Technology is playing the most crucial role in the advancement of the way of life living for the individuals in the present time and it has been become the integral part of the life for every almost every individual. Wireless technology is one of the innovation that has been spreading in the world in rapid rate and almost every individual is connected to the internet via wireless network in manner to gain more and more advantage. The world is getting better through the application of such advanced technologies that is helpful in eliminating the human efforts and providing innovative applications and facilities that can introduce and connect the real and virtual world at the same platform.
Despite of these advantageous factors, there is always some bas cause of good application and hence, same is attached with the application of such technologies in the real world. There are certain security threats and challenges those might influence the overall influence of the wireless technology application in the real world. These threats could lead to the expose of the privacy and security and hence, could make it less acceptable for the individuals using technology for future application. However, many researchers have identified that the tech companies are spending lots of money in the enhancement of the security of technology make them ore secured.
The purpose of this report is to highlight on the aspects related to the current trending technologies and how these are contributing in the development of the present world. This report will be emphasizing on the emerging long range and short range communication technologies, their application, challenges, and security issues in the real world application. Threats and vulnerabilities are major concern on the application of this technology and it has been also expressed in this report.
Emerging Long-Range Communication Technologies
Long Term Evolution or LTE has been the leading technology that offers next-generation mobile broadband services to the customers since the time of its inception. The evolution of this wireless broadband technology has been driven by the demand of the customers and consumers for increased speed, global access and bandwidth. With the evolution of time, the customers engaged more and more in mobile technology, demanding more and more access to the business and consumer applications, and even more access to the entertainment world; demanding every need to be fulfilled through their mobile devices and in tremendous speed (Han et al. 2014). Therefore, the wireless carrier networks required to function as the landline based IP networks to acquire this tremendous speed and equally pervasive connectedness. LTE makes mobile connectivity enter the world of fourth generation or 4G wireless networks, which possesses the features of a wireless broadband network (Jacobsson, Boldt and Carlsson 2016). It is based on TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which forms the core internet protocol.
There are several benefits of LTE networks that makes it reach to the highest demand amongst telecommunication networks. The LTE networks provide the connectivity on a global ecosystem along with the inherent mobility. It offers ease of access and usability offering an evolved technology providing greater privacy and data security. The latency and speed of the network is also tremendous compared to the other telecommunication networks providing a much higher quality of overall experience for the customers (Kumar 2014). As a result, mobile computing experience is much more increased in quality for the consumers. Since, the mobile communication technology provides low latency as an enhanced feature; it helps in providing support for handling high-performance real-time applications. LTE has a much improved spectral efficiency; as a result, it also has a reduced cost per bit.
If the long-range communication technologies are considered, LTE connections possess all the features that should ideally be present in a wireless broadband network providing long range communications. Ideally, a long range communication technology should have a much decreased operation expenses although providing much more capacity, global coverage and safer public usage capabilities. Analyzing the LTE connections and their features, the supportive bandwidths of LTE provides flexible carriers from 5MHz up to 20MHz (Labib et al. 2016). This provides a huge range of device support, enabling almost any kind of device to be connected via LTE telecommunications. Not only mobile phones, but computers and other consumer electronic devices, such as ultra-portable devices, gaming devices, notebooks and cameras are also capable to incorporate the embedded modules of LTE connectivity. Ubiquitous mobile connectivity is also supported by this connection as well. All this is achievable at a much lower range of costing, for both the service providers and the consumers (Lee and Lee 2015). Thus, this can be concluded easily that LTE is an emerging connectivity providing a long range of connectivity service to the consumers at a global range. It has been found that out of the consumers who have been using broadband connections, two-thirds of them have invested in mobile broadband connections with LTE services. Therefore, since the time of its inception, LTE has been successful in meeting the needs of the consumers at a large extend.
5G, the fifth generation of wireless networks is noticeably faster than that of the wireless network services provided by the fourth generation or 4G networks. Although the term 5G is nebulous enough, its first formal standard has been presented on December 2017 (Osseiran et al. 2014). It operates on a much higher level of spectrum providing wireless broadband connections between the ranges of 30 GHz to 300 GHz (Ransing and Rajput 2015). This spectrum range is known as the millimeter wave spectrum. The millimeter wave spectrum helps in transferring a pile load of data in tremendous speed. However, there is a limitation found in these waves. These millimeter waves do not propagate as far as the 4G networks, which is due to the lower frequency waves that the 4G networks use. Analyzing the 5G networking models, it was also found that the networking connectivity finds difficulty in propagating through built-around walls, large building and obstacles in general. In comparison to LTE/4G networks, this is a huge setback as even though 4G/LTE networks serve at a much lower frequency, these networks do not face difficulty in passing through and around obstacles like these (Sivaraman et al. 2015). In addition to that, in order to receive the same network coverage with 5G connections as with the current service providers, it requires a huge number of antennas in comparison with the contemporary network capabilities.
5G network connectivity is often found to be extensively fickle, given the millimeter wave signal frequency it uses. The 30 GHz to 300 GHz range is an excessively unstable range of network and thus, few service providers for 5G network connections have opted to utilize a sub-6GHz range, to establish a much more stabilized connectivity.
Therefore, it can be said that the 5G network connection is still in its nascent stages. It may possess much faster speed for connectivity, but long-range of broadband service can still be problematic given the range of frequency it uses for propagation of connections for consumers to use.
Futuristic Application of Above Technologies
The futuristic evolution of 4G networks are on the verge of implementing a massive expansion in the world of Internet of Things or IoT. The feasible implementation of deploying dense networks over global ranges has helped in calculating a huge number of IoT data that have been helpful in making out the data alarms and health monitors. The entire range of broadband speed for mobile would expand exponentially, enabling the real-time casting and efficient broadcasting over various connective devices all at once (Vangelista, Zanella and Zorzi 2015). It is assumed that network slicing can form a paving way in the 4G roadmap. Network slicing is the way by which virtual instances for networks are created and that are able to be optimized for the delivery of each of these services. The Quality of Service, Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks are also assumed to be a revolutionary futuristic application for LTE networks.
Since, 5G is focusing on a global launch by the year 2020; it has got an ambitious timeline based on the features that the network provides for long-range technologies. It is assumed that 5G networks have been focusing on services that are expandable beyond the use of mobile devices and Smartphone. It is aiming to replace the traditional wireless broadband services and enable DirectTV connections (Wilson, Hargreaves and Hauxwell-Baldwin 2015). However, these long-range and long term plans are still under tests before the networks are standardized.
Emergence of Short-Range Communication Technologies
NFC or Near Field Communication is defined as the short-ranged wireless technology that is used generally to pay for digital exchanges and retail transactions. The short-range technology enables the technology for Internet of Things or IoT in being utilized for increasing the safety, automation and efficiency of everyday tasks of a human being. A smart home, which forms a general inclusion of smart cities, uses IoT features like the NFC with different combinations. The combination is utilized to develop several special light fixtures, creating a much more programmable, automated and efficient smart homes. It is necessary that simplicity and convenience are heavily included in smart home applications. Technology developers are very keen on including these features in that of a smart home technology (Ghazal and Al-Khatib 2015). To take the case of NFC in particular, it has an open forum called the NFC Forum, that invests into utilize the NFC into ease of access for customers. It generates new ideas that would make NFC utilize its full prowess making IoT devices easier to use and controllable. NFC forms a really fast and intuitive technology that lets the use of a simple touch to generate secure interactions of a user with his or her world around. This short range of connectivity networks enables a user to manage simple house hold work with the utilization of a simple touch. The technology of NFC utilizes its features of connecting, commissioning, controlling and detailing to make the use of smart homes really easy for the people.
Zigbee is another short-ranged technology used for smart homes. It was first utilized when energy costs for the daily activities inside a home spiraled up. The only utility of smart homes was introduced to lower the utility bills of household appliances. The smartest possible way to apply the cost cutting is to manage all the home appliances and HVAC devices or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioned units by installing remote-operated technology. It would not only save time and effort, but also consume a less amount of energy and would be able to manage multiple devices with a single unit.
The desired level of efficiency is not seen nowadays with the utilization of the regular switches, therefore, it is justified that Ethernet protocols be used instead. The use of power efficient methodologies are assumed to be more practical, and that is why, the use of Smartphone apps or any web tool are perceived as feasible enough (Furht and Ahson 2016). ZigBee is one of these home automation systems that has specific advantages since it utilizes high communication protocols. The protocols use low-power, low data rated and digital radios based on IEEE 802.15.4 standards for wireless personal area networks (Darby 2018).
For example, the wireless headphones that are connected with cell phones through short-range radios are based on ZigBee technologies. ZigBee runs on technologies much cheaper than that of the WPANs, like Bluetooth. It uses radio-frequency applications or RF applications having low data rates, secure networking and longer battery lives. Therefore, it can be said that ZigBee technology is one of the most feasible technologies that are utilized for applying into Smart Homes.
Technologies Enabling Smart Home
Smart Homes are the latest innovations in the world of technology, enabling control over electronic household devices via a remote-controlled system. The only utility of smart homes was introduced to lower the utility bills of household appliances. The smartest possible way to apply the cost cutting is to manage all the home appliances and HVAC devices or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioned units by installing remote-operated technology. It would not only save time and effort, but also consume a less amount of energy and would be able to manage multiple devices with a single unit (Chang et al. 2015). For this purpose, there have been regular innovations and inventions introduced in the world of technology from time to time.
Amongst these technologies, all of them serve the sole purpose of saving the consumed energy in the utilization of these appliances. The latest innovations that are introduced in the contemporary times are based generally on Ethernet protocols. These are:
All these latest technologies are able to bring down the utilization of home appliances to their desired levels of power efficiency integrating Smartphone apps and web tools to access them.
Although there are many advantages in implementing Smart Home technologies for the utilization of household appliances, there are also many possible challenges that come along with the introduction of this latest technology. Some of these are discussed in details as below:
The Smart Home appliances that are being used currently and that are being innovated with the passing times, often interact with other devices, such as other mobile devices and data collectors. These operators often collect data and contribute to the processing capabilities of security and privacy threats (Centenaro et al. 2016). Since IoT has their own security and privacy threats over data protection, this gets enlarged into the implementation of IoT devices as well. Thus, the interaction of Smart Home devices with that of their connecting counterparts adds to the data privacy threats and vulnerability issues.
Technological advancements often have their vices along with them. The Smart Home technology with their latest implementations help in reducing the energy consumption and costs incurred along with it. It even makes the daily chores of the house simpler than they are (Bogale and Le 2016). Home automation is however, has a tendency to go the wrong way as well. There are various ways by which home automation can go the wrong way. These are as follows:
- Failed integration of sub-systems
- Insufficient features and functionalities
- Increment installation of smart devices without a central control point
- Delays in the installation and construction of projects
- Sub system suppliers lacking the knowledge to handle smart devices
Cyber Security Threats and Challenges
Despite of the benefits and so many advantageous factors, this topic needs extra attention while utilizing the services and technologies in the real world. Every problem and threat finally lead to the privacy and security issues of the individuals utilizing the technology for the personal use.
Emerging of Security Challenges
Following are the security issues associated with the LTE network based on their layers:
Physical layer issues:
Interference: The intruders can be able to produce disruption in the network through creating high noise signals through inserting the manmade interference onto the communication system’s medium that alternatively results in influencing it towards completely being of no use.
Scrambling: It can be described as the interference developed for a short period that can be executed for targeting the specified frame od frames’ parts including the information related to controls or management in manner to lock the service or created disruption in the services. However; this specific attack is very difficult to be executed in successful and efficient manner.
MAC Layer Issues:
DoS attacks: the attackers can send continuous requests to the network until or unless it provides them with a hole that can provide access to the network and related information. this attack is generally carried out targeting specified user appliance, where the user can be made to access the malicious signals for sending the signal uplink at the scheduled time that can alternatively be used for causing the conflicts in the network and thus, injecting malicious code through creating a security breach.
Open architecture issues: LTE is an IP network and it can be connected among many devices at once in manner to provide many applications at the same instance and thus, resulting in the enhancement of the security threats.
Bandwidth Stealing: During the instance of the DRX (Discontinuous Reception) period, the attackers can be able to insert the message that can allow the intruders to enter the network and manipulate the report status.
Location tracking: the presence of the device can be detected by the intruder if he or she is using the LTE network that could be used by the intruder for getting access to the users’ data and information and hence could possibly allow them to access the data and information saved in the database of the system.
Following are the security issues with this network:
5G drivers: there are many factors associated with the 5G driver that could lead to the security threat in the application of the 5G network.
Confidentiality and user identity: it has somewhat same security level as that of the 4G and so the confidentiality and the user identity has been not so considered while utilizing this wireless communication technology for the exchange of information.
Security: the radio network security of the 5G is not of high strength and so the information being exchanged has not been given high importance and thus, it could influence the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the application of 5G networks.
Evolved threat landscape: with the enhancement in the number of devices linking with the same network the threat will be continuously evolving with the landscape. The mass surveillance can also lead to the privacy issues with the individuals.
5G radio network security: the low cost of the network leading to more application in the present world and so becoming more vulnerable to the intrusion and threats.
Virtualization and cloud security: the cloud security is one of the concerning sector for the application of the wireless technology as most of the services in the wireless communication technology is being handled and managed from the cloud.
New threat vectors
The smart devices are always connected to the wireless network or wired network and that is not only allowing the intruders to monitor but enter the network and use the device remotely without the permission of the individuals. Data weaponisation is one of the threat vector that can allow the intruders including government and big corporate companies to invade the privacy of the individuals and collect their behavior from online activities and record them for further benefits of their own. The Big Data and Data mining are the technologies those are capable of invading the privacy for the future use and if the collected data fall in wrong hands, it could possibly lead to the privacy and security issues to the individuals. Thus, the application of these technologies is influencing the privacy and security of the individuals.
Counter Measures for Threats
Proper legal agreements and policies are the possible effective measures those could be considered as the best approach for the management of the level of expose or sharing of information among the users and the organization and support the transparency and security of the information and data being collected. Encryption is another effective measure for assuring that the data being exchanged between the users and the organization and restricting others from accessing the data and information. The individual with cryptographic key is the only way through which the individuals can access the saved data and information. Securing the network through hiding the location can be an effective measure for assuring that the intruders are not capable of identifying the physical location of the device and thus, get access to the network through certain coding and executing the vulnerabilities those have been mentioned above.
AR or Augmented Reality can be considered to an interactive experience of the real-environment which generally includes an augmented elements. This elements are generally augmented by making use of perceptual information which are generated by the computer and it has also been seen that it is sometimes across the various sensor modalities and this includes the visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and the olfactory (Barfield 2015). Besides this the information in the overlaid sensor is capable of constructing or destructing along with interweaving this with the physical world in such a way that it is perceived as an immersive aspect from the real environment. By this way the augmented reality is also capable of altering one on going perception of the real world environment but despite of this the virtual reality is capable of replacing the user’s real world environment completely by using a simulated one. Augmented reality can also be related to the largely synonymous terms and this includes the mixed reality and the computer-mediated reality.
Applications of Augmented Reality:
The primary value of the AR or augmented reality includes the bringing of the components of the digital world into a perception of a person belonging to the real world. This is associated with transforming the whole world of education and in this the contents can be accessed by scanning and viewing of the images by making use of the mobile devices. Augmented reality is also used in the construction helmets so as to display the useful information about the construction sites. AR is generally used for the purpose of enhancing the natural environment or natural situations and is associated with providing a perceptual enriched experience (Wu et al. 2013). Along with this by taking help from the advanced AR technologies the information about the surrounding real world of the users can be manipulated digitally and interactively. On the real world overlying of the information related to the environment and the objective is done. All this information can be virtual as well as real. This type of techniques are generally associated with performing in a real time and also in a schematic context along with the environmental elements. Besides this the immersive perceptual information is also combined with the supplemental information which might include the scores over a live video feed of any sporting event.
Augmented reality has been applied in various fields and some of the applications have been described in the following section of the report.
Augmented reality has been adopted by the archeological field as well. This has been used in order to provide support to the various archeological research. Usage of the augmented archeological features into the modern landscape has been associated with allowing the archeologists to formulate the various possible configuration of the sites from the extant structures. Besides this the models generated by the computer of the ruins, buildings and the landscapes along with the ancient people have been recycled by making us of the AR applications (Graham, Zook and Boulton 2013). The collaborated AR systems have been associated with supplying a multi model interactions which are associated with combining the real world with the other virtual images of both the environment.
Visual Art: Augmented reality has also been applied in the visual arts as well which are associated with allowing the objects or places for the purpose of triggering the various kind of artistic multidimensional experiences and also the interpretations of the reality. Besides this the augmented reality has been associated with aiding the development of the eye tracking technology as well for the purpose of translating the eye movements of the disabled person for the purpose of drawing on the screen (Dunleavy and Dede 2014).
Augmented reality is also applied in the gaming industry. Embracing of the Augmented reality has been done by the gaming industry for the purpose of developing various kind of games which were prepared for the indoor environments and the games includes the AR air hockey, titans of space and many more (Billinghurst and Duenser 2012). Besides this AR is also associated with enhancing the pool table games as well. By making use of the augmented reality the gamers are capable of experiencing the digital game play in a real world environment. There exists various companies which have emerged out as a major creator of augmented reality games.
Augmented reality has also been used for the purpose of making designs in the industry. The industrial designers have been allowed by the AR to experience the design of the product and operations before completion of the design (Di Serio, Ibáñez and Kloos 2013). One such example is the use of AR by Volkswagen for the purpose of comparing the test imagery between the calculated one and the actual crash. This technology is also used for eth purpose of visualizing and modifying the body structure of a car and also the layout of the engine as well. This has also been used for the purpose of comparing the digital mock-ups and the physical mock-ups for the purpose of finding the discrepancies that exists between them (Lee 2012).
Challenges faced by Augmented Reality:
Along with the various kind of advantages there exists various kind of challenges which are faced by augmented reality and all this have been discussed in the following section of the report. There exists two small LCD monitors in the VR or virtual reality headsets and each of them are projected over one eye which are associated with creating a stereoscopic effect that in turn provides the user with an illusion about the artificial environment all around the user (Ong and Nee 2013). So long time focusing upon the screen is associated with the creation of feeling of nausea and distortion which is also known as virtual reality sickness.
Augmented reality games can be considered to be a major component of the breach of security. One such example is the recently launched game PokemonGo where one stranger can just barge into another person’s garden for the purpose of chasing the augmented characters and ultimately leading to the breach of personal security. The AR is also applied in the web browsing and also for browsing in real-time and this ultimately leads to the fact that in the future, just for getting any information about a person the only thing that needs to be done is just pointing the camera towards the users and all the information would be revealed (Kesim and Ozarslan 2012).
Another major drawback of AR is that with its application in various fields all the works would be becoming automated so this would be ultimately be major reason lying behind the laziness and addictiveness of the peoples towards this technology.
Based on the above report it can be concluded that emerging technologies have led human beings to live better and enhanced livelihood with more facilities and comfort than ever. The above report explained how the long range and short range communication technologies have allowed the individuals to be connected with the world without any boundaries. The ICT was one of the biggest revolution in the field of technology that led to revolution in every sector that we could think of. Every sector in the present time is connected with each other through the application of the ICT that facilitates exchange of information and data without any distance limit. LTE and 5G are one of the long range technologies those are bringing completion between the broadband and the mobile connectivity as telecommunication providers are providing same speed and benefits those are being provided by the internet service provider. Smartphones, cloud computing, LAN, WAN, hardware development, high qualified computer systems and many technologies have been paving the better world. Latest launch by Asus (ROG) introduced a smartphone with similar specifications that a highly specified computer systems have. Moreover, current smartphones consist of various Internet of Things and sensors those are allowing in providing better and effective services to the present world. Cyber security and threats are the only issue related with the application of these technologies those are capable of influencing the influence of the technology on the entire world. A small paragraph has also been introduced in this report describing the connectivity that can be achieved through the application of VR in between the real world and virtual world. The above report has also explained how emerging technology can be utilized for the protective measures on the utilization of the technologies. It can be recommended to read all the terms and condition before agreeing on the application of any technology and providing personal and sensitive information to the product or service providers.
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