Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

The International Protection Act 2015

Discuss about the Child Migration And The Lacunae In International.

Refugee is a term used in Irish Law that denotes a number of terms and varying categories of people. These people have different legal statuses and the law gives them different rights and obligations. Law recognizes different rights to these people and these are attributed to their status. Owing to their rights and obligations, they enjoy different status. The Irish law is a signatory to all the conventions and regulations of international protection[1]. All the people are under the international protection scheme of the Irish Law. The International Protection Act 2015 is a general platform for protection of rights of refugees. The Act is a single protection procedure to all the refugees for protection. To get international protection under the International Protection Act, 2015 a person has to qualify to be:

  • a refugee and has to produce prove in his declaration that he is a refugee.
  • The person also needs to be eligible for subsidiary protection and has to show documents in proof of the subsidiary protection.

The Government has undertaken to provide protection to refugees and the number of refugees who have got protection under the Government has far exceeded 4000 people[2]. The Relocation and resettlement Programme aims to give a forever and safe home to people who have lost their abode due to war and crimes. The Irish Government has also initiated a programme named “Irish Refugee Protection Programma” to help the refugees get a safe and forever home. Ireland has faced various resettlement issues[3].

In this context, it is important to understand what an asylum is in legal parlance. It is defined as a protection that is granted by the State to persons who are seeking it. The protection is given by the State or any of its organs in its jurisdiction or in any other place under the authority of the State. Asylum cannot be understood in the same line as refugee status and they are not one and the same[4]. Asylum status is different from refugee status, in the sense that asylum is accorded to anyone who seeks protection under international law whereas refugee status is given to someone who benefits from the protection scheme of the Government. In international law, asylum is a general right that is granted to an individual.  The right to be protected in a state by virtue of the principle of asylum is a constitutional right that is accorded to citizens. The concept of asylum is found in various constitutional texts of international law that recognizes it as an integral right. To ensure that an individual is accorded asylum is read in the context of human rights and it has to be meted out to all the individuals who are seeking it. By being a party to an international treaty, a state is obligated to act in the right earnest to grant them the right.

The Role of the Irish Government

Countries who are guided by United Nations Human Rights Council recognize and register refugees and give them status of protection. The same level of protection is not granted to individuals who are seeking protection under Irish Law. The UNCHR does not interfere in the matters of the state. In Ireland, it is not the duty of the UNHCR to determine who gets an asylum and who is not granted an asylum[5]. In Irish Law, asylum is the duty of the Irish State and the Department of Justice to determine who will be granted asylum[6]. All applications for asylum are decided by the Department of Justice[7]. This Department decides all applications for asylum and decides based on cases as to who shall be granted an asylum. The applications for refugee are granted to people who are in Ireland and the applications need to be submitted to the International Protection Office, that is, the IPO. For international protection, an applicant has to be present in Ireland.

The permission to remain in the territory of Ireland is at the sole discretion of the Ministers and they shall exercise their right in granting the permission to the individual to stay in Ireland. The Ministry for Justice and Equality has the sole authority in deciding whether the asylum has to be granted or not. The Minister for Justice and Equality decides on a case to case basis of someone is eligible to be protected or not. The Minister shall decide if a person shall be given subsidiary protection or not and if he shall be allowed to remain in Ireland. The person shall be granted the right to stay in Ireland if he can prove that there are compelling reasons and he cannot be refused the right to asylum. Humanitarian reason is another compelling ground to allow asylum protection[8].

The Child and Family Agency is in charge of taking care of unaccompanied children and minors. The Ministry is also responsible for taking care of separated children[9]. If an application is made to the IPO and they claim that they are not in custody of an adult, the Child and Family Agency shall take necessary care of the child[10]. The work of the Ministry is to ensure safety and protection of children who are in the jurisdiction of Ireland. The general well being of the minor shall be taken care by the Ministry[11].

There are many reasons behind the migration of people and children. Either they are forced to leave or they want to run away from persecution. Migration happens mostly from countries that are undergoing war and crimes and therefore the citizens of those countries run away to save their lives. There are some economic reasons behind migration too, like or a better future where the children want to study and prosper[12]. The Irish Law is very responsive to asylum seekers and the legal system is obligated to respect the rights of the migrating children. The rights of the children are respected by the Irish Constitution and there are exclusive laws that uphold the security and safety of the children who are migrating into Ireland. The rights of the migrating children are respected by the Irish Constitution, European Convention on Human Rights, European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights and the United Nations Human Rights. Though migration is a social issue that needs to be checked in the respect of the interests of the children, it should not be seen in simplistic terms because sometimes migration is used as veil to run away from litigation. Children in some cases are used as anchors of migration where the parents use the kids to enter into a country. That is the reason why migration should not be seen as an easy concept and judiciary and the legislature has to be very careful in implementing migration applications. In Ireland, states are not obligated to allow the application of immigrants and they do not need to admit the application of non citizens into the country. Ireland has obligations under national, international law and also European Union[13]. Ireland has a right to grant subsidiary protection and asylum to anyone who arrives in Ireland by virtue of their birth or habitual residence.  The Un Convention on the Rights of the Child, also called the CRC is responsible for dealing with asylum of children. Under Article 21 of the Article the CRC is best suited to take care of the interests of the child. Ireland recognizes the rights of children without giving emphasis on the fact that the child is accompanied or unaccompanied. The primary consideration under Irish law is the best interest of the child and that has to be kept in mind while deciding whether the application shall be granted or not. The Article is meant to give protection to child refugees. The international obligations of the Irish legal system can be understood in the sense that State has a primary goal to ensure a safe environment for children and making sure that they do not face hardships.

Asylum and Refugee Status


Ireland follows a strict policy for the betterment of the children and making sure that minors who are migrants are in the safe custody of the state machinery. Unaccompanied minors and separated children who are minors and who are not under the care of an adult need more state protection because at the tender age they are faced with immigration and trauma. In a vulnerable age the children are devoid of protection from responsible adults and therefore they are put in the vulnerable age group. The policies of Ireland are concerned more with the implementation of regulations that check the veracity of the claim of these children and also assess the condition of the children and the guardians. The Irish Government came up with a policy which had an European Union implication that regulated the claims of the children under the policy name Policies, Practices and Data on Unaccompanied Minors in 2014. The policy cats as a framework for the implementation of the rights of children under EU law. The unaccompanied non EEA minors need to abide by the legislations and they are subject to immigration legislation and under certain circumstance they can be refused the permission to enter into the land of Ireland. The circumstances under which a citizen cannot be allowed to enter the land are manifold and the states are obligated to follow hen in the interest of their security and safety. One hand, there are strict regulations that restrict the entry into Ireland, on another there are principles that Ireland follows which say that no one shall be made to return or remove an unaccompanied minor from the territory of the country[14].

Though there is a well functioning and robust system that looks after the immigration and asylum in Ireland, it does not have the authority to grant the permission of asylum and it is done with the help of TUSLA[15]. The Child and Family Agency was established in the year of 2014 and now it has attained a well functioning stature that looks after the well being of children and also aims to improve the condition of children. The TUSLA is a very comprehensive child care structure that helps in granting support to children who are migrating into the country. The decision regarding the international protection is undertaken by the social workers who are associated with TUSLA and who work under the supervision of state leadership. Therefore, though the commission has unlimited power with regards to permitting and denying protection application, the Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner cannot accept an application and its powers are limited by statutory regulations. Only after obtaining approval from the social workers of TUSLA can the application for asylum is processed[16].  After the minors are permitted entry they are referred to TUSLA[17]. TUSLA is in charge of gauging the interests of the child and after understanding the wishes of the child, the application for asylum is processed by the State. The Irish Immigration Service, that is the INIS has stated that the same rules apply to adults which apply to minors and that there shall be no application of different rules depending on the age. The ORAC has a well settled policy regarding reducing the concerns of children and minors who are seeking asylum for unaccompanied children or minors. The application process shall not be delayed because the applicant is a minor and also unaccompanied. Accompanied minors, adults and unaccompanied minors shall all fall within the same rules. Before granting a permission of protection in Ireland the INIS has to be very sure of the fact that all chances of making the child stay back in the country of his birth has been exhausted and there is no way to reunite the child with his parents[18]. The TUSLA is in charge of putting the child under the care and protection of a legal guardian and the social worker team shall decide under which bracket of the Child Care Act the minor will be treated. Till the time proper court orders come out the TUSLA remains in charge of the child and also acts as the legal guardian giving all the care and protection to the child[19].

Protection of Unaccompanied Minors


Under Irish law, there is no exclusive law that deals with the status of unaccompanied minors and there are no statutory regulations that talk about granting protection to the minors coming into the territory of Ireland. There are no specific immigration rules for unaccompanied minors and for unaccompanied minors who do not have a subsidiary protection status or who is not a victim of trafficking shall not be permitted. The children who are not allowed to stay in the territory of Ireland remain under the custody and protection of the Minister for Justice and Equality[20]. A stamp 4 permission is given to minors who are brought to the territory of Ireland without any statutory regulation and to the attention of the INIS.  There are no specific provisions in this regard and the TUSLA remains the guardian till any legal order comes out regarding the application. The unaccompanied minors receive tremendous care and they are accommodated in foster care or residential placements which are under the authority of TUSLA. The 2010 European Commission Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors is a proposal to help the unaccompanied or separated non-EU children. The Child Care Act looks after the accommodation and sustainability of minors. The EMN looks that the children who have no option of going back to the country of their origin shall be kept under the care of the foster homes till they attain the age of majority. There are strict age determination guidelines that ascertain that the child is a minor and below the age of 18 and therefore they cannot be denied an application[21]. The term ageing out means that the child has attained the age of 18 and therefore should be under the protection of the social workers[22].

There are no exclusive domestic legislations that deal directly with the rights of the children who are not accompanied by guardians. The laws that regulate the application of minors in Ireland are Refugee Act 1996 and the Child Care Act 1991. The key legislative features of these acts are that they will ensure that a child who is in a volatile condition and not under the protection of guardians should be protected. The Child Care Act 1991 follows the Refugee Act 1996. First the child is dealt with under the provisions of The Refugee Act where the child states at the border that he is not with a guardian and that he needs protection. After the agencies are satisfied with the facts and the claims of the minors, the Child Care Act comes into action. The statutory bodies are mandated to act in accordance with the welfare of the child and they should ensure that no child is left in a traumatic condition without the guardianship. The Health Service Executive or the HAS looks after the health and safety of the child and after the HAS is convinced regarding the basics, the child is made to appear for an interview at the ORAC.

Irish Immigration Service

In the last few years Ireland has seen an influx of children coming from abusive backgrounds. These children are abused at the hands of their guardians who are the guardians of the rights of children. If a child faces abuse at the hands of their parents, the child is left with no option but to apply for asylum in a country that is concerned with the protection of child. The Irish laws are very considerate about the welfare of children and look at all possibilities to make sure that the child does not face any trauma[23]. The service providers report to the Child and Family Agency and then the normal process of interviewing continues[24]. There has been a marked improvement in the way a minor asylum seeker is handled and it is incumbent upon the state agencies to ensure that a child is treated like a child first and an asylum seeker later[25]. The Ministers have the authority to reject an application of asylum and also deport the child to the country of its origin but it is also guided by the domestic law. The domestic law of Ireland are in favour of the “best interests” of the child and therefore they need to ensure that the domestic laws incorporate the international conventions that mandate that the interests of the child come first and then the interests of the child come.  The Ministers are under an obligation under section 3 of the Immigration Act that says that the welfare of the child is important. The first emphasis needs to be on the health, safety and security of the child. The “best interest of the child” was found in the case of Omar v Govenor of Cloverhil where the Court held that it was distasteful to think that a child was subject to such torture and the state machinery failed to protect the rights of the child whereas the state is duty bound to take care of the child. That a child had to go through such an ordeal was beyond the imagination of the Court and the Court also held that the child’s country was insignificant and to think that the child even though not being an Irish citizen had to undergo that trauma was horrible[26]. There is an absolute detour from the best interest principle if children have to go through grueling process for an asylum application and the best interests of the child are not served[27].

To apply for asylum in Ireland it is important for the applicant to prove that he cannot continue to live safely in your country and that the applicant has not received any protection from the state authorities of his own country. Application for asylum is not age specific and anyone can apply for asylum. If the child is under the age of 18, he is a minor and without the protection of his guardian, the child is treated specially. There is no guarantee that if an application is made for asylum, it will be approved. There are a few other requirements that need to be met before the application is processed. In cases an application is not approved, the child can apply for appeal and then wait for positive outcome. The right to appeal against a negative decision is permitted by law under Irish Law. In cases where an application for asylum is rejected, the person can apply for the status of “subsidiary protection”[28]. Generally applications from “safe countries of origin” are not accepted. Safe countries of origin are ones which respect human rights and do not produce refugees generally[29].


Unaccompanied Minor under the Children Protection Act are given protection by the state and if the application is approved, the child has the right to stay in Ireland and get all the benefits of being an Irish citizen. Subsidiary protection is given in cases when the condition of the asylum seeker is such that he cannot be granted an asylum in Ireland but there is a serious threat to his health and safety of he is sent back home. In such cases, a subsidiary protection is given to the child. If a subsidiary protection is granted to a child then he shall be subject to all the regulations and always that a normal Irish Citizen is subject to[30]. If the subsidiary protection is allowed, the child shall be allowed to stay in Ireland. The rights given to the child are similar to the rights that a citizen shall enjoy. The application for subsidiary protection can be made at the same time when an application for asylum is made. The subsidiary status is also appealable and in cases of negative orders, the applicant can prefer an appeal. Permission to remain is another principle that is applied in cases of application of asylum[31]. This application is allowed in cases of grave humanitarian concern because the applicant has to show that he is suffering from severe trauma and if he has to go back to his country of origin, he will face safety threats[32].

In the present case, Edi Basha is a national of Albenia and she is under the age of 18 by age. Edi Basha is a minor who has applied for asylum in Ireland. The applicant in the present case is a separated child who has been subject to domestic violence and child abuse. He had Albenia when he was a kid because he was subject to mental and physical abuse at the hands of his father who was an alcoholic. Edi’s childhood was full of violence and trauma and he was subject to mental trauma. Edi was not allowed to go to school and also his father did not allow him to find a job for himself. Edi did not have any freedom and he was not allowed to complete his education. All the wages earned by Edi was used up by his father to fund his drinking habit which left Edi with no other option but to leave that country and seek asylum in Ireland.  Edi tried to seek help from police but was very afraid that his submission and complaint at the police station shall be turned down. The local people and residents knew about his father drinking problem and Edi was scared that the police will not give due consideration to the fact that Edi was abused by his father. Edi was scared that the police will not intervene because they will see it as a family matter and a personal issue where they should not intervene. Not only the locality and the police station, Edi tried to talk to his friends and teachers in school but his prayers were turned by the school teachers because they were afraid that Edi’s father being alcoholic will turn violent and then they will be hurt. The school teachers felt powerless at the hands of the gather and they were scared of their life thinking that it would be difficult to save them from violence. Edi being a child could not have asked for any more help from anyone and therefore he started looking for better ways to escape. Edi has also made confessions regarding trying to escape from his father and also tried to run away to two other countries but it was unsuccessful and he could succeed in his application. Edi has no one else other than his grandparents and therefore Edi tried to seek their shelter but that was not successful because Edi’s father came to his grandparent’s place looking for him. Edi ahs no support network in any other place and feels helpless. Edi was not allowed to complete his education and also he could not fund for himself because he did not have the qualifications. Edi was in a precarious situation because growing up in an abusive environment it was difficult for Edi to cope with the trauma.

Having no other place to go Edi made an application for international protection in Ireland and was subsequently placed under the care and protection of the social workers who were working towards his welfare. In the present case, the social workers need to be made aware of the financial and emotional condition of Edi. The social workers work towards the betterment of children and it is their primary goal to ensure that no child is returned to the country where they have a fear of being abused. If Edi is returned back to Albania, he will be subject to violence and abuse and therefore by virtue of the Child Protection regulations in Ireland, it is incumbent on the state to make sure that Edi gets protection in Ireland. The Ministry of Child and Family Agency is concerned with the best interest of the child and therefore in this case, the international protection is mandatory for the wellbeing of the child. Edi should not be made to return to Albania knowing that he will again be abused by his alcoholic father.

References

Arnau-Sabatés, Laura, and Robbie Gilligan. "What helps young care leavers to enter the world of work? Possible lessons learned from an exploratory study in Ireland and Catalonia." Children and youth services review 53 (2015): 185-191.

Arnold, Samantha, and Muireann Ní Raghallaigh. "Unaccompanied minors in Ireland: Current Law, Policy and Practice." Social Work & Society 15.1 (2017).

Babicci v MMLA (2005) FCAFC 77

Bhabha, Jacqueline. "Child Migration and the Lacunae in International Protection." The Ashgate Research Companion to Migration Law, Theory and Policy. Routledge London, 2016. 321-345.

Coyne, Imelda, Inger Hallström, and Maja Söderbäck. "Reframing the focus from a family-centred to a child-centred care approach for children’s healthcare." Journal of child health care 20.4 (2016): 494-502.

Coyne, Imelda. "Families and health?care professionals' perspectives and expectations of family?centred care: hidden expectations and unclear roles." Health expectations 18.5 (2015): 796-808.

Crosse, Rosemary, and John Canavan. "Tusla–Child and Family Agency Research Needs Analysis Report." (2016).

Devaney, Carmel, and Caroline Mc Gregor. "Child protection and family support practice in Ireland: A contribution to present debates from a historical perspective." Child & Family Social Work 22.3 (2017): 1255-1263.

Devaney, Carmel, et al. "Outcomes for permanence and stability for children in long-term care in Ireland." Foster(2018).

Forkan, Colin, Bernadine Brady, and Danielle Kennan. "Children and young people's participation in decision-making withini Tusla: a baseline assessment prior to the implementation of the Programme for Prevention, Partnership and Family Support." (2017).

Garlick, Madeline. "The road more travelled? Onward movement of asylum seekers and refugees." Forced Migration Review 51 (2016): 42.

Harris, John, and Vicky White. A dictionary of social work and social care. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Jones, Christine, et al. "The landscape of UK child protection research 2010 to 2014: a mapping review of substantive topics, maltreatment types and research designs." Child abuse review 26.1 (2017): 8-18.

Kennan, Danielle, Cormac Forkan, and Bernadine Brady. "Children’s Participation Children and Young People’s Participation in Decision-Making within Tusla: A Baseline Assessment Prior to the Implementation of the Programme for Prevention, Partnership and." (2017).

Loyal, Steven, and Stephen Quilley. "Categories of state control: asylum seekers and the direct provision and dispersal system in Ireland." Social Justice 43.4 (2016): 69.

Martin, Shirley, et al. "Advocacy and surveillance: primary schools teachers’ relationships with asylum-seeking mothers in Ireland." Race Ethnicity and Education 21.4 (2018): 458-470.

Martin, Shirley, et al. "Advocacy and surveillance: primary schools teachers’ relationships with asylum-seeking mothers in Ireland." Race Ethnicity and Education 21.4 (2018): 458-470.

McGregor, Caroline. "Balancing regulation and support in child protection: using theories of power to develop reflective tools for practice." The Irish Social Worker (2016).

McGregor, Caroline. "Why is history important at moments of transition? The case of ‘transformation’of Irish child welfare via the new Child and Family Agency." European Journal of Social Work 17.5 (2014): 771-783.

Missirian, Anouch, and Wolfram Schlenker. "Asylum applications and migration flows." American Economic Review107.5 (2017): 436-40.

Mooney, Robert. "A model supporting research on children growing up in asylum systems." (2015).

Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann, and Liam Thornton. "Vulnerable childhood, vulnerable adulthood: Direct provision as aftercare for aged-out separated children seeking asylum in Ireland." Critical Social Policy 37.3 (2017): 386-404.

O'Brien, Valerie, and Hannaleena Alohen. Pathways and Outcomes: A study of 335 referrals to the Family Welfare Conference (FWC) Service in Dublin, 2011-2013. Tusla, 2015.

Orbie, Jan. "The External Dimension of EU Asylum and Migration Policy: Expanding Fortress Europe?." Europe's Global Role. Routledge, 2016. 133-154.

Schneider, J. "EU POLICY OPTIONS TO MANAGE THE MIGRATION AND REFUGEE SITUATION: AN INSUFFICIENT TOOLBOX?." IEMed, Euromed Survey of Experts and Actors (2017): 20-27.

Scipioni, Marco. "Failing forward in EU migration policy? EU integration after the 2015 asylum and migration crisis." Journal of European Public Policy (2017): 1-19.

Singleton, Ann. "Migration and Asylum Data for Policy-Making in the European Union–The Problem with Numbers." (2016).

Snyder, Susanna. Asylum-seeking, migration and church. Routledge, 2016.

Waensila v Minister for Immigration & Anor [2015] FCCA 2276

White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2017): 179-197.

White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2017): 179-197.

White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2015): 1-19.

[1] Devaney, Carmel, and Caroline Mc Gregor. "Child protection and family support practice in Ireland: A contribution to present debates from a historical perspective." Child & Family Social Work 22.3 (2017): 1255-1263.

[2] McGregor, Caroline. "Balancing regulation and support in child protection: using theories of power to develop reflective tools for practice." The Irish Social Worker (2016).

[3] Jones, Christine, et al. "The landscape of UK child protection research 2010 to 2014: a mapping review of substantive topics, maltreatment types and research designs." Child abuse review 26.1 (2017): 8-18.

[4] Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann, and Liam Thornton. "Vulnerable childhood, vulnerable adulthood: Direct provision as aftercare for aged-out separated children seeking asylum in Ireland." Critical Social Policy 37.3 (2017): 386-404.

[5] White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2017): 179-197.

[6] Martin, Shirley, et al. "Advocacy and surveillance: primary schools teachers’ relationships with asylum-seeking mothers in Ireland." Race Ethnicity and Education 21.4 (2018): 458-470.

[7] White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2017): 179-197.

[8] Martin, Shirley, et al. "Advocacy and surveillance: primary schools teachers’ relationships with asylum-seeking mothers in Ireland." Race Ethnicity and Education 21.4 (2018): 458-470.

[9] Loyal, Steven, and Stephen Quilley. "Categories of state control: asylum seekers and the direct provision and dispersal system in Ireland." Social Justice 43.4 (2016): 69.

[10] Waensila v Minister for Immigration & Anor [2015] FCCA 2276

[11] Babicci v MMLA (2005) FCAFC 77

[12] Bhabha, Jacqueline. "Child Migration and the Lacunae in International Protection." The Ashgate Research Companion to Migration Law, Theory and Policy. Routledge London, 2016. 321-345.

[13] White, Allen, and Naomi Tyrrell. "Research with Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland: Reflecting on Silences and Hushed Voices." Methodological Approaches (2015): 1-19.

[14] Mooney, Robert. "A model supporting research on children growing up in asylum systems." (2015).

[15] Forkan, Colin, Bernadine Brady, and Danielle Kennan. "Children and young people's participation in decision-making withini Tusla: a baseline assessment prior to the implementation of the Programme for Prevention, Partnership and Family Support." (2017).

[16] Kennan, Danielle, Cormac Forkan, and Bernadine Brady. "Children’s Participation Children and Young People’s Participation in Decision-Making within Tusla: A Baseline Assessment Prior to the Implementation of the Programme for Prevention, Partnership and." (2017).

[17] Arnold, Samantha, and Muireann Ní Raghallaigh. "Unaccompanied minors in Ireland: Current Law, Policy and Practice." Social Work & Society 15.1 (2017).

[18] Crosse, Rosemary, and John Canavan. "Tusla–Child and Family Agency Research Needs Analysis Report." (2016).

[19] O'Brien, Valerie, and Hannaleena Alohen. Pathways and Outcomes: A study of 335 referrals to the Family Welfare Conference (FWC) Service in Dublin, 2011-2013. Tusla, 2015.

[20] Devaney, Carmel, et al. "Outcomes for permanence and stability for children in long-term care in Ireland." Foster(2018).

[21] Coyne, Imelda. "Families and health?care professionals' perspectives and expectations of family?centred care: hidden expectations and unclear roles." Health expectations 18.5 (2015): 796-808.

[22] Harris, John, and Vicky White. A dictionary of social work and social care. Oxford University Press, 2018.

[23] McGregor, Caroline. "Why is history important at moments of transition? The case of ‘transformation’of Irish child welfare via the new Child and Family Agency." European Journal of Social Work 17.5 (2014): 771-783.

[24] Coyne, Imelda, Inger Hallström, and Maja Söderbäck. "Reframing the focus from a family-centred to a child-centred care approach for children’s healthcare." Journal of child health care 20.4 (2016): 494-502.

[25] Arnau-Sabatés, Laura, and Robbie Gilligan. "What helps young care leavers to enter the world of work? Possible lessons learned from an exploratory study in Ireland and Catalonia." Children and youth services review 53 (2015): 185-191.

[26] Garlick, Madeline. "The road more travelled? Onward movement of asylum seekers and refugees." Forced Migration Review 51 (2016): 42.

[27] Schneider, J. "EU POLICY OPTIONS TO MANAGE THE MIGRATION AND REFUGEE SITUATION: AN INSUFFICIENT TOOLBOX?." IEMed, Euromed Survey of Experts and Actors (2017): 20-27.

[28] Missirian, Anouch, and Wolfram Schlenker. "Asylum applications and migration flows." American Economic Review107.5 (2017): 436-40.

[29] Snyder, Susanna. Asylum-seeking, migration and church. Routledge, 2016.

[30] Orbie, Jan. "The External Dimension of EU Asylum and Migration Policy: Expanding Fortress Europe?." Europe's Global Role. Routledge, 2016. 133-154.

[31] Scipioni, Marco. "Failing forward in EU migration policy? EU integration after the 2015 asylum and migration crisis." Journal of European Public Policy (2017): 1-19.

[32] Singleton, Ann. "Migration and Asylum Data for Policy-Making in the European Union–The Problem with Numbers." (2016).

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Essay On Refugee Rights In Irish Law.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/child-migration-and-the-lacunae-in-international.

"Essay On Refugee Rights In Irish Law.." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/child-migration-and-the-lacunae-in-international.

My Assignment Help (2019) Essay On Refugee Rights In Irish Law. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/child-migration-and-the-lacunae-in-international
[Accessed 24 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Essay On Refugee Rights In Irish Law.' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/child-migration-and-the-lacunae-in-international> accessed 24 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Essay On Refugee Rights In Irish Law. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 24 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/child-migration-and-the-lacunae-in-international.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close