In the recent years, much emphasis is being given to the child welfare and protection unit in many part of the world. Much attention is given to analyze the existing strength and weaknesses of the child protection frame work in major countries like United Kingdom and United States of America. Comparison between the various policies internationally has become the bench mark of designing, reconstructing and strengthening various government policies and also to avoid loop holes in the system. This comparison also helps to find various alternatives to overcome the existing problems. Administrative framework of many countries can be examined by undergoing a survey through various child welfare units and by talking to experts so that correct decisions can be made in the context of child welfare (Léveillé & Chamberland, 2010).
The aim of this report is to develop a comparative study on child welfare and protection framework of United Kingdom and United States of America. The objective is also focused towards formulating various methodologies which may help the child care experts to fight against child abuse.
The major challenges in front of the child welfare experts’ are-
Maltreatment of the children by their parents or their caretakers.
Child development and unequal outcomes for every individuals
No proper education for the orphans
Child employment is the major issue
Negligence towards their healthcare and malnutrition
The children act of 1989 has been a remarkable step for the protection of child in United Kingdom. Any policies were made for the sake of child protection and welfare although it was really difficult to imply it at a large amount due to population of the country. The act basically focused on four key issues for which the child protection framework is absolutely needed i.e. Harm, development, Health and ill treatment. Following were the principles which are followed after passing of this act-
In the year 2010-2011, the child protection framework was again revised and considered having four major driving forces. Professor Munro took the opportunity to review the child protection frame work and categorize it into four driving forces-
After the formation of these frame work, these factors were noticed
The people come together to make a defensive system that puts so much attention and emphasis on procedures that insufficient attention is given to development of the expertise to work efficiently with children and young people .In response Munro suggested changes to lessen bureaucracy and promote a more child-centered system. However, it was too early to say whether these ambitions can be converted into reality and they will help to improve outcomes for children and families welfare in United Kingdom.
The United States has possibly more decentralized and residual state compare to other democratic countries in the world. The federal law of the United States shapes the minimum standards and protocol for child welfare and each state have their own considerable autonomy how to operate. The federal level it has been acknowledged that the children maltreatment includes-
Much emphasis and efforts are required to prevent the removal of children from their parents in all states of USA and if the children is being removed from the family, much services should be offered to the families and children must be kept at least restrictive place and to promote reunification. The United States federal law also acknowledges the keen importance of securing living of the children ideally with the birth parents but if they fail to provide them with safe homes then various alternative measures must be taken to safeguard and arrangement with their relatives or via adoption to provide them with legal guardians. The adoption of children was promoted by formulating certain laws. The Policy developments of United States continue to promote the use of adoption and the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoption Act 2008. The US governing bodies and social organization and NGOs were promoted in USA who actually looked after the welfare and development of the children (Noonan, 2009).
In a long line of small children abuse, Daniel pelka was one of the children who was dead due to abuse and negligence of parents and caretakers. On September 2013 a Serious murder Case Review Report on Daniel Pelka which was published by Coventry Safeguarding Children Board (CSCB). The report was made following the death of Pelka, the second child in a family of Polish origin who had migrated to his current country of residence from Poland in 2005. Daniel was just over four year old when he died after experiencing terrible emotional and physical abuse followed by chronic neglect. In July his mother Ms Luczak and her partner Mr Krezolek were sentenced t jail after being found guilty of murder of Daniel Pelka.
The whole responsibility for Daniel’s cruel kill manifestly belongs solely to his Mother and her cruel partner; the other network of professionals around Daniel didn’t intended to harm him anyways. However, by their lack of proper attentiveness and their inability to challenge and counteract his mother’s cruel lies, by their known blindness to the brutal impact of ongoing domestic abuse and by the lack of proper timely and the purposeful sharing of all the information between different agencies, they failed to protect the killing of vulnerable child. No doubt there are many important lessons is to be learned from this case but there is one that stands out. Listening and hearing the voice of the child is both immensely desperately important and challenging. Those workers, who are on the front line and having ongoing contact with Daniel, need all the required support that they can give them. There were many such occasions when the health, police and educational professionals as well as social workers came into contact with the child and the report documents in considerable detail the many opportunities to rescue the victim that were unfortunately and tragically missed out.
In the year 2000 London, merely an eight-year-old Ivorian girl Victoria Climbié was tortured badly and murdered brutally by her guardians. Her death led to severe public enquiry and also produced major outcomes in child protection policies and framework in the United Kingdom. The judge of the criminal court in the trial following Victoria Climbié's brutal death described as "The blinding incompetence", all police failed to properly investigate this breath taking case and sparingly little action was taken against the murderers. The guardians Kuao and Manning were found guilty for this brutal murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.
After Victoria Climbié's death, the various parties involved in this case were criticized widely. A public inquiry was initiated, headed by lord Laming was commenced. It was discovered numerous instances where Victoria Climbié could have been easily saved and also noted that too many of the organizations involved in her care were badly commenced and also discussed the racial aspects surrounding with the case as most of the participants were black. The report by Laming mademany recommendations related to child protection act in England. Victoria Climbié's murder was largely responsible for the built up of Every Child Matters of the initiative and the introduction of the important Children Act followed by the formation of contact point project where a government based database was designed to hold information on all children in England and the creation of the Office of the Children's Commissioner was also initiated.
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