Discuss about the Cognitive Science and Human Experience.
Management is related to a concept of "getting the things done by people". It can be said that management does not focus on any fixed definition but there are many authorities who have different views on it.
There are various theories related to management. Classical theory related to scientific management of Taylor, Management related to administrative is of Fayol, Weber focuses on bureaucratic organization. The neoclassical theory focuses on the human relation movements and behavioral schools are related to Maslow, Herzberg and also McGregor.
Therefore, the paper focuses on bringing out the differences and similarities between the theories of the scientific school of management and also the human relation movement. The comparison and contrast will be made by considering the workers and also on managing the employees in the workplace (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).
Frederick Winslow Taylor was an engineer and he is the person who has given focus on the concept of Industrial efficiency. Taylor was known as the father of scientific management and is considered as one of the good consultants in the field of management. He introduced the system which is related to "Time and Motion study" and also "Piece rate".
Elton Mayo was the direction of the industrial research department and he was the father of human relation movements. He involved in the famous studies related to Hawthorne which focuses on the management thought and also the human relation movements (Dubin, 2017).
Taylor stated that the working practice of his day is considered as a barrier to the overall enhancement of the output. The concept of "Rule of thumb" is related with the method of quantifying the activities, failure of management in directing the employees to conduct the activities with dedication (Varela, Thompson and Rosch, 2017).
It has been analyzed that the principle of management is related to secure the maximum prosperity for the employers and also it has a link with the prosperity of every worker.
So, he introduced various principles related to management which can help the employer and the workers to achieve maximum productivity and also propensity. There are many principles. The first principle is related to the job of the employees which should be broken down into pieces and the procedure of conducting the activities should be determined after scientific investigation. The second principle is related to the scientific selection of the employees and also with the training and development of the employees (Witzel, 2016). The last principle states that there should be proper division of work. It is the responsibility of the managers to manage the designing and also they give direction in the activities so that the employees can conduct the activities in a proper manner and according to the instruction which is given to them. This concept also focuses on maintaining the friendly coordination between the management and the employees (Young, 2016).
It has been evaluated that the human relation school of management was developed as an outcome of searching the experiments related to Hawthorne. By considering this experiment it is stated by Mayo that "the situation took place and six people became a team and team gave and maintained cooperation in the experiment". The employees feel happy in conducting the activities if they have proper knowledge towards the activities which are assigned to them (Waring, 2016).
Mayo stated that to accomplish goals it is important for the company to understand the emotions and also evaluate the satisfaction level in terms of non-monetary requirement of the employees (Bratton and Gold, 2017).
The human relation states that the employees are motivated by taking into consideration social needs and also good on the job relations and also they give good response in context to the work pressure if the activities. The company also focuses on cooperative social systems. It has also been seen that psychological needs should be the main motive of the management. The informal group also gives impact on the overall productivity. It has been seen that the main concern it is related to the satisfaction which can be achieved with the help of monetary benefits.
It has been seen that competent employees can be found who do not spend a considerable time to analyze the work and also focuses on convincing the employees to give their best. Taylor focuses on the sole motivator for the employees to conduct the activities is related to the monetary incentive. He stated that the increase in the financial reward of the employees can help to enhance the productivity and also maintain job satisfaction (Cooley, 2017).
According to Taylorism, it has been seen that employees are lazy and they would develop their own ideas to minimize the overall amount of work which is given to them and also they are the sole motivator in context to the economic incentive. This is considered as one of the effective methods and it is the responsibility of the managers to search the job. The activities should be divided in a proper manner so that efficiency can be maintained and also the outcome can be positive. With a concept, it has been seen that Taylor focused on the system related to differential and in this, it is said that the employees are not pulled up from the top but it is important to push them from the bottom. This shows that the employees will be punished to conduct the wrong task but they will also be rewarded if they give their best towards the activities (Bolman and Deal, 2017). Therefore, it can be stated that employee's performance should be evaluated and according to that rewards should be fixed for a certain period of time.
Mayo stated that monetary reward was not the only factor of motivating the employees. The outcome which was derived from the experiments related to Hawthorne states that social bonds in the working groups should be strong so that the interest can be placed above the financial rewards of the individuals. These groups have also become a driving force in achieving the goals of the organization and it has been seen that goals are only satisfied when they work for the goals and motive of the organization (Hatch, 2018).
In context to the human relation movement, it has been seen that output was determined by the informal groups in which the employees valued the esteem of the others and also the risk is related with the existence in the groups. It has been seen that it is important to follow the norms of the preconceived group so that every individual can conduct the activities in a proper manner.
Therefore, it is important for the company to develop the employees and should focus on the feelings and attitude of the employees so that activities can be conducted in a smooth manner.
It has been seen that if people are treated as they are, they will stay as they are. But if proper treatment is given then the employees will become good and better person. From the point of scientific management movement, it has been seen that individuals conduct the activities as per the basic unit of the company. While the human relation movement focuses on the concern for maintaining the relation of the employees (Burke, 2017).
The motive or the function of the leader in context to the scientific management was to set the criteria of the work and to enforce the activities of the workers. In this movement, it has been seen that the leader function is to maintain cooperation and coordination between the employees so that personal growth and development can take place (Beckett and Taylor, 2016).
Taylor also focused on avoiding the informal groups but the relation of the human supported the existence of the employees. Scientific management focuses on the concept that the workers work for monetary rewards and to attain goals and objectives was to maintain the proper rationality. Human relation movement considers that existence of the formal groups helps to facilitate the communication and also cooperation among the workers that help to accomplish overall goals of the company.
The scientific management focused on the growth of the organization but given less emphasis to the employee's growth by considering the external control over the performance of the employees.
Taylor also stated that the sole motivator for the employees was only the monetary incentives. Therefore if the focus is given to scientific management the employees are considered as an economic man. Mayo states that social wants of the workers are communication that helps the employees to drive the employees. In human relation movement, the workers are considered as a social man.
So, by analyzing the paper it has been concluded that the aim of both is towards the goal only but their approach can be different. The theory of scientific management and also human relations aims at the excellence of the organization with the increase in the efficiency. This excellence can be attained if both the theories are applied. In the situation of modern management, it has been seen that a good manager is the one who considers a blend of the management theory in the practice. Thus, it can be concluded that scientific management and human relation are two wheels of the same cart and none is greater than other.
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