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Week 1

There are ten (10) tasks, one for each week:  the tasks are detailed below.  There is a table to complete for each task.  Please fill in the information required. 

The text discusses how Central Processing Units (CPUs) function but is silent on another processing component of modern computers, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Find and summarise ONE resource that describes what a GPU is and how it differs from a CPU.  The resource (and your summary) should discuss at least one non-graphics related use for GPUs.

Title and Reference:

Summary:

One of the potential next advances in Operating Systems (OSes) will be Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities. Find and summarise ONE resource that discusses how AI could change the way OSes function and/or interact with users.

Title and Reference:

Summary:

The text discusses how Netflix uses Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a Cloud Service Provider (CSP) for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).  Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE other commercial IaaS provider that is NOT Google. The resource and your summary should describe how the IaaS differs from AWS.  

Title and Reference:

Summary:

IPv4 is discussed in the text, yet the emerging IPv6 protocol is only mentioned briefly.  Find and summarise ONE resource that describes the IPv6 protocol.  The resource and your summary should describe how IPv6 differs from IPv4.  


Title and Reference:

Summary:

WannaCry and NotPetya were two of the most significant malware attacks of 2017.  Find and summarise ONE resource that describes how ONE of these pieces of malware work.  Note that the resource should focus on ONE of these, NOT both.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

OpenFlow is a protocol that enables Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Find and summarise ONE resource that describes how OpenFlow works and/or how it enables SDN.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

Historically, organisations have been able to improve business processes by implementing Information Systems.  However, as these systems age they can negatively impact on organisational agility and can ultimately prove problematic.  Such systems are broadly referred to as Legacy Systems. Find and summarise ONE resource that discusses the impacts of legacy systems on organisations.  The resource and your summary should clearly identify problems with maintaining legacy systems.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

With the advent of mass data collection and storage has come the use of these datasets for data mining and analysis.  Recently, Cambridge Analytica and Facebook have come under intense scrutiny for their use of user data, allegedly in order to influence the US 2016 election.  Find and summarise ONE resource that describes what Cambridge Analytica did and why their services were so controversial.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

Load (or performance) testing is a critical step in the information systems development process.  The purpose of this testing is to simulate the peak expected load on a system to ensure both hardware and software can operate effectively and meet key metrics.  To do this, specialised performance testing tools are used.  Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE such tool.  The resource (and your summary) should include information on the principle uses and features of the tool.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

While information systems and technology deliver many benefits to society, there is a high incidence of failure in attempting to implement them.  These IS/IT implementation project failures frequently result in substantial financial losses. Find and summarise ONE resource that describes ONE example of an Australian IT/IS project that has failed.   Note that the resource should focus on ONE single example and it and your summary should clearly explain the cause(s) of the failure.


Title and Reference:

Summary:

Week 1

Task-1

Title and Reference:

Janakiram, M. S. V., 2017. In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence, GPUs Are The New CPUs. [Online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/janakirammsv/2017/08/07/in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-gpus-are-the-new-cpus/#65aeb60a5d16 [Accessed 01 09 2018].

I choose this resource, because it describe about GPU as well as CPU importance in Computer system. Maximum computer users assume that the video cards were designed for graphical uses in systems like games and all. These were purely optional; it means they are not only designed for gaming and graphics. GPU’s found a new place that increase usability of GPU’s in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence as relevant as CPU’s. GPU is getting so much attention now a days, it use machine-learning techniques that is used in cognitive computing. CPU’s are used for calculation in sequential order, which means next processes wait for first process to complete. Now a days multi core processors are used to speed up the calculation by switch processes in different cores, but cores are so costly.

In terms of calculation, GPU’s have thousands of cores, which is capable to handle millions of processes in parallel? Deep learning and graphic rendering have these similarities. Nvidia has a programming model “CUDA” for rendering and build parallel programs. Next generation of GPU is GPGPU, which is general purpose GPU. They are used for parallelization, it have the power for deep learning experiments. Intel also has Altera and Nervana, which can be programmed later for future use. Google also launched Tensor Processing Unit or TPU, which is a chip that is designed for complex mathematical operations with parallel programming (Janakiram, 2017).

Task 2

Title and Reference:

workplacehub.konicaminolta, 2017. Cognitive Hub: the Operating System for the Workplace of the Future. [Online]
Available at: https://workplacehub.konicaminolta.com/en_us/spotlight/cognitive-hub-the-operating-system-for-the-workplace-of-the-future [Accessed 01 09 2018].

This source is informing about future operating systems, which are based on artificial intelligence. Those operating systems will be capable of managing complex calculations to help people and company. Company can derive more benefits from their resources and data. Now days every person wants all information at our fingertips. In addition, they want this information immediate, accurate and actionable. Using artificial intelligence modern operating systems have been able to manage and schedule different activities with better performance. AI reduces or optimized their resource and increase efficiency of operating systems. In current time, highly optimized and efficient operating systems are designed on the bases of artificial intelligence. Many organizations exploring ways to develop an Artificial intelligence based operating systems that will support to managing different complex activities.

These operating systems known as cognitive operating system. Machine learning algorithms are helpful to design these types of operating systems. AI based Operating systems will be more efficient in handling of decision-making problem solving processes. Benefits of AI based OS:

  • Consistent decisions
  • Capable to solve complex problems
  • Improved decision making quality
  • Enhanced problem-solving applications

These operating systems could help human beings in various fields, such as scientific, academic, military, education, medical, and research. 

Task 3

Title and Reference:

Stackify, 2017. Azure vs. AWS Cloud Service Comparison: Which One is Better?. [Online]Available at: https://stackify.com/azure-vs-aws-comparison/
[Accessed 21 September 2018].

This article describes about Microsoft azure and services provided by this to different organizations.  I chose this article because it explains about Infrastructure as a service and difference between two IaaS. Also, explain how they store data and provide services to companies.

Week 2

In the article, discuss about pricing and services of Microsoft Azure. Azure divides pricing of services according to uses by consumer. There is a price calculator, which shows cost of your services. Azure also provides Service as a service and platform as a service with different services.

In addition to services types, IaaS provide languages at service side for development, such as java, python, and ruby. It is provide software development tools for making projects online, such as IIS server. In case of databases and storage, SQL database is a database as a service. For storage of all data of different tables, it provides 200 TB space.

It has only a drawback that it is provide a wide variety of services to an organization. So if you want a specific type of service than it will be difficult.

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is biggest competitor of all IaaS. AWS is a reliable option for such types of services.  However, in last decade many things are changed. Microsoft Azure provides services into three categories, such as Networking, compute, and data management and performance. 

I found this article useful because it provides details about Microsoft azure services and compare it with AWS.

Task-4

Title and Reference:

What is IPv6?

Whatismyipadress, 2018. What is IPv6?. [Online] Available at: https://whatismyipaddress.com/ip-v6 [Accessed 18 September 2018].

This source is described about IPv6 protocol and also compare IPv4 protocol. IPv6 handled packets more properly. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is network layer standard protocol for communication between different networks. It is used for packet switched network.

Some characteristics of IPv6 that makes it better than IPv4 are larger address space, stateless auto-configaration, multicast, security at network layer, and qualities of services capabilities. IPv6 vulnerabilities are making more secure data and system from viruses and other attacks. Increased address capacity of address remove subnetting problem in IPv4. It provides additional web addresses to resources. IPv6 is more efficient in routing compare to IPv4.

It allows for easy aggregation of prefixes assigned to IP networks. It enables big data packets to be sent in network simultaneously to better usages of bandwidth. It is built authentication methods into network firewalls. 

Some disadvantages of IPv6 are conversion, communication, transition, and readability. IPv4 addresses are expressing in 32 bits. It is divided in two parts. First, is network id and second is host id. In 1980’s, network is based on classful networking but number of users are increased so it replaced with classless inter-Domain routing. This is a logical addressing system. IPv6 is more innovative than IPv4 version.   

Task-5

Title and Reference:

Fruhlinger, J., 2018. What is WannaCry ransomware, how does it infect, and who was responsible?. [Online] Available at: https://www.csoonline.com/article/3227906/ransomware/what-is-wannacry-ransomware-how-does-it-infect-and-who-was-responsible.html Accessed 03 09 2018].

This resource is about ransomware and malware attacks. WannaCry is a worm of ransomware type that damages a number of networks rapidly in May of 2017.  It encrypts files of windows computers hard disks. Also not accessible to users of that particular system. For decrypt, that files it demand a ransom in bitcoin. First time it spread in Britain’s National Health Service. First, time it discovered by United States National Security Agency.

Week 3

I select this resource because its explain about ransomware attacks on computer systems.

What is WannaCry Ransomware:

It had many components. It is in the form of dropper on the infected systems, it is self- contained programs that encrypt other files and programs. Three main parts of this ransomware are:

  • A program that change format of data in the system
  • Make encryption keys for all files in the system
  • A copy of TOR

WannaCry tries to open system files in the computer system and change these files in other formats like Microsoft office files in the mpeg and mkv formats. Also, make these files to not accessible for users then demanding $300 in bitcoin to accessing and decrypting these files. Microsoft security has released patches on march 14, 2017 to prevent infection from EternalBlue. These update the windows with implementation of SMB protocol. Some peoples are paying the ransom, for accessing to their files. Maximum system, which are infected by WannaCry ransomware have windows 7 operating system. Security teams start working to evaluate the origins of WannaCry ransomware. Symantec security team had believed that the ransomware might have a working company of North Korean origin. Boeing was hit with a suspected WannaCry Attack in March 2018. It did little damage in few production systems.

NotPetya virus is encrypts the computer system master file table and showing a message on screen requesting a Bitcoin ransom to decrypt files and access to the files in the computer system.

Task - 6

Title and Reference:

LeClerc , M., 2018. The basics of SDN and the OpenFlow Network Architecture. [Online] Available at: https://noviflow.com/the-basics-of-sdn-and-the-openflow-network-architecture/ [Accessed 21 September 2018].

This article describes about Software Defined Networking (referred as SDN) and uses of OpenFLow. . I chose this article because it explains about overflow and SDN within different aspects of network.  It is designed to manage data flow and internetworking devices. SDN architecture have three layers are:

  • Application layer – it provide communication services for end-user boniness applications
  • Control Layer – it consist the logically centralized functionality
  • Infrastructure Layer – it provides packet switching and message forwarding

In this resource technical description is well defined. SDN has logically centralized intelligence, which provides decision-making facility to domain. It is also controlled by software. There are many Application-programming interfaces to interact with the network. In the field of networking OpenFlow-enabled SDN, provide several benefits such as multi-vendor networking. OpenFlow is provides connection between different geographical domains for managing operations and complaints. Now a day’s operator needs their transport networks with high bandwidth and shifting traffic patterns. SDN provides all these facilities to maintain network according to their needs. SDN architecture has a central controller, which perform many difficult functions, including security attacks, routing algorithms, network policy declaration, and naming. A single controller is deploying in large enterprise network to manage all networking devices. These are called SDN domains. SDN domains provide scalability, privacy and incremental deployment. The SDN controllers implemented in different ways, first it is require an identical logical switch function and second, it needs a safe and a standard protocol between network devices and SDN controller.

Task - 7

Title and Reference:

arrkgroup, 2018. Reasons to move away from legacy systems. [Online]
Available at: https://www.arrkgroup.com/thought-leadership/reasons-to-move-away-from-legacy-systems/ [Accessed 03 09 2018].

This resource is about disadvantages of Legacy systems.  Legacy systems are known as a system that continues the business from a long time. This could be holding any organization back. Therefore, there is a difficult question arise in front of organizations is that: Should they stick with their existing systems? On the other hand, spend money for new system with latest technology. A good example can be found in banking sector, where frequently changes are necessary according to requirements. That was necessary for reduce risk and increase capabilities according to market. Sometimes organizations do not have a choice to continue their legacy systems. For business development and industrial strength, it is necessary to replacing core systems.

Week 4

Some questions to ask for changing legacy systems:

  • How cost-effective is our system maintenance?
  • Can current system integrate technology and system architecture?
  • Current system still offering anything for organization business?

I select this resource because it is describe about legacy system disadvantages. There are many other reasons to remove legacy systems from an organization, such as cost of maintenance, lack of understandings, lack of security issues, and integration of new systems with older technologies. IT systems makes better to an organization working process and change business growth of an organization. Information technologies attach previous or current system to mobile phones for easy and fast access from anywhere.

Task - 8

Title and Reference:

Detrow, S., 2018. What Did Cambridge Analytica Do During The 2016 Election?. [Online] Available at: https://www.npr.org/2018/03/20/595338116/what-did-cambridge-analytica-do-during-the-2016-election [Accessed 03 09 2018].

This resource is about scandal of Facebook and Cambridge Analytica organization. It is about misuse of 50 million Facebook user’s personal data. Attorneys general of multiple states are launching investigations of election 2016 in the United States. They found, that company violated terms of services of Facebook’s for using private data. Mr. Alexander Nix suspended from company for this issue. He is CEO of Cambridge Analytica. It is all about the presidential campaign in US; When the Cambridge Analytica company waded into American politics with the objective of giving conservatives tools.  

I select this resource because it describe about that scandal in details. According to this resource Facebook's terms and conditions at the time allowed the mobile application to suck up personal data about many users and take information about their mutual and all friends from their personal accounts. That data contained within education level, place, the groups, pages they liked, birthday date, their relationship status, and office addresses. Kogan did this thing, for academic purposes. He was not allowed to pass the data along to a negotiator, instead of using it for academic research work, as had been promised from the company. Kogan and Cambridge Analytica has suspended from the Facebook environment. According to Cruz and Trump campaigns, they never used the data, which is copied from Facebook by Cambridge Analytica. 

Task - 9

Title and Reference:

smartbear, 2018. Overview. [Online] Available at: https://smartbear.com/product/loadcomplete/overview/ [Accessed 03 09 2018].

This resource is about performance and testing tool. LoadComplete is a tool for testing of websites different features, such as load, stress, and scalability testing. It works with modern web technologies like AJEX, Silverlight, and J2EE. It shows results with a few seconds. It has record and playback features. This is provided or generate load from virtual machines also, so anyone can test from anywhere.

I select this resource because it has all information of LoadComplete. LoadComplete move toward with many features that help to get started instantaneously. It gains an end-to-end visibility into application performance. Different powerful functionalities of LoadComplete include: 

  • Run load tests
  • Different performance tests between virtual machines
  • Identify problems using different test on server and browser side
  • Managing from different geographical places.
  • Intel Core 2 Duo
  • Windows XP or higher
  • Adobe Flash Player
  •  2 GB of RAM
  • Installation disk space of 4 GB

Many uses of LoadComplete tools in website and other protocol works. A LoadComplete test allows system to display response times, output rates, and resource-utilization levels, and to identify web application breaking point. This tool is show all performance attributes of a web application and show issues in that particular area by which any fault occurred in future.  

Week 5

Task - 10

Title and Reference:

Sharma, K., 2013. Learning from the Qld Health payroll fiasco. [Online]
Available at: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/learning-from-the-qld-health-payroll-fiasco-/news-tory/174743f09e91d9550521b04d45d43ac3
[Accessed 21 September 2018].

This article describes about IT project failure in Australia and learning from it for a profession as well as a department. Queensland Health organization decided to change their older payroll system with new system, for that they contracted to Software company IBM in 2007, to analysis the requirements and design and build a system for margining payroll at their organization. In addition, when it did go live, there are many issues, thousands of employees were poorly paid or not paid at all. The Queensland taxpayer is estimated at around $6.19 billion for the total project.

I select this resource for find different reasons of that project failure.

There are many calculation issues in that project for requirements. They also make some communication gap between older and new system designs.  When project aims are not clearly defined in requirements, then cost is almost certain to be blown through. This project has Over optimistic expectations. Expectations are too high so it takes time to complete. The project is too complex. When complexity is high, of a project than integration is also high with other systems. Project faces many complex difficulties like conversion of data and high demand of resources. “Poor project governance” is the three words for the failure of IT projects. Lack of resources is one of the reason of project failure sometimes, but because they are not administrated well.

I found this article useful because it describe Qld Health payroll system failure and how it was useful for learning from this incident for future.

References

Auster, M., 2013. OpenFlow-enabled. [Online] Available at: https://www.opennetworking.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/sb-of-enabled-transport-sdn.pdf [Accessed 03 09 2018].

LeClerc , M., 2018. The basics of SDN and the OpenFlow Network Architecture. [Online] Available at: https://noviflow.com/the-basics-of-sdn-and-the-openflow-network-architecture/ [Accessed 21 September 2018].

Sharma, K., 2013. Learning from the Qld Health payroll fiasco. [Online] Available at: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/learning-from-the-qld-health-payroll-fiasco-/news-story/174743f09e91d9550521b04d45d43ac3 [Accessed 21 September 2018].

Stallings, W., 2018. Software-Defined Networks and OpenFlow - The Internet Protocol Journal, Volume 16, No. 1. [Online]
Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/press/internet-protocol-journal/back-issues/table-contents-59/161-sdn.html
[Accessed 03 09 2018].

arrkgroup, 2018. Reasons to move away from legacy systems. [Online] Available at: https://www.arrkgroup.com/thought-leadership/reasons-to-move-away-from-legacy-systems/ [Accessed 03 09 2018].

azure.microsoft.com, 2018. What is IaaS?. [Online] Available at: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-iaas/
[Accessed 01 09 2018].

Azure, 2018. What is Azure?. [Online] Available at: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-azure/ [Accessed 16 September 2018].

Detrow, S., 2018. What Did Cambridge Analytica Do During The 2016 Election?. [Online] Available at: https://www.npr.org/2018/03/20/595338116/what-did-cambridge-analytica-do-during-the-2016-election [Accessed 03 09 2018].

Fruhlinger, J., 2018. What is WannaCry ransomware, how does it infect, and who was responsible?. [Online] Available at: https://www.csoonline.com/article/3227906/ransomware/what-is-wannacry-ransomware-how-does-it-infect-and-who-was-responsible.html [Accessed 03 09 2018].

Goldstein, P., 2017. IPv4 to IPv6 Protocol Upgrade: How to Answer "Should I Enable IPv6?. [Online] Available at: https://biztechmagazine.com/article/2017/07/ipv4-ipv6-protocol-upgrade-are-you-ipv6-ready [Accessed 16 September 2018].

Hogg , S. & Vyncke, E., 2008. Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6. [Online] Available at: https://www.networkworld.com/article/2271109/lan-wan/chapter-1--introduction-to-ipv6.html [Accessed 01 09 2018].

https://o7planning.org, 2018. Introducing Netflix and their cloud computing technology. [Online] Available at: https://o7planning.org/en/11717/introducing-netflix-and-their-cloud-computing-technology [Accessed 01 09 2018].

Janakiram, M. S. V., 2017. In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence, GPUs Are The New CPUs. [Online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/janakirammsv/2017/08/07/in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-gpus-are-the-new-pus/#65aeb60a5d16
[Accessed 01 09 2018].

Manongdo, R., 2018. Queensland Health Payroll System - a case study on Business Process Management and application Enterprise Integration. [Online] Available at: https://www.academia.edu/8096282/Queensland_Health_Payroll_System_a_case_study_on_Business_Process_Management_and_application_Enterprise_Integration [Accessed 5 september 2018].

Microsoft, 2018. Microsoft Azure for Research Overview. [Online] Available at: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/microsoft-azure-for-research-overview.pdf [Accessed 12 September 2018].

Peter, 2016. AWS vs Azure in 2017: IaaS Similarities and Differences. [Online] Available at: https://community.spiceworks.com/cloud/articles/2496-aws-vs-azure-in-2017-iaas-similarities-and-differences [Accessed 01 09 2018].

Sdxcentral, 2018. What is OpenFlow? Definition and How it Relates to SDN. [Online] Available at: https://www.sdxcentral.com/sdn/definitions/what-is-openflow/ [Accessed 16 September 2018].

smartbear, 2018. Overview. [Online] Available at: https://smartbear.com/product/loadcomplete/overview/ [Accessed 03 09 2018].

Stackify, 2017. Azure vs. AWS Cloud Service Comparison: Which One is Better?. [Online] Available at: https://stackify.com/azure-vs-aws-comparison/ [Accessed 21 September 2018].

Whatismyipadress, 2018. What is IPv6?. [Online] Available at: https://whatismyipaddress.com/ip-v6 [Accessed 18 September 2018].

WIllis , . R., 2015. 4 Massive Australian IT Project Failures and why They Failed. [Online] Available at: https://yourprojectmanager.com.au/4-massive-australian-project-failures-failed/ [Accessed 03 09 2018].

workplacehub.konicaminolta, 2017. Cognitive Hub: the Operating System for the Workplace of the Future. [Online]
Available at: https://workplacehub.konicaminolta.com/en_us/spotlight/cognitive-hub-the-operating-system-for-the-workplace-of-the-future [Accessed 01 09 2018].

Zverina, J., 2018. GPUs versus CPUs, Part 1. [Online] Available at: https://sciencenode.org/feature/gpus-versus-cpus-part-1.php
[Accessed 01 09 2018].

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