In this group assessment, you are required to write a report which critically analyses the conceptual design phase of a systems engineering project. Projects might include designing a bridge, a dam, an environmentally-conscious building or a mechatronic system. You might not have been involved in the project personally, but some connection with the project would make the analysis more meaningful.
Choose your project carefully because in assignment 2, your group will need to analyse the preliminary design and detailed design phases of the project. If you are unsure as to whether your chosen project has sufficient depth/detail, consult with your tutor. You will also have the opportunity to work on the assignment in the tutorials for the unit. Every group must do a different project. Also, projects from previous years can not be reused.
Hydraulic Bridges works from the idea of connecting bridge decks with an infused a pressure driven framework. The specific end goal is conveying more weight as wells are inducing flexibility on the bridge. The framework is most appropriate for curve-based scaffolds in which the primary powers are coordinated a flat sideways way (Amaechi and Counsell, 2013).
The water-powered framework is incorporated into the principle stack bearing individuals from the extension can be negligibly controlled by PCs; in any case, if aligned and built precisely, the framework has the likelihood for non-electronic autonomic self-change which involves low upkeep cost and a lessened danger in an occasion of an electrical breakdown (Xie,2016)
Estimating a bridge opening includes putting the bridge fills and setting the roadway rules to give wanted leeway to high water (freeboard). For finding bridge fills, a typical beginning stage is to put the fills in accordance with the channel banks at the crossing area. Starting here, a scope of smaller (more helpful) and more extensive alternatives can be considered as a major aspect of the enhancement procedure (Kara et al., 2014). As the level of choking expands, V will increase through the opening and head risk will go higher with V2. Head risk will be as a result of the extension of the stream as it leaves the bridge opening, higher V through the bridge opening and the withdrawal of stream as it enters the bridge opening (Amaechi and Counsell, 2013).
In the event that precisely adjusted, there is no requirement for PCs to control the hydraulic actuators. The hydraulic rams can be in the movement just by the stacking connected to it. In other words, if a specific load is connected to the bridge, the hydraulic pressure applies a suitable power upwards to neutralize any diversions. This infers there is almost no support concerning computerized, for example, power outages or breakdowns, the bridge won't be in any quick worry for the malfunction (Blockley, 2013).
Because of applying power upwards that is reliant on the heap and removal of the bridge, the amount of material required to develop the bridge is lessened. The material alone does not need to deal with all forced stacking; the heap is conveyed onto the hydraulic rams. Therefore, less cash can be utilized in obtaining materials and the task cost is diminished.
Positively, bridges might be developed with more slender auxiliary members, which can build its tasteful and social effect on the network around it. What is more is that if the heap progresses toward becoming to extraordinary and makes the mid-length cylinder go down, at that point the help cylinders will push inwards bringing about the curve heading upwards; thus they look after balance.
The reason for the bridge applied outline period of a bridge configuration is to locate the most reasonable answer for a roadway to cross a stream, street, or another office. With a specific end goal to build up an ideal arrangement, every single pertinent issue must be considered at the task front line and a scope of practical options should be analyzed. The ideal design will give the most estimation of all options considered ? adjusting lifecycle cost, usefulness, execution, and every single other limitation. The final products of the bridge calculated design stage should (Hicks, 2013):
Provide usefulness for the whole lifecycle of a bridge structure (taking into consideration overhauls as distinguished in any practical or roadway arranging reports)
- Provide adequate primer plan data on the ideal bridge idea to get started with the design stage (hydrotechnical, roadway geometry, bridge opening)
- Document the information, limitations, and plan parameters utilized.
- Document choices considered, and choices made in building up the prescribed arrangement.
During the conceptual planning period, financial benefits are evaluated to ensure the feasibility of the project. Putting forthright exertion into the distinguishing proof of requirements and investigation of choices intermittently results in reserve funds amid future life cycle stages. Extra advantages incorporate better undertaking extension definition, diminished venture plans, and improved issue determination (Heinrichs, 2007).
Planning and Assessment Studies-Utilizing maps and elevated symbolism to assess recorded channel conduct and stream crossing areas.
Stream Analysis -Deciding outline water levels, stream speeds, and profundities inside the channel and overbank regions, including impacts of drifting trash and ice in chilly atmospheres.
Scour Analysis -Assessing scours profundities around establishments under outline surge or wave conditions, considering past and anticipated future channel conduct (Heinrichs, 2007).
Planning Flow Protections -Planning stream preparing works, and countermeasures against scour, disintegration, and flotsam and jetsam and ice loads.
Coordinating Social and Environmental Consideration -Joining natural and social needs including fish section, amphibian and earthbound living space conditions, and free and employment.
Investigation -Directing field investigations and estimations to assess the hydraulic sufficiency of existing structures.
Design Parameter Determination
Before the advancement of alternatives, it is basic to decide the suitable outline parameters to be utilized. This incorporates the recognizable proof of all hydrotechnical, geometric, and different parameters to be utilized. An affectability investigation of parameters is regularly required to decide the ideal arrangement. Plan exemptions may likewise result from this procedure (Hicks, 2013)
Hydrotechnical Design Parameters
Plan of stream intersections requires estimation of configuration stream profundity (Y), mean channel speed (V), and resultant stream (Q). Enter standards in deciding these parameters are that they are:
- The representative of the physical limitations of the channel to convey spill out of the upstream bowl to the site
- Consistent with the most noteworthy notable highwater perceptions
Methodologies, for example, surge recurrence examination and precipitation overflow demonstrating have turned out to be unequipped for meeting these standards at most destinations, as recorded in "Setting of Extreme Floods in Alberta". This archive demonstrates that the most astounding surge arrange values tend towards a specific level at all long?term measure areas in Alberta. This proposes there is a plan commendable stage for stream crossing framework, instead of a continuum of expanding stages with littler probabilities of exceedance. This perception is steady with the stream steering impact that happens when channels spill their banks and the way that these channels have regularly been framed by the overflow administration of the bowl over numerous years (Hicks, 2013).
There are three principal segments to the procedure to decide hydro specialized outline parameters for stream intersections. These are:
- Channel Capacity (CC) – a fundamental system to appraise the physical limit of the stream
to convey the stream to the intersection under surge conditions overseas for general locales.
- Historic Highwater (HW) Observations – guarantees outline parameters are
a delegate of the biggest watched memorable occasions represents for some vast
crossing destinations, affirms CC esteems at numerous others.
- Basin Runoff Potential (BRP) Check – a method to check if the bowl can supply
enough water to fill the channel only from time to time oversees yet vital for those destinations
where it governs.
Deck Drainage Requirements
A base attractive longitudinal slope for bridges of 1% is indicated in Section 4 of the AT Bridge Structures Design Criteria (BSDC) archive (adaptation 7.0, May 2012). The
utilization of deck depletes as an ordinary practice for stream intersections is expressed in Section 22 of the BSDC.
The ongoing practice for assessment of bridge deck waste is to join the Rational Method condition for overflow stream rate estimation with the Manning condition for estimation of coming about stream profundity contiguous the boundary (bridge rail or raised middle). These conditions depend on the report titled "Outline of Bridge Deck Drainage, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.21". Joining these two conditions and representing total deck deplete release at key areas along the bridge deck encourages count of the infringement of seepage spillover onto travel paths (Kami?ski, 2016).
Other Design Parameters
Notwithstanding the hydrotechnical and geometric parameters, information on location geology and existing foundation are required to finish the bridge conceptual outline. A lot of this information can be gotten to from GIS data?sets and other distributed information sources. Geotechnical and ecological (fisheries) information may likewise be required by specialized experts to give their parameters and proposals (Kami?ski, 2016).
Most topographic information can be extricated from advanced height models. For the conceptual outline, high?precision DEM information, for example, <= 1m determination LiDAR, should meet most ground surface needs, if accessible. The date of this information ought to be noted, alongside any potential noteworthy changes to the scene that may have happened from that date to the present. Extra information might be accessible from different GIS data?sets, for example, cadastral land proprietorship data.
Bridge hydraulics investigates the collaborations amongst bridges and waterways or other water bodies. Many bridge disappointments are caused by streaming water or waves undermining wharf and projection establishments or washing out approach streets. Bridges and methodologies are likewise defenseless to channel moving and to modifications in morphology initiated by dams or upstream land-utilize changes (Shan et al., 2017).
Planning and Assessment Studies
As bridges are required to have a base outline life of 75 years (50 years for courses), they are thought to be the slightest adaptable, and most costly, framework part of the roadway arrange. In spite of the fact that remaking alternatives exist to redress utilitarian insufficiencies, bridges are once in a while supplanted because of capacity in contrast with the basic condition. Inability to consider the future useful enhancements can be unfavorable to the future activities, security, and financial matters of the expressway arrange. Legitimate conceptual arranging will consider feasible arrangements that may happen amid the life length of a structure with a specific end goal to limit toss away costs and accommodate the best useful adaptability (Tie and Ruichuan, 2015).
Keeping in mind the end goal of design and survey of the bridge conceptual plan alternatives, parameters are decided with regards to the contributions they make on the final plan. The alternative advancement process includes an iterative system in which parameters (bridge opening, rules, and so forth.) are adjusted to accomplish diverse conceptual choices (Wagner, 2007).
A bridge width that matches the street width gives congruity to movement, which is
alluring. In any case, bridges ordinarily cost more than streets and street widths can change after some time because of the expansion of overlays. Subsequently, the ideal bridge width will balance the usefulness gave and capital development cost (Ponnuswamy,2017).
The bridge opening is to a great extent characterized by the bridge fills and the superstructure. At the conceptual outline level, the opening (out?to?out of fills) is ordinarily answered to the closest meter. Bridge fills ordinarily surpass the gross structure width by 2m at the highest point of fill (ordinarily expect bridge clear roadway width + 3m at conceptual outline arrange). This gives a steady base to developing the bridge projections, gives sidelong help for projections and wing walls, and takes into consideration the establishment of boundary frameworks (Kami?ski, 2016).
The most extreme (and regular) head incline proportion is 2:1 (even: vertical). Commonplace side inclines for bridge fills are 3:1. A curved change is given at the corners between the head incline and the side slant. Open head inclines consider enhanced sightlines, expanded adaptability for future changes, and perform better from a waste, activities, and upkeep point of view (Xie, 2016). The Bridge Fill Slopes Calculator instrument has been distributed by Alberta Transportation to help with spreading out bridge fills in this way (curved advances have additionally been incorporated with the BPG apparatus) (Kara et al., 2014).
Design Parameter Determination
An example is appeared beneath, with additionally subtle elements talked about in the Bridge Structures Design Criteria. Compliment head slant proportions might be required due to geotechnical conditions, despite the fact that alleviation works with a more extreme head incline ought to be considered. For high fills (>10m), a level seat, 4m in width, can be considered alongside the heads love. This will help in enhancing geotechnical solidness. The utilization of holding dividers is, for the most part, demoralized except if real limitations are noted (e.g. urban setting) or on account of railroad intersections (Progri, 2015).
Bridge openings more extensive than the run of the mill direct can give points of interest in less degree of assurance works, or even no insurance works if the adequate cradle is given between the toe of the head slant and the highest point of the current bank. At times, these advantages may neutralize the cost of extra bridge length. Be that as it may, uncovering banks to give a hydraulic opening bigger than the run of the mill divert can result in unfriendly (Progri, 2015).
Impacts, for example, silt testimony and neighborhood stream arrangement issues that can prompt expanded bank disintegration. For vehicles bridges over an under the passing roadway, the outline vertical clearance (including any arranged future extreme stage), will be 5.4 m and no more basic area, as delineated in the Roadside Design Guide Figures H7.1 to H7.3 (Xie, 2016). The last posted vertical freedom for any bridge will not be under 5.2 m. The outline vertical freedom on footbridges will be at least 5.7m. A nitty-gritty exchange in regards to clearances can be found in the Bridge Structures Design Criteria (Jiao, 2015).
Amaechi, A. and Counsell, S. (2013). Towards an Approach for a Conceptual System Design. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 30(6), pp.780-793.
Blockley, D. (2013). Do civil engineering systems need systematizing? Tackling complexity – top 10 issues for civil engineering systems. Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 30(3-4), pp.199-210.
Heinrichs, T. (2007). Hydraulic survey and scour assessment of bridge 524, Tanana River at Big Delta, Alaska. 5th ed. Reston, Va.: U.S. Geological Survey.
Hicks, T. (2013). Civil engineering formulas. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jiao, L. (2015). Estimation of Fatigue Life of Long-Span Bridge by Considering Vehicle- Bridge Coupled Vibration. The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 9(1), pp.944-949.
Kami?ski, T. (2016). Defects and Failures Influencing the Mechanical Performance of Bridge Structures. Procedia Engineering, 161, pp.1260-1267.
Kara, S., Stoesser, T., Sturm, T. and Mulahasan, S. (2014). Flow dynamics through a submerged bridge opening with overtopping. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 53(2), pp.186-195.
Kothyari, U. (2008). BRIDGE SCOUR: STATUS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 14(1), pp.1-27.
Noël, M. and Soudki, K. (2011). Evaluation of FRP Posttensioned Slab Bridge Strips Using AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 16(6), pp.839-846.
Pasiok, R. and Stilger-Szyd?o, E. (2010). Sediment particles and turbulent flow simulation around bridge piers. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 10(2), pp.67-79.
Ponnuswamy, S. (2017). Bridge engineering. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Progri, I. (2015). VBOC1(a) and VBOC2(a 1-a) Generalized Multi-dimensional Geolocation Modulation Waveforms--Technical Report. Journal of Geolocation, Geo-information, and Geo-intelligence, 2015(1), p.70.
Shan, B., Yan, Y., Wang, H. and Yang, Y. (2017). Stereovision-based surface flaws detection experiment of foundations of Yiqiao Bridge. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(9), p.168781401772548.
Tie, C. and Ruichuan, Z. (2015). Mechanical Analysis of Stayed Bridge. The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 9(1), pp.780-785.
Wagner, C. (2007). Simulation of water-surface elevations and velocity distributions at the U.S. Highway 13 bridge over the Tar River at Greenville, North Carolina, using one- and two-dimensional steady-state hydraulic models. 4th ed. Reston, Va.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
Xie, L. (2016). Hydraulic Engineering IV. 9th ed. CRC Press, p.76.
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