Climate is constantly changing. There can be many reasons of change in climate. It can be due to human activities such as burning of fuels i.e. coal, oil & natural gases, agricultural and land clearing. It is cause of extra heat in the climate, melting snow and ice and raising global sea levels. This increasing heat in climate has affected atmospheric and ocean circulation which also impacts on change in rainfall and wind pattern. Climate change is due to increased level of greenhouse gases in atmosphere which brings more heat in the climate. The ratio of carbon dioxide and methane is continuously increasing over the past time. Due to climate changes, heat waves have been increasing more in the past 50 years. Climate change is also impacting on south Western Australia includes:
- Temperature: Since 1950, there is an increment in the temperature of 0.1 to 0.2 degree Celsius every year.
- Rainfall: Between 1950- 2011, rainfall in south-western Australia has decreased.
- Sea level increase: Increment in the level of sea is recorded 1.5 millimeter every year.
Adaptation is a process by which individual, groups, or countries try to come out from the consequences of climate change. People are adapting to changing condition of climate from any years. It consists of taking effective actions to manage risk raised from the climate change to protect the economy. Adaptation basically refers to the dealing with the consequences of climate change.
Climate Changes for South-western Australia
South-western Australia has also faced problems by climate change. It affects the communities, industries and ecosystem of country. It has been observed that temperature is increased and winter rainfall is decreased during the last century. Declining rainfall has determined responses to climate change. It can be seen that there are change in the temperature, rainfall and sea level of the country. Climate change in South-western Australia has also impacted on fisheries.
Impact on Fisheries
Climate change has also affected Australian fisheries by increasing ocean temperature, changes into ocean current, changes in wind, change rainfall patterns and change in the level of ocean. Fluctuations in the climate, have always affected fisheries and their management performance. The atmosphere of sea will be warm within 50-100 years and the level of sea will also rise due to huge increment of water and melting of ice. Ph of sea will be acidic due to more carbon dioxide, and the flow pattern could change at local, regional and global level. Due to climate change, there are going to be up and downs in fish stocks. Up and downs in fish stocks will be the reason of main economic changes for lots of areas and economies that rely on fisheries. The affects of climate change can be considered as physical and biological change. Physical change consists of increment in the temperature of sea surface, level rise of sea, and increase in the level of acid in the ocean. Biological changes comprise of changes in primary manufacture and fish stock allocation. When these factors combine, it creates a big impact on fisheries.
European regulators consider that fisheries could drop as much as $17 billion to $41 billion within 2050 because of climate change. Researchers are saying that ocean is rapidly changing its chemistry and condition. It will be a great impact on commercial fisheries by changing the allocation and plenty of marine species and ecosystem.
More Effects of on Fisheries
Because of fluctuations in whether, south-western Australia faces decreasing in fishing time and destroying or damaging the resources and infrastructure of fishery such as lending sits, boats and device. Increment in storm and wave may decrease the figure of fishing days, capability to arrive at particle location, and availability of fish in particular seasons. The ability to catch fishes is affected not only but bad weather but also change in distribution shifts of fishes away from major ports and economic zones. Moves in distributional shift may become a big problem in some areas while others fishers may get fishes in access.
Adaptation By Fisheries
Fisheries are already living and adapting to climate changes by moving to another location and that time at the fish they aim. For instance, fishers in the area of east beach logline fishery use different ports for their fishing, and modify their operating place for distribution according to availability of places. In 2004, the Indian Ocean Tsunami affected India as well as other countries. It resulted in a review of fisheries organization in the south with a target of living diversification and post-harvest employment opportunities. In South-western Australia, government gave support to fishers:
- To provide nearby locations of fishing,
- To eliminate other’s organization control,
- To offer little interest loans, and
- To make available funds so that the impacts of climate changes can be minimized.
Sometimes, climate change can be beneficial for some fisheries in Australia i.e. for hot temperature species, shifting their allocation and comparative plenty. For, example, south-western fisheries can get opportunities where fishes move in south. If fishers change their way and operate without spending additional cost, travel, time and in fuel consumption, they will try to take benefit from opportunities. Diversifying efforts to aim new fishes may be an important adaptation strategy for fisheries to take advantage. Using new harvest techniques for fishing can be efficient technique for fisheries. Coastal management industry can support marine industry from chances that comes from climate change. For example, from different variety of shifting fishes, and creates labor market opportunities for the effected sectors. Adaptation to harmful impacts of weather change can be minimized by identifying substitute species, diversification to new sectors and specialized mobility or elasticity.
Management Adaptation to Maintain Sustainable Fisheries
The capacity of fisheries to settle in and maintain their sustainability under climate change depends upon the strategies of management. The framework of adaptive management will always lead to success. For adaptation, fisheries will have to be more approachable to fishing opportunity. Improved fisheries management will be important for minimizing the negative impact on climate change and promoting more pliant fish stock. There is broad array of options existing for fisheries management to minimize the impact of bad climate such as integrated management system that consist of social, economical and ecological values. A planned adaptation can also reduce the negative impact of climate change. By adaptive management framework, such as approaches of co-management and ecosystem, there should be target of building adaptive ability, dropping venerability, and rising social-ecological flexibility.
Thus, it has been observed that fisheries in south-western Australia will face future challenges with the changes in climate. It is well known that adaptation is available as an option and information can be provided regarding adaptation. Fisheries can use adaptive strategy by changing in distributional shifts of species in locations according to climate change, expand their range of species, and expand the area of catches according to availability. In the case of species distribution shift, management agencies need to work with fisheries for the future. Bad Climate is effecting, and will distress south-western Australia’s fishing industries. By the effective adaptation planning, fisheries can be more able to adjust with future changes and gain advantages of opportunities connected with climate change.
There are also some barriers with the adaptation process. First, adaptation is possible for small sectors and second, future climate change is uncertain then it creates problem to overcome from the negative impact of climate change. So, there can be some recommendations for the management of fisheries:
- Due to uncertainty of climate change, there should be short planning that encourage and focus on immediate problem created by climate change.
- To overcome from the barriers in adaptive strategy, there should be ongoing involvement of management of fishing industries to assist government so that government will be capable to overcome the effects of climate change.
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