A particular nation is being created by intentional fabrication of the different aspects of national consciousness (Gray, 2015). The genuine reinforcement would be a necessary condition which requires extensive amount of modernization of the society (Gray, 2015). The nation building is considered as modernization of the society that specifies three conditions- social system which constantly innovate, flexible, differentiated social structure and the social framework that give skills as well as knowledge needed for surviving in the technologically advanced world (Willner, 2015). The nation building is a combination of two forces namely social organization and renewed level of consciousness (Gray, 2015). This makes the nation building activity to demand new identification of the various loyalties, roles and skills. This can only be possible with the help of traditional social structure, cultural values and the educational system.
This essay would discuss the various aspects of the nation building and social transformation from a detailed perspective. It would also discuss the various attributes of the public relations. The objective of the essay is to establish the inter relationship between the public relations and the nation building as well as social transformation.
The public relations are considered as the advancement of the country’s efforts concerning nation building and goals by improving the aspects of the national unity. As opined by (Toledano & McKie, 2013), the public relations function properly only in a democratic system. It is said that the public relations process can be widely seen in the United States. However, public relations are subsequently different from that of propaganda (Toledano & McKie, 2013). The propaganda is referred to as the technique of dictatorship and totalitarian regimes (Gray, 2015). The public relations works for the betterment of the public interests while the propaganda works for countering the public interest (Toledano & McKie, 2013). The public relations activities are part of a bigger system which supports the integration propaganda which is used to integrate the individuals into the collective form.
According to Macnamara and Crawford (2013), the Australian day is considered as the expression of the identity and the Australian culture. The practices of the public relations have fostered the creation of the Australian Day (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The public relations activities are also responsible for the creation of symbolic materials, representations and the presentation of the national culture (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). There is a noticeable effect of the public relations with the media as well as other cultural studies which is used to give focus to the politics and sociology.
As opined by Macnamara and Crawford (2010), the history of the public relations in Australia can be observed through the creation as well as promotion of Australia Day. The Day marks the involvement of the social, historical and cultural dimensions with the aspect of the public relations (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The aspect of public relations is deeply connected with the corporate relations, corporate communication and the public available information (Macnamara & Crawford, 2010). There are several aspects of the public relations such as lobbying, investor relations, stakeholder relations and media relations (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The act of public relations also encompasses the various aspects of organizing the promotion events such as exhibitions, launches and the various sources of sponsored publications. As argued by Macnamara and Crawford (2010), the act of the public relations is concerned with creation of resources for nation building and an increasing number of government systems are relying on the aspects of national goals. The Australian Day has been instrumental in constructing the Australian nationhood as well as enhancing the national identity of the country (Macnamara & Crawford, 2010). This has been fostered by the use of the political communication and broad communication research (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The public communication concerning the national day of Australia is being used to include the persuasive campaign by the act of organizing groups, which are being called for different federation (Macnamara & Crawford, 2010).
As argued by Culbertson and Chen (2013), the international public relations deal with the practice of public relations in a cross cultural context. There are four different practices of public relations in the international context such as-
- International organizations(World Bank, United Nations and International Telecommunications Organizations)
- Inter-governmental relations(Alliance formation, diplomatic recognition, sanctions)
- Transnational economic transactions(Investment trading)
- Citizens interactionamong different nation’s citizens (Via the modes of arts, tourism and others)
As stated by Toledano and McKie (2013), the nation building and the public relations is a deeply interconnected concept. The act of public relations post 2009 has been deeply influenced by the act of globalization (Toledano & McKie, 2013). There has been growing evidence of the changing public relations of Malaysia that has been affected by the USA perspectives. The act of nation building demands a probable change in the structure of the traditional structure of the society. The traditional nature of the society has its own features of stagnation (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The cultural patterns of the different traditional societies are being influenced by the different levels of family consideration (Pye & Verba, 2015). There are several stages by which the citizens achieve the sense of equality. The act of nation building expects that the people should have a mutual source of identity as well as loyalty towards their own country (Macnamara & Crawford, 2013). The citizens should understand the national territories and their individual identities are being affected by the nation’s identity.
As commented by Culbertson and Chen (2013), the relationship building is considered to be pre-requisite of the nation branding and they have the framework of image management. The public relations concept revolves around the mutual respect, loyalty, harmony and conflict, which is prominent in the different societies (Culbertson & Chen, 2013). The issue of accountability is needed for making wise policies as well as develops a model of open ended communication (Culbertson & Chen, 2013). There have been two notable developments in the field of public relations namely communication and reinforcement of PR goals. The new PR goals focus on the relationship building, persuasion, information level and the creation of brand awareness (Culbertson & Chen, 2013).
According to the views of Pamment (2014), the public relations approach to the nation building concentrates on the nature of the cooperative relationships which offers a communication centered approach for enhancing the levels of ethnic relations within the context of the multi-cultural states. As opposed by Sommerfeldt (2013), the public relations play an important role in the democracy with the help of proxy concepts such as civil society and public sphere (Sommerfeldt, 2013). The normative role of the public relations is based on the democracy, which is used for checking the relationships of the organizations as per as state power is concerned. The social capital is responsible for fostering the aspects of public relations and the prominent role in democracy (Sommerfeldt, 2013). There are several implications of the public relations in engaging the different entities of the organization and the creation of a fully functional community. There is possibility of the creation of public relations through the use of social capital in the form of generalized trust (Sommerfeldt, 2013). The relationships need to be built among varied social sectors. This often encourages the plurality of views within the media (Sommerfeldt, 2013). The concept of public relations in the facet of democracy revolves around the aspect of community building (Sommerfeldt, 2013).
The in-depth concepts of the public relations have been derived from the nation-building endeavors of Israel (Toledano & McKie, 2013). One of the most commonly uses terms in the public relations is “Hasbara” (Toledano & McKie, 2013). This term is used to define the various propaganda and advertising for someone else, often used to create a positive image in the minds of the public. There is a convergence of the public relation history of Israel and it has led to more professionalism in the country.
As opined by Toledano and McKie (2013), the term Hasbara is often used to explain the aspects of the international public diplomacy through the process of influencing the internal publics. Israelis have engaged in the nation building process through the use of persuasive communication. There has been an improvement in the image of Israel in international market and this has been done by the Masbirim Israel campaign. The nation building process of the country is said to be synonymous with the creation of democracy (Hammar, 2017). There has been considerable development of nation building of Israel and this has led to significant development of the Israeli society and economy (Hammar, 2017). The current condition of Israel underlines the different professional development of the history of the nation building (Friedman, Becker & Erell, 2014). The Diaspora and the early Zionist activists play an important role in the reaching the PR tactics to the world. The professional communicators have used the high consensus, valued collectivism, unity and solidarity of the democracy as well as free speech.
As mentioned by Lederach (2015), the act of the social transformation is concerned with the individuals altering the socially ascribed social status of their respective parents so that they can achieve a socially respectable position (Hammar, 2017). The social transformation is concerned with the shifting of the collective consciousness of the society at the state, local, global and national level (Banks, Hulme & Edwards, 2015). This can be brought by the external stimulus at instances. These forms of transformations sustain over the time and there is a new beginning of the values and the attitudes.
The findings of Hertog and Zuercher (2014) reveal that the communication for the purpose of creating social communication is an observable phenomenon in today’s world. The communication for social changes utilizes the alternate ways of the social changes through the use of dialogue and participation (Loyd, Mitchelson & Burridge, 2013). There is a thin line of difference between the social marketing and social communication. The communication regarding the social transformation is relevant in the post-colonial context (Poell, 2014). In the participatory mode of communication, the priority is being given to the relationships as well as people rather than focusing on the structures, tasks and other tangible sources (Hertog & Zuercher, 2014). This would make them focus on the development of the skills and knowledge of the communities through the expression of popular notions (Hertog & Zuercher, 2014). The co-creation of knowledge from the various attributes of the participatory research as well as needs assessment. This can be done with the help of cultural production up to the final evaluation (Hammar, 2017).
The public relations focuses on the fact that there is a growing need of the experts specialized in the relationship building activities, communal traits and negotiation (Hammar, 2017). There is a significant contribution of culture in the international public relations (Berger, 2014). The cultural values implicate the way the society would use the minority groups as well as women centric groups.
The nation building is a vast area which is fostered by the various aspects of the public relations. The nation building is considered as modernization of the society, which is a combination of two forces of social organization and renewed level of consciousness. There is a difference between propaganda and public relations. The Australian day is considered as the expression of the identity and the Australian culture. The history of the public relations in Australia can be observed through the creation as well as promotion of Australia Day. There are intrinsic inter-relationships between the public relations, nation building and social transformation. The relationship building is an integral component of the nation branding and they are also responsible for image management. The public relations play an important role in the democracy. The social capital is responsible for fostering the aspects of public relations. The term Hasbara is often used to explain the aspects of the international public diplomacy through the process of influencing the internal publics. This essay would broaden the understanding of the nation building and the public relations.
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