is of 480 volts.

 

The benefits are assumed to be

  • Lesser problems
  • Reduction in fuel usage

Average time spent while in the charging level are

  • Level 1 -290 minutes
  • Level 2 -115 minutes
  • Level 3 – 23 minutes

Cost benefit analysis

Cost Benefit Analysis

Electronic cars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option 1:

Battery socket

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, January 28, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Assumptions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discount Rate

8.00%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appraisal period (years)

8

years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary of the Results of the Analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital Costs

$0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whole of Life Costs

$1,800,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Value of Benefits

$5,512,341

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Value of Costs

$1,298,391

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benefit Cost Ratio

4.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Present Value

$4,213,950

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Year

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discount factor (mid-year)

0.96225

0.89097

0.82497

0.76387

0.70728

0.65489

0.60638

0.56146

0.51987

Discount factor (start of year)

1.00000

0.92593

0.85734

0.79383

0.73503

0.68058

0.63017

0.58349

0.54027

Benefit 1-minimising the problems

$400,000

$500,000

$600,000

$700,000

$800,000

$900,000

$1,000,000

$1,100,000

$1,200,000

Benefit 2 <reduction of fuel cost>

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

$100,000

Total Benefits (mid-year)

$500,000

$600,000

$700,000

$800,000

$900,000

$1,000,000

$1,100,000

$1,200,000

$1,300,000

Present Value of Benefits (mid-year)

$481,125

$534,584

$577,482

$611,092

$636,555

$654,891

$667,019

$673,757

$675,836

Present Value of Benefits

$5,512,341

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost 1 <development cost >

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

Cost 2 <operating and maintenance cost >

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

-$100,000

Total Costs (mid-year)

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

Capital Costs (at start of year)

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

Total Costs

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

-$200,000

Total Capital Costs

$0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Whole of Life Costs

-$1,800,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Value of Costs (mid-year)

-$192,450

-$178,195

-$164,995

-$152,773

-$141,457

-$130,978

-$121,276

-$112,293

-$103,975

Present Value of Costs (start year)

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

Present Value of Costs (by year)

-$192,450

-$178,195

-$164,995

-$152,773

-$141,457

-$130,978

-$121,276

-$112,293

-$103,975

Present Value of Costs

-$1,298,391

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Cash Flows

$300,000

$400,000

$500,000

$600,000

$700,000

$800,000

$900,000

$1,000,000

$1,100,000

Net Present Value (by year)

$288,675

$356,389

$412,487

$458,319

$495,098

$523,913

$545,743

$561,464

$571,861

Cumulative NPV

$288,675

$645,064

########

$1,515,871

$2,010,969

$2,534,882

$3,080,625

$3,642,089

$4,213,950

Conclusion

From the above discussion it can be concluded that the average time spent by the traveler are very essential to be considered. A proper infrastructure is needed for the type of car drivers. The infrastructural help is needed for the drivers. Therefore, all level of chargers can be installed for the electric car vehicle users. From the above cost benefit analysis, it can be said that, as the Net Present Value of the project plan for the next 8 years are positive, the project will be beneficial for the government as well as the common. The benefit cost ratio of project also indicates a positive value which gives the possible outcome.

 

Reference

Dijk, M., Wells, P., & Kemp, R. (2016). Will the momentum of the electric car last? Testing an hypothesis on disruptive innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 105, 77-88.

Haugneland, P., & Kvisle, H. H. (2015). Norwegian electric car user experiences. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 15(2), 194-221.

Hendrickson, T. P., Kavvada, O., Shah, N., Sathre, R., & Scown, C. D. (2015). Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California. Environmental Research Letters, 10(1), 014011.

Kurani, K. S., Caperello, N., TyreeHageman, J., & Davies-Shawhyde, J. (2015). I am not an environmental wacko! Getting from early plug-in vehicle owners to potential later buyers. In Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting (No. 15-5047).

Lassila, J., Kaipia, T., Haakana, J., Partanen, J., Järventausta, P., Rautiainen, A., ... & Auvinen, O. (2009, November). Electric cars–challenge or opportunity for the electricity distribution infrastructure? In European conference on smart grids and mobility.

Notter, D. A., Gauch, M., Widmer, R., Wager, P., Stamp, A., Zah, R., & Althaus, H. J. (2010). Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles.

Rezvani, Z., Jansson, J., & Bodin, J. (2015). Advances in consumer electric vehicle adoption research: A review and research agenda. Transportation research part D: transport and environment, 34, 122-136.

Weldon, P., Morrissey, P., & O'Mahony, M. (2016). Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage–An Irish case study. Journal of Power Sources, 319, 27-38.

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