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Clinical Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

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Question:

Discuss about the Clinical Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction:

In this pollution ridden environment there are various dangerously pathogenic microbes are lurking around. The deteriorated hygiene and compromised lifestyle standards have facilitated the worsening health standards of people belonging to all age groups. [1] However, the field of health care has advanced radically and the progressive research has solved a myriad of health care related problems. Immunization can be considered as one of the ground breaking scientific discoveries that revolutionized the health care standards.[2]

Immunization can be defined as the process of fortifying the immune system so that it can put forth a strong immunological barrier when in contact with non self or foreign bodies. Immunization is carried out by the means of vaccination that helps the body build up a protective barrier and fight the invasion by the pathogen. Vaccination was discovered is the early 18th century and the techniques have changed drastically along the years. Various registration policies now govern the immunization services worldwide. This report will attempt to evaluate the immunization policies in place taking the example of Australian guidelines and a case study. [3]

In the case scenario selected for the assignment the immunization is for the grandchildren of a indigenous lady who have never been immunized in their life and the lady also took her last vaccination as a child decades ago. Her granddaughter in aged 1 years and grandson is 3.5 years old. Their vaccination process would require the guidelines set forth by the immunization registration authority of Australia.

 

Immunization schedule for the children:

The immunization guidelines are different for different regions and follow the state or local health care authorization. It has to be considered that vaccines are complex biological products, which if overdosed can have a strong detrimental impact on the health and welfare of individual. There are different guidelines and schedules in place for different age groups and their vaccination needs. [4] Considering the Australian guidelines vaccination is undertaken primarily through the general practitioners however the local clinics and community centres can also administer vaccination under the jurisdiction of relevant legislation.

The immunization schedule after birth has been compartmentalized into different age based sectors. Each sector has different vaccination designed to target different infections, starting from birth up to four years of age divided into 6 subdivisions. However, there are different legislations in place for the aboriginal population of Australia. There are a number of immunization programs curated specifically for the benefit of the aboriginal or indigenous residents. [5]

The guidelines for the aboriginal children aged 0 to 5 years are liable to receive a series of free vaccination from the community health facility. The grandchildren of Mary fall under this subgroup hence they will receive booster vaccination for pneumococcal disease, as the children for 12 to 18 months are at risk to pneumococcal disease. [6] The children being residents of Queensland are eligible for administration of pneumococcal conjugate. However the aboriginal population living in the new south whales are not allowed this immunization program. Other than the children are going to receive vaccination for hepatitis A and influenza as well. Other than that the children will also get access to BCG vaccination and vaccination to tuberculosis. Furthermore it also needs to be considered that the children will be administered vaccination by a registered nursing professional or a registered midwife with a valid training in vaccination techniques. [7]

In case of the extended family, there is immunization programs for each of one funded under the national immunization program. Studies suggest that 8 % of the death in indigenous communities is due to various respiratory diseases and the most emphasis for the immunization of the aboriginal communities focuses on respiratory infection prevention. For example the Mary herself is liable for the immunization program designed for people aged more than 50 years. Under this program, the elders are eligible to get the vaccination for hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis and rubella vaccination.

 

Challenges in immunization uptake:

There was a time in the history of health acre when the smallest of infection of today took the frightening figure of epidemics. Immunization programs have been developed in order to minimize the risk of infection optimally and save the lives of millions of innocents. However the implementation of the immunization strategies has represented a number of challenges. The immunization programs and the techniques have been changed and modified enough times to yield the best results as well. Yet there still are a number of challenges that pose a threat to maximum immunization uptake.

Vaccinating the children is never easy; there are a lot of factors that can arise in case of vaccinating the children. For example children at any given time are terrifies of injections and can prove to be very difficult to administer vaccination in a peaceful manner. Their fear brings agitation and it in turns hampers the vaccination procedure exponentially. Other than that safe administration of vaccination is of ample importance so that the children do not develop any additional complication while they have approached the clinic to get immunization for health complication.

Other than that lack of knowledge in the mass about the importance of immunization in the public poses another challenge to the maximized immunization uptake. Moreover in the aboriginal communities the lack of knowledge is much more prevalent. With complete absence of awareness, the children missing any immunization doses are inevitable. Other than that the lack of proper knowledge about vaccination can also create hindrances during the immunization processes. The parents or guardians interfering with the immunization procedure can create a chaos in the facility for the vaccinator to administer peacefully.

Strategies for maximising the immunization uptake:

Limitations are a part of any program, health care is not an exception to that. The challenges to immunization program can be overcome by a few strategic actions. For example patient education has to be the best method to intake when dealing with patient objection. In order to attain that goal it is important for the nursing professional or vaccinator to develop a communicational comfort with grandmother and the grand children. The communicational comfort in the children and their grandmother will encourage them to trust the vaccinator and respond to him or her accordingly.

Consent and patient education is another important strategy to intake, it will ensure that the parents know and understand about the severity and importance of immunization and will enforce them to realize the benefits of it. It has to be considered that if the mass is made aware of the consequences of not partaking to immunization can make them more proactive in reaching out for vaccination in regular intervals for their children.

 


Apart from that the aboriginals and their health is at the frontier of the government health improvements and policies, however in most cases the aboriginals are unaware of the benefits they are eligible to. In such a condition progressive actions should be taken to aware the aboriginal or indigenous communities about the benefits of free immunizations they are eligible to. Home visits and campaigning can be the best technique to ensure that they get the knowledge about the benefits they can attain from the government.

On a broader note it has to be considered there are a number of native communities that are still left out of the protective coverage of the government. In most of the rural areas there still are native people that are neglected and abhorred to gain and access to the medical services. Apart from that the discrimination that the indigenous communities face from the rest of the society in most cases render the native residents avoid interacting with the health care services to seek out the help they need.The health care sector should consider training their staff to shed the discrimination and allow the deserving candidates from the aboriginal communities employed in the health care sector to ensure that the staff can make the aboriginals comfortable and welcomed so that they are not afraid to seek the he4lp they need and deserve.

Lastly language can serve to be another huge barrier for the aboriginal communities to overcome. It has to be considered that the aboriginal dialect can restrict the individuals from seeking put or approaching the vaccinator or understand what the vaccinator is trying to communicate. In such cases a dialect expert who is comfortable with the aboriginal languages should be employed in the community health care centres to overcome this challenge.

 

Conclusion:

It should not be neglected that health care is a basic human right not a commodity to be purchased with the socioeconomic status. The aboriginal communities also have equal rights to the benefits of good health care. However in most times the native communities are unaware of the benefits they are eligible to from the government and hence never reach out to access those benefits.

Immunization and vaccination is one of the most neglected protective health care strategy in the aboriginal or indigenous communities. Although the national immunization program under the guidelines of the Australian government has made a number advantageous services. the aboriginal communities should be made aware of these benefits to ensure that health coverage of Australia can encompass the native communities as well. Furthermore care should be taken to ensure that the native communities are not discriminated at by the health care professionals, they are welcomed by the health care staff and viewed as any other patient. They should remember that life is above any racial or regional discriminations and life should be restored without any bias at any circumstances.

 

Bibliography:

Fiore, A. E., Uyeki, T. M., Broder, K., Finelli, L., Euler, G. L., Singleton, J. A., ... & Cox, N. J. (2010). Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2011). Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 60(50), 1705.

Shefer, A., Atkinson, W., Friedman, C., Kuhar, D. T., Mootrey, G., Bialek, S. R., ... & Lorick, S. A. (2011). Immunization of health-care personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep, 60(RR-7), 1-45.

Petrosky, E., Bocchini Jr, J. A., Hariri, S., Chesson, H., Curtis, C. R., Saraiya, M., ... & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 64(11), 300-304.

Nolan, T. M. (2010). The Australian model of immunization advice and vaccine funding. Vaccine, 28, A76-A83.

Buttery, J. P., Danchin, M. H., Lee, K. J., Carlin, J. B., McIntyre, P. B., Elliott, E. J., ... & PAEDS/APSU Study Group. (2011). Intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the National Immunization Program in Australia. Vaccine, 29(16), 3061-3066.

Carlin, J. B., Macartney, K. K., Lee, K. J., Quinn, H. E., Buttery, J., Lopert, R., ... & McIntyre, P. B. (2013). Intussusception risk and disease prevention associated with rotavirus vaccines in Australia's National Immunization Program. Clinical infectious diseases, 57(10), 1427-1434.

O'Grady, K. A. F., Lee, K. J., Carlin, J. B., Torzillo, P. J., Chang, A. B., Mulholland, E. K., ... & Andrews, R. M. (2010). Increased risk of hospitalization for acute lower respiratory tract infection among Australian indigenous infants 5–23 months of age following pneumococcal vaccination: a cohort study. Clinical infectious diseases, 50(7), 970-978.

Garland, S. M. (2014). The Australian experience with the human papillomavirus vaccine. Clinical therapeutics, 36(1), 17-23.

Immunise - Immunise Australia Program. (2017). health.gov.au. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from https://www.immunise.health.gov.au

HOme - Home. (2017). Www1.health.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Home. (2017). Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au. Retrieved 15 April 2017, from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au

Nolan, T. M. (2010). The Australian model of immunization advice and vaccine funding. Vaccine, 28, A76-A83.

Garland, S. M. (2014). The Australian experience with the human papillomavirus vaccine. Clinical therapeutics, 36(1), 17-23.

Harvey, H., Good, J., Mason, J., & Reissland, N. (2015). A Q-methodology study of parental understandings of infant immunisation: implications for health-care advice. Journal of health psychology, 20(11), 1451-1462.

Jarrett, C., Wilson, R., O’Leary, M., Eckersberger, E., & Larson, H. J. (2015). Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy–a systematic review. Vaccine, 33(34), 4180-4190.

O'Grady, K. A. F., Lee, K. J., Carlin, J. B., Torzillo, P. J., Chang, A. B., Mulholland, E. K., ... & Andrews, R. M. (2010). Increased risk of hospitalization for acute lower respiratory tract infection among Australian indigenous infants 5–23 months of age following pneumococcal vaccination: a cohort study. Clinical infectious diseases, 50(7), 970-978.

Jarrett, C., Wilson, R., O’Leary, M., Eckersberger, E., & Larson, H. J. (2015). Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy–a systematic review. Vaccine, 33(34), 4180-4190.

Garland, S. M. (2014). The Australian experience with the human papillomavirus vaccine. Clinical therapeutics, 36(1), 17-23.

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