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Chronic Diseases Affecting And Causing Death To Australian People

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Discss about the Nursing and Ageing in Australia.


Key Word/s


Key Messages

Relevance To The Clinical Area

Link To Previous Lecture/s

Week One:  Introduction to Healthy Ageing                                                                                                                                                     

Australia’s chronic diseases

Main chronic diseases affecting and causing death to the people in Australia despite their age

Provides insight to the nurses about the cause of a disease in a patient. According to Friel 2010, chronic diseases in Australia have led to a decreased level of life expectancy hence high mortality levels are reported in the country (Pauwels, Buist, Calverley, Jenkins & Hurd, 2012).



 Australia’s adult development.

Grouping of Australian people according to the level of ageing using their number of years.

Provide information to nurses on how to handle and communicate with people from different ageing groups (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2014). (Whitbourne & Whitbourne, 2010) studies have revealed that the highest population is the group known as young-old whose ages range between 65 to 74 years. In second place  is middle-old group ranging from 75 to 84 years and  the least popular adult group is the old-old group whose ages is 85 years and above.

 Australia’s ageing structure

Australia population is comprised of people who are aged because of the high mortality rates in the younger population, relocation of the youngsters from the country and low levels of fertility.

According to studies revealed by Paik & Melchers, (2014) the introduction of contraceptives has resulted to low fertility levels hence the aged generation forms a high percentage in the country.  It helps nurses gather relevant information on how to handle problems associated to lack of generational continuity (Britt et al., 2013).

 Ageing medical psychology

The medical care need of the Australian people in relation to the adult development groups they are in as shown by their age ranges.

Relevance in relation to the clinical area is the development of nursing skills to handle the broad needs of their ageing patients.

According to Schaie and Willlis, 2010, the old-old people who are 85 years of age and above are at a high risk of being attacked by diseases because of their low immunity hence largely seek medical care frequently.

 Australia’s generations

Silent generation is older than the baby boomers and that they differ in how they handle life issues such as family ties maintenance.

 Nurses engage the silent generation to seek early treatment and have the ability to provide up to date treatment options to baby boomers (Grose, 2011).

Studies show that silent generation was born between the years 1926-1945 and are family lovers while the baby boomers were born between the years 1946-1964 (Grose 2011).

Week Two:  Normal Changes of Ageing

Healthy skin ageing

The effects of ageing where one develops a fragile skin that is wrinkled and pigmented.

Relevance to the clinical area is brought about when nurses are able to observe these changes hence can deliver suitable treatment (Grose, 2011).

 Studies have shown that the hair and the nails changes in thickness in relation to ageing. The skin changes as it becomes fragile, wrinkled and pigmented due to weakened nerve endings (Krutmann, 2010)

The concept in lecture 2 is connected to lecture 1 in the sense that in the absence of chronic diseases, the ageing process would appear normal with the reflection of normal ageing signs.

Ageing immunology.

Increased exposure to diseases of the aged persons because of the decreased immunity.

Provision of better understanding of these changes thus providing treatment alongside boosting immunity (Grodzinky, 2014). . According to Grodzinky 2014, ageing brings a change in the immunity system of a person as the number and activity of B-cells and T-cells are lowered hence increasing exposure to pathogens.

The key word is ageing senses.

 Effect of ageing in seeing, hearing and smelling of a human being.

Tests and examinations done on the patients clearly reveal what problem they have thus increasing chances of a successful treatment. . Sources indicate that ageing affects how one perceives smell and their hearing ability (Rosenthal, Zenilman & Katlic, 2013).

Ageing organs

Changes that are experienced and seen as one age for instance decrease in the size and working of the internal organs caused by ageing.

The measurement and capacity of the organs is used to determine the age of a patient hence accomplishing their laws. Studies reveal that when a person is aging their internal organs slow down their functioning, for instance the thoracic muscle reduces in size hence becoming less effective (Chinn, Blackburn, Manley &Sempowski, 2012)

The key word to refer to the message is ageing mechanism.

Ageing brings failure or decreased function of the thermoregulation mechanism that is responsible for maintaining the body temperature at its optimum.

Nurses are able to gather the root course of the failed mechanism as it may happen to people who are not aged due to interference by an illness (Weinert, 2010). According to Weinert (2010), thermoregulation mechanism is affected by ageing as the process is slowed down therefore one experiences bout of excessive cold or very hot instances.

Week Three:  Assessment of the Older Adult

Ageing care.

Caring for the aged persons regarding their likes and dislikes and their social standards

Nurses should familiarize themselves with the interests and the social state of their patient so as to provide the suitable care needed (Koren, 2010). Studies reveal that caring for the ageing population is a sensitive matter because their priorities do not match that of the care giver (Friel, 2010).Therefore their values, views, individuality and surrounding society should be observed.

The concept in week 3 is linked to that of two in the sense that when people age normally then providing care to them is easy unlike of that who age with diseases.

 Ageing follow-up.

Improved self-confidence of the aged persons so that they can tackle their daily businesses without assistance and this is achieved through a valuation.

 The main party involved in evaluation of the ability of the patient hence this improves their diagnosis about different problems facing the patient (Nolan, 2010). Studies have shown that the aged person who is closely monitored and encouraged towards remaining active show an improved response (Grose, 2011).

The main word used is ageing confidence

Increased confidence in the Appearance expressed by the ageing population.

 Patients’ well-being is relevant to the career of nursing as they derive satisfaction when a patient or an aged person rediscovers themselves (Krutmann, 2010). When proper information is passed on and is positively embraced by the aged regarding their well-being they tend to improve on their appearance by dressing up decently to improve their image (Paik & Melchers, 2014).

Ageing compensation

 Importance of knowing the situation of a person in terms of cash and the patients’ communication network.

It is fulfilling to know that a patient is well and on their feet despite their ages this is relevant to the clinical areas as nurses are the ones left to interact with the patients for health improvement of the aged (Pauwels, Buist, Calverley, Jenkins & Hurd 2012). The aged need to be delivered and provided for with the correct satisfaction procedures so as to maintain their dignity, it is fulfilling to know that a patient is well and on their feet despite their ages.

Ageing communication.

Importance of gaining information even though the patient uses non-verbal communication as they too need to be involved in the valuation process

Communication valuation and restore in case of loss is done by the nurses in the medical centres (Britt et al., 2013). Studies show that the ability to form word and actually pronounce them becomes altered with time in the ageing people (Weinhert, 2010).

Week Four:  Healthy Ageing Principles and PHC

Qualitative ageing.

Increased awareness of living healthy among people as this would be form part of their practices and be maintained even at adult development

Studies have shown that when people practice good eating, and sitting habits positively, they become part of their routine and hence cannot easily depart from it (Grose, 2011). The statement is relevant to the health care process as nutrition advices are usually given by them (Btitt et al., 2013).

This week’s lecture is linked to the previous lecture at the point where the healthy ageing principles are used to take of the aged people.

Practical ageing

 Importance of enough sleep and physical exercises inclusion in the daily life for the health benefits.

 This is relevant to the clinical area so that they are able to determine how to handle different kinds of people during their treatment endeavour (Rosenthal, Zenilman & Katlic, 2013).This is seen in adults who sleep under 9 hours per night and the result is increased fatigue and illnesses unlike those who sleep 9 hours they are fit and can take ageing process with all the effort and vigor needed (Porter-O’Grady & Malloch, 2011).

Ageing lifestyle

Existence rather than living of people who are feeling that age might have caught up with them without knowing.

Practical ageing is relevant and an appeal to the clinical area as the fight against bad lifestyle behaviours is observed thus improving the ability to function well of the patients (Koren, 2010). It has been discussed that leading a life with no expectations can be destructive and have negative effects to the health of a person this resulting to mental illnesses in the long run (Shaie & Willis, 2010).

ageing risks

the high risk rate of contracting a chronic disease by the aged society as it shows that the mid-old and old-old  groups records a high number of people with diseases that are long-term.

The nurses will have the knowledge on what is the reason of recurrence of a disease (Grose, 2011).  Studies have proven that many people who are entering the old age generation experience an increased level of attack by diseases and after treatment the recurrence rate also is very high (Grodzinky,2014).

 Australia’s ageing plan

Strategic plans that have been put in place by the health departments so that the aged people have their health problems resolved through the actions developed by the care team.

 These plans are relevant to clinical care because the doctors’ aim is to have a disease free patient (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fieds, 2014). According to studies governments and well-wishers have put up valuation strategies used to monitor the progress of the patient.

Week Five:  Pharmacology and the Older Adult

Ageing medication

Involvement of medicines in the system of the aged people so that their immune system can be enhanced

Because all the medical forces become geared in dealing with the diseases of the aged (Schaie & Willis, 2010).

Studies have shown that the low immunological state of the aged is at stake therefore there are medicines that should be administered to them so as to deal with their ailing problems.

Week five is linked to week four in the sense that the principles of caring for the aged also include the care that is to be taken when providing medicine to the aged.

Ageing health security.

That the old people are faced with many life lapses such as depression, sicknesses, and loneliness.

When presented with the problems nurses should know what medication to give their patients (Rosenthal, Zenilman &Katlic, 2013) Studies have shown that all aged persons complain of two or more mental breakdowns in their life. This is because their bodies have become weak hence need to supplement themselves for a better living (Porter-O’Grandy &Malloch, 2011).

Guided medication

Clear instructions delivery to the aged people so that they can handle their medication.

The burden of taking care of overdosed victims is lifted. Research shows that aged people do not grasp instructions easily especially regarding medicine (Chin, Blackburn, Manley & Sempowski, 2012).

Nursing attitude.

Attitude of the health practitioners toward caring for the aged seen through the willingness of a nurse to think about their patient in a positive way

The aged will have good treatment services offered to them by the clinicians (Friel, 2010). Researches have shown that nurses are the major people who deal with the problems of their patients at a large extent this is seen when nurses put their patients first and think about them only (Paik &Melchers, 2014).

nursing and medicine

 The different types of medicines and therapies that are administered to the ageing generation who show a lot of disease complications (Nolan, 2010).

Deriving awareness and adding value to the knowledge studied about diseases and treatment of the aged (Krutman, 2010).

 Studies show that in case of cancers, chemotherapies should be given, in case of allergies then they apply analergens and inflammatory drugs (Pauwels, Buist, Calverley, Jenkins & Hurd, 2012).




Britt, H., Miller, G.C., Henderson, J., Bayram, C., Valenti, L., Harrison, C. …& O’Halloran, J. (2013). General practice activity in Australia 2012-13: BEACH: Bettering the Evaluation and Care of health (no.33). Sydney University Press.

Cavanaugh, J., & Blanchard-Fieds, F. (2014). Adult development and ageing. Nelson Education.

Chin, I. K., Blackburn, C.C., Manley, N R., & Sempowski, G.D. (2012, October). Changes in primary lymphoid organs with aging. In Seminars in immunology (vol24, no.5, pp.309-320) Academic press.

Friel, S. (2010). Climate change, food insecurity and chronic diseases: sustainable and healthy policy opportunities for Australia. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 21(6), 129-133.

Grodzinky, E. (2014).Immunology of ageing .MOJ Immunol, 1(4), 00019.

Grose, M. (2011). XYZ: The new rules of generational warfare. Random House Australia.

Krutmann, J. (2010). Skin aging. In nutrition for Healthy Skin (pp.15-24).Springer Berlin Heidleberg.

Koren, M.J. (2010). Parson-centered care for nursing home residents: the culture change movement. Health Affairs, 29(2), 312-317.

Nolan, T. M. (2010). The Australian model of immunization advice and vaccine, 28, A76-A83.

Paik, J. K., & Melchers, R. E. (Eds.). (2014). Condition assessment of aged structures.Elsevier.

Pauwels, R.A., Buist, A.S., Calverley, P.M., Jenkins, C.R., & Hurd, S.S. (2012). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine.

Porter-o’Grady, T., & Malloch, K. (2011). Quantam leadership: Advancing innovation, transforming health care. Burlington, MA: ones & Bartlett learning.

Rosenthal R, A., Zenilman, M.E., & Katlic, M.R. (Eds.) (2013) principles and practices of geriatric surgery. Springer science & business mediage

Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S.L. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of the psychology of Aging. Academic Press.

Weinhert, D. (2010). Circadian temperature variation and ageing. Ageing research reviews.

Whitborne, S.K., &Whitbourne, S.B. (2010). Adult development and ageing: Biopsychosocial perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.


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